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Z. MTJIE, D.C.L., LL.D., PH.D. 





fAtt righti reterui.J 

Arthspsava^ fishayo d&vaidS cKhaniolTiir alhjadhavan \ 


** Bisliis, seeking to ©"btain the various objects of their desire, 
hastened to the deities with metrical compositions." 

(See p. 211 of tluB rolume.) 




The object which I have had in view in the series of 
of treatises which this volume fonns a part, has been to 
investigate critically the most important points in the 
civil and religious history of the Hindus. Having shown 
in the First Volume that the mythical and legendary ac- 
counts given in the Puranas, etc., regarding the origin of 
the caste system which has long prevailed in India, are 
mutually contradictory and insufficient to establish the 
early existence of the popular belief regarding the distinct 
creation of four separate tribes, as an original and essen- 
tial article of the Braiimanical creed ; and having en- 
deavoured to prove, in the Second Volume, by a variety 
of arguments, drawn chiefly from comparative philology 
and from the contents of the Eigveda, that the Hindus 
are descended from a branch of the Indo-European 
stock, which dwelt originally along with the other cog- 
nate races in Central Asia, and subsequently migrated 
into Northern Hindustan, where the Brahmanical reli- 
gion and institutions were developed and matured; — I 
now come, in this Third Volume, to consider more par- 
ticularly the history of the Vedas, regarded as the sacred 
Scriptures of the Hindus, and the inspired source from 
which their religious and philosophical systems (though, 


to a great extent, founded also on reasoning and specu- 
lation) profess to be mainly derived ; or with wliich, at 
least, they all claim to be in harmony. 

When I speak, however, of the history of the Veda, I 
am reminded that I am employing a term which will 
suggest to the philosophical reader the idea of a minute 
and systematic account of the various opinions which 
the Indians have held in regard to their sacred books 
from the commencement, through all the successive 
stages of their theological development, down to the 
present time. To do anything like this, however, would 
be a task demanding an extent of research far exceeding 
any to which I can pretend. At some future time, in- 
deed, we may hope that a history of the theological and 
speculative ideas of the Indians, which shall treat this 
branch also of the subject, may be written by some com- 
petent scholar. My own design is much more modest. 
I only attempt to show what are the opinions on the 
subject of the Veda, which have been entertained by 
certain distinct sets of writers whom 1 may broadly 
divide into three classes — (1) the mythological, (2) the 
scholastic, and (3) the Vedic. 

The first, or mythological class, embraces the writers 
of the different Puranas and Itihasas, and partially those 
of the Brahmanas and Upanishads, who, like the com- 
pilers of the Puranas, frequently combine the mytho- 
logical with the theosophio element. 

The second, or scholastic class, includes the authors of 
the different philosophical schools, or DarSanas, with 
their scholiasts and expositors, and the commentators ^ 


on the Yedas. The whole of these writers belong to 
the class of systematio or philosophical theologians ; but 
OS their speculative principles differ, it is the object of 
each particular school to explain and establish the origin 
and authority of the Yedas on grounds conformable to 
its own fundamental dogmas, as well as to expound the 
doctrines of the sacred books in such a way as to har» 
monize with its own special tenets. 

The third class of writers, whose opinions in regard to 
the Yedas I have attempted to exhibit, is composed (1) 
of the rishis themselyes, the authors of the Yedio hymns,, 
and (2) of the authors of the TJpanishads, which, though 
if orks of a much more recent date, and for the most part 
of a different character from the hynms, are yet regarded 
by later Indiau wters as forming, equaUy with tiie 
latter, a part of the Yeda. As the authors of the hymns^ 
the earliest of them at least, liyed in an age of simple 
conceptions and of spontaneous and childlike deyotion^ 
we shall find that, though some of them appear, in con- 
formity with the spirit of their times, to haye regarded 
their compositions as in a certain degree the result of 
diyine inspiration, their primitive and elementary ideaa 
on this subject form a strong contrast to the artificial 
and systematic definitions of the later scholastic writers. 
And even the authors of the XJpanishads,^ though they, 
in a more distinct manner, claim a superhuman authority 
for their own productions, are very far from recognizing 
the rigid classification which^ at a subsequent period, di- 
vided the Yedic writings from all other religious works, 
by a broad line of demarcation. 


It may conduce to the convenience of the reader, if I 
furnish here a hrief survey of the opinions of the three 
classes of writers above described, in regard to the Vedas, 
as these opinions are shown in the passages which are 
collected in the present volume. 

The first chapter (pp. 1-217) contains texts exhibiting 
the opinions on the origin, division, inspiration, and au- 
thority of the Vedas, which have been held by Indian 
authors shortly before, or subsequent to, the collection of 
the Vedic hymns, and consequently embraces the views 
of the first two of the classes of writers above specified, 
viz. (1) the mythological and (2) the scholastic. In the 
first Section (pp. 3-10), I adduce texts from the Purusha 
Siikta, the Atharva-veda, the Satapatha Brahmana, the 
Chhandogya TJpanishad, the Taittirlya Brahmana, and 
the Institutes of Manu, which variously represent the 
Vedas (a) as springing from the mystical sacrifice of 
Purusha ; (b) as resting on (or inhering in) Skambha ; 
(c) as cut or scraped off from him, as being his hair, 
and his mouth ; (d) as springing from Indra ; (e) as pro- 
duced from time ; (/) as produced from Agni, Vayu, 
and Surya; (g) as springing from Prajapati, and the 
waters ; (A) as being the breathing of the Great Being ; 
(t) as being dug by the gods out of the mind-ocean ; 
(y) as being the hair of Prajapati's beard, and (k) as 
being the offspring of Vach. 

In page 287 of the Appendix a further verse of the 
Atharva-veda is cited, in which the Vedas are declared 
to have sprung from the leavings of the sacrifice (uch- 


In the second Section (pp. 10-14) are quoted pas- 
sages from the Vishnu, Bhagayata, and Markandeya Pu- 
ranas, which represent the four Vedas as having issued 
from the mouth of Brahma at the creation ; several from 
the Harivamsa, which speak of the Vedas as created by 
Brahma, or as produced from the Gayatrl ; another from 
the Mahabharata, which describes them as created by 
Vishnu, or as having Sarasvati for their mother; with 
one from Manu, which declares the Vedas, along with 
certain other objects, to be the second manifestation 
of the Sattva-guna, or pure principle, while Brahma is 
one of its first manifestations. 

The third Section (pp. 14-18) contains passages from 
the Brahmanas, the Vishnu Furana, and the Mahabha- 
rata, in which the Vedas are celebrated as comprehend- 
ing all beings, as being the soul of metres, hymns, 
breaths, and gods, as imperishable, as the source of form, 
motion, and heat, of the names, forms, and functions of 
all creatures, as infinite in extent, as infinite in their 
essence (brahma)^ though limited in their forms as Eich, 
Yajush, and Saman verses, as eternal, and as forming 
the essence of Vishnu. 

The fourth Section (pp. 18-36) contains passages from 
the Satapatha Brahmana and Manu, in which the great 
benefits resulting from the study of the Vedas, and the 
dignity, power, authority, and efficacy of these works 
are celebrated; together with two other texts from the 
latter author and the Vishnu Purana, in which a certain 
impurity is predicated of the Sama-veda (compare the 
Markandeya Furana, as quoted in p. 12, where the four 


Yedas are described as respectively partaking differently 
of the character of the three Gunas, or Qualities) ; and 
some others from the Vayu, Padma, Matsya, and Brah- 
ma- vaiyartta Puranas, and the Mahabharata, and Eama- 
yana, which derogate greatly from the consideration of 
the Vedas, by claiming for the Puranas and Itihasas an 
equality with, if not a superiority to, the older scrip- 
tures. A passage is next quoted from the Mundaka 
TJpanishad, in which the Vedas and their appendages are 
designated as the " inferior science," in contrast to the 
" superior science," the knowledge of Soul ; and is fol- 
lowed by others from the Bhagavad Gita, the Chhan- 
dogya TJpanishad and the Bhagavata Purana, in which 
the ceremonial and polytheistic portions of the Veda are 
depreciated in comparison with the knowledge of the su- 
preme Spirit. 

The fifth Section (pp. 36-49) describes the division of 
the Vedas in the third or Dvapara age, by Vedavyasa 
and his four pupils, according to texts of the Vishnu, 
Vayu, and Bhagavata Puranas ; and then adduces a dif- 
ferent account, asserting their division in the second or 
Treta age, by the King Pururavas, according to another 
passage of the same Bhagavata Purana, and a text of the 
Mahabharata (though the latter is silent regarding Pu- 

Section vi. (pp. 49-57) contains passages from the 
Vishnu and Vayu Puranas and the Satapatha Brahmana, 
regarding the schism between the adherents of the Tajur- 
veda, as represented by the different schools of Vai^m- 
payana and Yajnavalkya, and quotes certain remarks of 


Frof. Weber on fhe same subject, and on the relation of 
the Big and Sama Yedas to each other, together with 
some other texts, adduced and illustrated by that scholar, 
on the hostility of the Atharvanas towards the other 
Yedas, and of the Chandogas towards the Eig-yeda. 

Section vii. (pp. 57-70) contains extracts from the 
works of Sayana and Madhaya, the commentators on the 
Eig and Taittiriya Yajur Yedas, in which they both de- 
fine the characteristics of the Yeda, and state certain 
arguments in support of its authority. Sayana (pp. 
58-66), after noticing the objections urged against his 
yiews by persons of a different school, and defining the 
Yeda as a work consisting of Mantra and Brahmana, 
asserts that it is not derived from any personal, or at 
least not from any human, author (compare the further 
extract from him in p. 105) ; and rests its authority on 
its own declarations, on its self-proying power, on the 
Bmriti (ie. non-yedic writings of eminent saints), and on 
common notoriety. He then encounters some other ob- 
jections raised against the Yeda on the score of its con- 
taining passages which are unintelligible, dubious, ab- 
surd, contradictory, or superfluous. Madhaya (pp. 66- 
70) defines the Yeda as the work which alone reyeals 
the supernatural means of attaining future felicity ; ex- 
plains that males only, belonging to the three superior 
castes, are competent to study its contents ; and asserts 
that, inasmuch as it is eternal, it is a primary and infal- 
lible authority. This eternity of the Yeda, howeyer, he 
appears to interpret as not being absolute, but as dating 
from the first creation, when it was produced from Brahma, 


though, as he is free from defects, the Veda, as his work, 
is self-proved. 

Section viii. (pp. 70-108) contains the views of Jaimini 
and Badarayana, the (alleged) authors of the Mimansa 
and Brahma (or Yedanta) Sutras on the eternity of the 
Yeda. Jaimini asserts that sound, or words, are eternal, 
that the connection between words and the objects they 
represent also, is not arbitrary or conventional, but 
eternal, and that consequently the Vedas convey un- 
erring information in regard to unseen objects. This 
view he defends against the Naiyayikas, answering their 
other objections, and insisting that the names, derived 
from those of certain sages, by which particular parts of 
the Vedas are designated, do not prove those sages to 
have been their authors, but merely the teachers who 
studied and handed them down; while none of the 
names occurring in the Veda are those of temporal 
beings, but all denote some objects which have existed 
eternally. Two quotations in support of the superna- 
tural origin of the Veda are next introduced from 
the Nyaya-mala-vistara (a condensed account of the 
Mimansa system) and from the Vedartha-prakaia (the 
commentary on the Taittirlya Yajur-veda). The argu- 
ments in both passages (pp. 86-89) are to the same 
effect, and contain nothing that has not been already in 
substance anticipated in preceding summaries of the Mi- 
mansa doctrine. In reference to their argument that no 
author of the Veda is remembered, I have noticed here 
that the supposition which an objector might urge, that 
the rishiS| the acknowledged utterers of the hymns. 

PBEFACB. xiii 

might also liaye been fheir authors, is guarded against 
by the tenet, elsewhere maintained by Indian writers, 
that the rishis were merely seers of the pre-existing 
sacred texts. Some of the opinions quoted from the 
Sutras of Jaimini are farther enforced in a passage from 
the summary of the Mimansa doctrine, which I haye 
quoted from the Sarva-dar^a-sangraha. The writer 
first notices the Kaiyayika objections to the Mimansaka 
tenet that the Yeda had no personal author, viz. (1) that 
any tradition to this effect must have been interrupted at 
the past dissolution of the universe ; (2) that it would 
be impossible to prove that no one had ever recollected 
any such author ; (3) that the sentences of the Veda 
have the same character as all other sentences ; (4) that 
the inference, — drawn from the present mode of trans- 
mitting the Vedas from teacher to pupil, — iiini the same 
mode of transmission must have gone on from eternity, 
breaks down by being equally applicable to any other 
book ; (5) that the Yeda is in fact ascribed to a personal 
author in a passage of the book itself ; (6) that sound is 
not eternal, and that when we recognize letters as the 
same we have heard before, this does not prove their 
identity or eternity, but is merely a recognition of them 
as belonging to the same species as other letters we have 
heard before ; (7) that though Parame^vara (God) is na- 
turally incorporeal, he may have assumed a body in order 
to reveal the Veda, etc. The writer then states the Mi- 
mansaka answers to these arguments thus : What does 
this alleged ^ production by a personal author ' (pauru- 
iheyatva) mean ? The Veda^ if supposed to be so pro* 


duced, cannot derive its authority (a) from inference (or 
reasoning), as fallible books employ the same process. 
Nor will it suffice to say (b) that it derives its authority 
frotn its truth: for the Veda is defined to be a book 
which proves that which can be proved in no other way. 
And even if Parame^vara (God) were to assume a body, 
he would not, in that state of limitation, have any access 
to supernatural knowledge. Further, the fact that dif- 
ferent sakhas or recensions of the Vedas are called after 
the names of particular sages, proves no more than that 
these recensions were studied by those sages, and affords 
no ground for questioning the eternity of the Vedas, — 
an eternity which is proved by the feet of our recogniz- 
ing letters when we meet with them. These letters are 
the very identical letters we had heard before, for there 
is no evidence to show either that letters of the same 
jBort (G^s, for instance,) are numerically different from, 
each other, or that they are generic terms, denoting a 
species. The apparent differences which are observable 
in the same letter, result merely from the particular cha- 
racteristics of the persons who utter it, and do not affect 
its identity. This is followed by further reasoning in 
support of the same general view ; and the writer then 
arrives at the conclusion, which he seems to himself to 
have triumphantly established, that the Veda is unde- 
rived and authoritative. 

The question of the effect produced on the Vedas by 
the dissolutions of the world is noticed in some ex- 
tracts from Fatanjali's Mahabhashya and its commen- 
tatorS| which have been adduced by Prof. Goldstiicker 


in the Fre&ce to his Manava-kalpa Sutra, and which 
I have partly reprinted in pp. 95 ff. It is admitted 
by Fatanjali) that, though the sense of the Yedas is 
permanent, the order of their letters has not always 
remained the same, and that this difference is exhibited 
in the different recensions of the Kathakas and other 
schools. Fatanjali himself does not say what is the cause 
of this alteration in the order of the letters ; but his com- 
mentator, E^yyata, states that the order was disturbed 
during the great mundane dissolutions, etc., and had to 
be restored (though with variations) by the eminent 
science of the rishis. KuUuka, the commentator on 
Manu (see p. 6), mauitauis that the Yeda was pre- 
served in the memory of Brahma during the period of 
dissolution ; and promulgated again at the beginning of 
the Kalpa, but whether in an altered form, or not, he 
does not tell us. The latter point is also left unsolved 
in Sankara's commentary on Brahma Sutra i. 3, 30, 
which I quote in the Appendix, pp. 300 ff. Pages 
93 S. contain some remarks (by way of parenthesis) on 
the question whether or not the Furva Mimamsa admits 
the existence of a Deity. 

In the extract given in pp. 98-105 from his commen- 
tary on the Brahma Sutras,^ Sankara, who follows the 
author of those Sutras, and Jaimini, in basing the au- 
thority of the Yedas on the eternity of sound, finds it 
necessary to meet an objection that, as the gods men- 
tioned in the Yeda had confessedly an origin in time, the 

1 Mf attenti<m was originally drawn to this panage by a treatise, then nnpubluhed, 
\f Oia fitr. "BtoL Banojea, formerly of Biahop's CoU^e, Calcutta. 



words wliich designate those gods cannot be eternal, but 
must have originated co-evally with the^created objects 
which they denote, since eternal words could not have 
an eternal connection with non-eternal objects. This 
difficulty he tries to overcome (ignoring the ground 
taken by Jaimini^ that the Yeda contains no references 
to non-eternal objects) by asserting that the eternal con- 
nection of words is not with individual objects, but with 
the species to which these objects belong, and that Indra 
and the other gods are proved by the Veda to belong to 
species. Sankara then goes on to assert, on the autho- 
rity of Brahma Sutra, i 3, 28, fortified by various texts 
from the Vedas and the Smritis, that the gods and the 
world generally are produced (though not in the sense of 
evolution out of a material cause) from the word of the 
Vedas (see pp. 6 and 16) in the form of sphota. This 
last term will be explained below. This subject above 
referred to, of the eternal connection of the words of the 
Veda with the objects they represent, is further pursued 
in a passage which I have quoted in the Appendix, p. 300, 
where an answer is given to the objection that the ob- 
jects denoted by the words of the Veda cannot be eternal, 
as a total destruction of everything takes place (not, in- 
deed, at the intermediate, but) at the great mundane dis- 
solutions. The solution given is that, by the favour of 
the supreme Lord, the inferior lords Brahma, etc., retain 
a recollection of the previous mundane conditions ; and 
that in each successive creation everything is produced 
exactly the same as it had previously been. I then pro- 
ceed in p. 105 to adduce a passage from Sayana, the 


commentator on the Eig-veda, who refers to another of 
the Brahma Sutras, i. 1, 3 (quoted in p. 106), declaring 
that Brahma was the sourco of the Veda, which Sankara 
interprets as containing a proof of the omniscience of 
Brahma. Sayana understands this text as establishing 
the superhuman origin of the Veda, though not its 
eternity in the proper sense, it being only meant, ac- 
cording to him (as well as to Madhaya ; see p. xi.), that 
the Veda is eternal in the same sense as the sether is 
eternal, i.e. during the period between each creation and 
dissolution of the universe. 

In opposition to the tenets of the Mimansakas, who 
hold the eternity (or the eternal self-existence) of the 
Veda, and to the dogmas of the Vedanta, as just ex- 
pounded, Gotama, the author of the Nyaya aphorisms, 
denies (Section ix. pp. 108-118) the eternity of sound ; 
and after vindicating the Veda from the charges of 
falsehood, self-contradiction, and tautology, deduces its 
anthority from the authority of the wise, or competent, 
person or persons who were its authors, as proved 
by the efficacy of such of the Vedic prescriptions as 
relate to mundane matters, and can be tested by ex* 
perience. It does not dr^tinctly result from Gotama's 
aphorism that God is the competent person whom he 
regards as the maker of the Veda. If he did not refer 
to God, he must have regarded the rishis as its authors. 
The authors of the Vaiseshika Siitras, and of the Tarka 
Sangraha, as well as the writer of the Eusumanjali, 
however, clearly refer the Veda to Isvara (God) as its 
framer (pp. 118-133). Udayana, the author of the latter 

xviii PREFACE. 

work (pp. 128-133), controverts the opinion that the ex- 
istence of the Veda from eternity can be proved by a 
continuous tradition, as such a tradition must, he says, 
have been interrupted at the dissolution of the world, 
which preceded the existing creation. He, therefore 
(as explained by his commentator), infers an eternal 
(and omniscient author of the Veda ; asserting that the 
Veda is paurusheya^ or derived from a personal author ; 
that many of its own texts establish this ; and that the 
appellations given to its particular ^akhas or recensions, 
are derived from the names of those sages whose persons 
were assumed by Isvara, when he uttered them at the 
creation. In pp. 125 ff. I have quoted one of the Vai- 
^shika Siitras, with some passages from the commen- 
tator, to show the conceptions the writers entertained 
of the nature of the supernatural knowledge, or intui- 
tion, of the rishis. 

Kapila, the author of the Sankhya Aphorisms (pp. 1 33 
-138), agrees with the Nyaya and Vaiseshika aphorists in 
denying the eternity of the Veda, but, in conformity with 
his own principles, differs from Gotama and Kanada in 
denying its derivation from a personal {i.e. here, a divine) 
author, because there was no person {i.e. as his commen- 
tator explains, no God) to make it. Vishnu, the chief 
of the liberated beings, though onmiscient, could not, he 
argues, have made the Veda, owing to his impassiveness, 
and no other person could have done so from want of om- 
niscience. And even if the Veda have been uttered by 
the primeval Purusha, it cannot be called his work, as it 
was breathed forth by him unconsciously. Kapila agrees 


with Jaimini in ascribing a self-demonstrating power to 
the Veda, and differs from the Vaisesliikas in not de- 
riving its authority from correct knowledge possessed by 
a conscious utterer. He proceeds to controvert the 
existence of such a thing as sphota (a modification of 
sound which is assumed by the Mimansakas, and de- 
scribed as single, indivisible, distinct from individual 
letters, existing in the form of words, and constituting 
a whole), and to deny the eternity of sound. 

In the tenth Section (pp. 138-179) I shew (a) by quo- 
tations from the aphorisms of the Vedanta and their com- 
mentator (pp. 140-145), that the author and expounder 
of the Uttara Mimamsa (the Vedanta) frequently differ 
from Jaimini the author of the Purva Mimaihsa in the 
interpretation of the same texts of the TJpanishads. A 
similar diversity is next (b) proved at greater length 
(pp. 145-173), by quotations from the aphorisms and 
commentaries of the Vedanta and the Sankhya, to cha- 
racterize the expositions proposed by the. adherents of 
those two systems respectively. One quotation is given 
in pp. 175 ff. to shew (c) that the same is true in regard 
to the followers of the Vaiseshika philosophy, who dis- 
tinctly reject the Vedantic explanations ; and last of all 
(d) 1 have made some extracts (pp. 177 ff.) from the 
Bhakti Sutras of San^ilya to exhibit the wide divergence 
of that writer from the orthodox views of the Vedanta 
regarding the sense of the Vedas. In pp. 173-175 
I quote some remarks of Dr. E. Eoer, and Prof. Max 
Miiller, regarding the doctrines of the TJpanishads, and 
their relations to the different philosophical schools. 


In the facts brought forward in this section we find 
another illustration (1) of the tendency common to all 
dogmatic theologians to interpret in strict conformity with 
their own opinions the unsystematic and not always con- 
sistent texts of an earlier age which have been handed 
down by tradition as sacred and infallible, and to repre- 
sent them as containing, or as necessarily implying, fixed 
and consistent systems of doctrine ; as well as (2) of the 
diversity of view which so generally prevails in regard 
to the sense of such texts among writers of different 
schools, who adduce them with equal positiveness o^ 
assertion as establishing tenets and principles which an 
mutually contradictory or inconsistent. 

In the eleventh Section (pp. 1 79-207) some passages are 
adduced from the Nyaya-mala-vistara, and from KuUuka's 
commentary on Manu, to show that a distinct line of de- 
marcation is drawn by the scholastic writers between the 
Yedas on the one hand, and all other classes of Indian 
scriptures, embraced under the designation of Smriti (in- 
cluding the Dar^nas, the Institutes of Manu, the Fu- 
ranas, and Itihasas, etc.), on the other, the first being 
regarded as independent and infallible guides, while the 
others are (in theory) held to be authoritative only in so 
far as they are founded on, and coincide with, the Yeda. 
The practical effect of this distinction is, however, much 
lessened by the fact that the ancient sages, the authors 
of the Smiritis, such of them, I mean, as, like Manu, are 
recognized as orthodox^ are looked upon by Madhava and 
Sankara as having had access to Yedic texts now no 
longer extant, as having held communion with the gods. 


and as having enjoyed a clearness of intuition into divine 
mysteries which is denied to later mortals (pp. 181-185). 
Sankara, however (as shewn in pp. 184-192), does not 
regard all the ancients as having possessed this infallible 
insight into truth, but exerts all his ingenuity to explain 
away the claims (though clearly sanctioned by an Ugani- 
shad) of Eapila, who was not orthodox according to his 
Yedantic standard, to rank as an authority. In his de- 
preciation of Eapila, however, Bankara is opposed to the 
Bhagavata Purana (p. 192). I then proceed to observe 
(pp. 194-196) that although in ancient times the authors 
of the different philosophical systems (Darsanas) no doubt 
put forward their respective opinions as true, in oppo- 
3ition to all the antagonistic systems, yet in modem times 
the superior orthodoxy of the Vedanta appears to be 
generally recognized; while the authors of the otheir 
systems are regarded, e.ff. by Madhusudana Sarasvati, 
as, amid all their diversities, having in view, as their 
ultimate scope, the support of the Vedantic theory. The 
same view, in substance, is taken by Yijnana Bhikshu, 
the commentator on the Sankhya Sutras, who (pp. 196- 
203) maintains that Xapila's system, though atheistic, is 
not irreconcilable with the Yedanta and other theistic 
schools, as its denial of an Isvara (GK)d) is only practical, 
or regulative, and merely enforced in order to withdraw 
men from the too earnest contemplation of an eternal 
and perfect Deity, which would impede their study of 
the distinction between matter and spirit. To teach 
men this discrimination, as the great means of attaining 
final liberation, is one of the two main objects, and strong 

xxii PREFACE. 

points, of the Sankhya philosophy, and here it is authori- 
tative; while its atheism is admitted to be its weak 
side, and on this subject it has no authority. Yijnana 
Bhikshu goes on to say that it is even supposablo that 
theistic systems, in order to prevent sinners from attain- 
ing knowledge, may lay down doctrines partially opposed 
to the Vedas ; and that though in these portions they are 
erroneous, they will still possess authority in the portions 
conformable to the Sruti and Smriti, He then quotes a 
passage from the Padma Purana, in which the god Siva 
tells his consort Parvati that the Yaiseshika, the Nyiiya, 
the Sankhya, the Purva-mimansa Darsanas, and the Vc- 
dantio theory of illusion, are all systems infected by the 
dark (or tdmasa) principle, and consequently more or less 
imauthoritative. All orthodox {dstika) theories, however, 
are, as Vijnana Bhikshu considers, authoritative, and free 
from error on their own special subject. And as respects 
the discrepancy between the Sankhya and the Vedanta, 
regarding the unity of Soul, he concludes that the former 
is not devoid of authority, as the apparent diversity of 
Bouls is acknowledged by the Vedanta, and the discri- 
minative knowledge which the Sankhya teaches is an 
instrument of liberation to the embodied soul ; and thus 
the two varying doctrines, if regarded as, the one prac- 
tical (or regulative), and the other real (or transcend- 
ental), will not be contradictory. At the close of Section 
eleventh (pp. 204-207) it is shewn that the distinction 
drawn by the Indian commentators between the super- 
human Yeda and its human appendages, the Xalpa 
Sutras, etc.^ as well as the Smritis, is not borne out by 

PEEFACB. xxiii 

certain texts which I had previously cited. The Brihad 
Aranyaka and Mundaka TJpanishads (pp. 8, 31) seem to 
place all the different sorts of Sastras or scriptures (in- 
cluding the four Vedas) in one and the same class, the 
former speaking of them all promiscuously as being the 
breathing of Brahma, while the latter describes them all 
(except the TJpanishads) as being parts of the " inferior 
science," in opposition to the "superior science," or 
knowledge of Brahma. In the same spirit as the Mun- 
daka, the Chhandogya Upanishad also (quoted in p. 32 f.) 
includes the four Yedas in the same list with a variety 
of miscellaneous Sastras (which !N^arada has studied with- 
out getting beyond the confines of exoteric knowledge), 
and never intimates (unless it be by placing them at the 
head of the list) that the former can claim any superior- 
ity over the other works with which they are associated. 
As, however, Sankara could not, in consistency with the 
current scholastic theory regarding the wide difference 
between the Yedas and all other Sastras, admit that the 
latter could have had a common origin with the former, 
he endeavours in his comment on the passage of the 
Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad to which I have adverted, 
to shew that the other works, which are there said to 
have been breathed out by the great Being along with 
the Vedas, were in reality portions of the Brahmanas. 
This explanation can scarcely apply to all the works enu- 
merated, and its force is weakened by the tenor of the 
other passages from the Mundaka and Chhandogya 
TJpanishads, while any such distinction is repudiated in 
the statements of the Itihasas and Puranas quoted in 
pp. 27-30 and 105. 

zxir PEEFACE. 

In the twelfth Section (pp. 207-217) the arguments 
in support of the Veda, adduced in the philosophical 
systems, and by the various commentators, as above sum- 
marised, are recapitulated, and some remarks are made 
on these reasonings. My observations are intended to 
shew that the arguments in question are inconclusive, or 
assume the points to be established ; that the rishis are 
proved by the contents of the hymns to have been their 
real authors; and that numerous events which have 
occurred in time, are undoubtedly mentioned in the 
Vedas. This as we have seen (above, p. xvi.) is ad- 
mitted by Sankara. 

The Second Chapter (pp. 217-286) exhibits the 
opinions of the rishis in regard to the origin of the 
Vedic hymns. Its object is to shew in detail that, 
though some at least of the rishis appear to have 
imagined themselves to be inspired by the gods in the 
expression of their religious emotions and ideas, they 
at the same time regarded the hymns as their own com- 
positions, or as (presumably) the compositions of their fore- 
fathers, distinguishing between them as new and old, and 
describing their own authorship in terms which could 
only have been dictated by a consciousness of its reality. 
The first, second, and third Sections (pp. 218-244) con- 
tain a collection of passages from the Eig-veda in which 
a distinction is drawn (1) between the rishis as ancient and 
modem, and (2) between the hymns as older and more 
recent; and in which (3) the rishis describe themselves ad 
the makers, fabricators, or generators of the hymns ; with 
Bome additional texts in which such authorship appears 


to be implied^ though it is not expressed. Section fourth 
(pp. 245-283) contains a variety of passages from the 
same Veda, in which (1) a superhuman character or super- 
natural faculties are ascribed to the earlier rishis ; and 
(2) the idea is expressed that the praises and ceremonies 
of the rishis were suggested and directed by the gods in 
general, or, in particular, by the goddess of speech, or 
by some other or others of the different deities of the 
Yedic pantheon. To illustrate, and render more intel- 
ligible and probable, the opinions which I have ascribed 
to the old Indian rishis regarding their own inspiration, 
I have quoted in the same Section (pp. 267 - 273) a 
number of passages from Hesiod and Homer to shew 
that the early Oreek bards entertained a similar belief. 
I then advert (pp. 273 - 274) to the remarkable diverg- 
ence between the later religious histories of Greece and 
of India. I next enquire briefly (in pp. 274 - 275) in 
what way we can reconcile the apparently conflicting 
ideas of the rishis on the subject of the hymns, con- 
sidered, on the one hand, as their own productions, and, 
on the other, as inspired by the gods. Then follow (pp. 
275-279) some further texts from the Eig-veda, in 
which a mystical, magical, or supernatural efficacy is 
ascribed to the hymns. These are succeeded (pp. 279- 
283) by a few quotations from the same Veda, in which 
the authors complain of their own ignorance ; and by a re- 
ference to the contrast between these humble confessions 
and the proud pretensions set up by later theologians in 
behalf of the Veda, and its capability of imparting imi- 
Tcrsal knowledge. The ideas of the rishis regarding 
their own inspiration differ widely from the conceptions 

xxvi PREFACB. 

of later theorists ; for while the former looked upon the 
gods, who were confessedly mere created beings, as the 
sources of supernal illumination, the latter either regard 
the Veda as eternal, or refer it to the eternal Brahma, or 
Isvara, as its author. The fifth and last Section (pp. 
283-286) adduces some texts from the Svetasvatara, 
Mundaka and Chhandogya TJpanishads, which show the 
opinions of the writers regarding the inspiration, of their 
predecessors ; and refers to the similar claims set up on 
their own behalf by the writers of the Itihasas and Pu- 
ranas, as shewn in the passages quoted in pp. 27-30. 

With all its imperfections this volume may perhaps 
possess a certain interest, not only for the student of 
Indian history, but also for the divine and the philo- 
sopher, as furnishing a few documents to illustrate the 
course of theological opinion in a sphere far removed 
from the ordinary observation of the European student, 
— a course which, quite independently of the merits of 
the diflferent tenets involved in the enquiry, will, I 
think, be found to present a remarkable parallel in 
various respects to that which is traceable in the his- 
tory of those religious systems with which we are most 
familiar. In both cases we find that a primitive age of 
ardent emotion, of simple faith, and of unarticulated 
beliefs, was succeeded by a period of criticism and spe- 
culation, when the floating materials handed down by 
preceding generations were compared, classified, recon- 
ciled, developed into their consequences, and elaborated 
into a variety of scholastic systems. 

In the Preface to the first edition I stated as follows : 
"In regard to the texts quoted from the Eig-veda, I 

PBEFACE. zxvii 

have derived the same sort of Assistance from the French 
version of M. Langlois, which has been acknowledged 
in the Preface to the Second Volume, p. vi. I am also 
indebted for some of the Vedio texts to Boehtlingk 
and Eoth's Lexicon." 

A comparison of the former edition with the present 
will shew that considerable alterations and additions 
have been made in the latter. The texts which formeriy 
stood in the Appendix have now been transferred to their 
proper places in the body of the work ; and various other 
passages have been transposed. The principal additions 
will be found in the first four sections, in the ninth (pp. 
115-127), tenth (which is altogether new), eleventh (pp. 
185 ff.), and in the Appendix. 

I am indebted to various learned friends for assistance 
in different parts of the work, which I have acknow- 
ledged in the notes. My thanks are especially due to 
Professors Goldstiicker and Cowell for various important 
corrections which they have suggested in my translations 
of passages of a scholastic and philosophical character, 
quoted either in the body of the volume or in the Appen- 
dix,— corrections which are incorporated in the text, — as 
well as for some further remarks and suggestions which 
will be found in the notes or Appendix. I am also under 
obligations to Professor Aufrecht for some emendations of 
my renderings in the early part of the work, as well as 
for his explanations of many of the texts of the Big« 
veda cited in the Second Chapter. 

NovmhtTy 1868. 


V. — ^xxviiL Feepacb. 
1 — ^217. CHAPTEB I. Opnnoirs kegasding thi Osigik, DivisioVy 


3 — 10. Sect. I. Origin of the Yedas according to the Pomsha-Bukta, 
the Atharva-yeda, the BrahmaQas, Upanishads, and Insti- 
tutes of Mann. 

10 — 14. Sect. II. Origin of the Yedas according to the Yishnn, Bha- 
gavata, and Markan^eya FnraQas, the Hariyamia, the Ma- 
h&bharata ; eternity of the Yeda; miscellaneous statements 

14 — 18. Sect. m. Passages of the BrahmaQas and other works in 
which the Yedas are spoken of as being the sources of all 
things, and as infinite and eternal. 

18 — 36. Sect. IY. Passages from the Sktapatha Brahma^a and Manu 
eulogistic of the Yeda, with some statements of a different 
tenor from Manu and other writers. 

86—49. Sect. Y. Diyision of the Yedas, according to the YishQU, 
Yayu, and Bhagayata Puragasi and the Mahabharata. 

49.^^7, Sect. YI. Accounts in the Yish^u and Yayu Pura^as of the 
schisms between the adherents of the Yajur-yeday Yaiiam- 
payana, and Yajnayalkya ; hostility of the Atharyanas to- 
wards the other Yedas; and of theChhandogu towards the 



57 — 70. Sect. YII. Eeasonings of the Commentators on the Yedas, in 
sapport of the authority of the Yedos. 

70 — 108. Sect. Viil. Arguments of the MlmanBakas and Vedantins 
in support of the eternity and authority of the Yedas. 

108 — 138. Sect. IX. Arguments of the followers of the Nyaya, Vai- 
iScshika, and Sankhya systems in support of the author- 
ity of the Yedas, hut against eternity of sound, and of 
the Yedas ; Yaiscshika conception of the intuitive know- 
ledge of the rishis. 

188^-179. Sect. X. Extracts from the Yedanta, Sankhya, Yai^eshika, 
and Bhakti aphorisms, and their commentators, illustra- 
tive of the use which the authors of the different Dari^auas 
make of Yedic texts, and the different modes of interpre- 
tation which they adopt. 

179 — ^207. Sect. XI. Distinction in point of authority between the 
Yeda and the Sm^itis or non- Yedic Sastras, as stated in 
the Kyaya-mala-vistara, and by the commentators on 
Manu, and the Yedanta; Yijnana Bhikshu's view of tho 
Sankhya ; opinion of Sknkara regarding the authority of the 
orthodox rishis ; difference of view between him and Ma- 
dhusudana regarding the orthodoxy of Kapila and Kanada, 
etc. : the distinction between the Yedas and other S'astras, 
drawn by later writers, not borne out by the Upanishads. 

207 — 217. Sect. XII. Becapitulation of the arguments urged in the 
DariSanas, and by commentators, in support of the autho- 
rity of the Yedas, with some remarks on these reasonings. 

217 — 286. CHAPTEE 11. The Eisms, and theib Opinions in ee- 


218—224. Sect. I. Passages from the Hymns of the Yeda which dis- 
tinguish between the Bishis as Ancient and Modem. 

224—232. SEcr. II. Passages from the Yeda in which a distinction is 
drawn between the older and the more recent hymns. 


232 — 244. Sect. III. Passages of the Eig-yeda in which the Kishis 
describe themselyes as the composers of the Hymns, or 
intimate nothing to the contrary. 

245 — 283. Sect. IY. Passages of the Eig-yeda in which a supernatural 
character is ascribed to the Eishis or the Hymns ; similar 
conceptions of inspiration entertained by the Greeks of the 
Homeric age; limitations of this opinion in the case of 
the Yedio Eishis. 

283 — 286. Sect. Y. Texts from the TJpanishads, showing the opinions 
of the authors regarding the inspiration of their pre- 

287 — 312. Appeitdix. 

287. Quotation from the Atharya-yeda xi. 7, 24. 

287 — 288. Amended translations by Professor Aufrecht. 

288 — 289.' Quotations from Manu and the Mahabharata on Yedio and 
other study. 

289 — 290. Yarious illustratiye quotations and references. 

290. Amended translation by Professor Cowell. 

290. Note by Professor Cowell on the phrase Kaldtyay&padUhta, 

291. Amended translation by Professor CowelL 

292 — 300. Quotation of Brahma Sutras, i. 3, 34-38, witli ^ankara's 
comments, shewing the incompetence of S udras to acquire 
the highest diyine knowledge, with a short passage of a 
contrary tenor from the Bhagayat Gita. 

300 — 308. Quotation from Brahma Sutras, i. 3, 30, with S^ankara's 
comment, in continuation of the reasoning in pp. 101-105 
in support of the eternity of the words of the Yeda, and 
in refutation of the objections deriyed from the alleged 
non-eternity of creation ; with Brahma Sutra, ii. 1, 86, 
and part of S'ankara's comment. 

308 — 309. Quotation from Manu, ii. 14f. ; and from Kulluka in ex- 
planation of the term samayddhywhita. 







CorrectionB by Professors Cowell and Goldstiioker. 

Quotation from Commentary on YisIiQU Purdna, i. 17, 54. 

Quotation from Yajasancyi Samhita, xiii. 45, and S'atapatha 
Brahmana, tu. 5, 2, 21. 

Additional texts (i. 67, 4; L 109, 1, 2; and x. 66, 5) 
from the Kig-yeda, regarding the composition of the 

Supplementary note by Prof. Goldstiickery on KdldtyO' 


Page 24y 

„ 46, 

„ 63, 

„ 62, 

„ 85, 

„ 96, 

„ 96, 

>! 101, 
„ 149, 
„ 159, 
«, 159, 
f> 160, 
w 218, 
„ 221, 


line 11. For 

15. For 
8. For 
2 from 
4 » 
2 ,, 

16. The 
22. For 

6. For 
16. For 
81. For 
18. For 
16. For 
24. For 

7 from 
12. For 




Brahma read Brahm^ 

Tayuth read JajtuK 

theologicans read theologians. 

foot : For its author read their authors. 

Before Frqfapatir insert xi. 243. 

For dhvtmUvam read dhvanitam. 
same correction. 
Yanap. read S'fintip. 
iabdadikthiter read iahdad tkthiUr 
ehaindri* read eha indri-* 
paratvou- read paratif(h, 
punar-utpattir read puMT'anutpaUirm 
p. 120 read p. 118. 
tL 21, 1 read yl. 21, 
foot. Omit dhiiha^a, 
Ti 62, 8 z«ad n. 26, 





Lr the preceding Tolumes of this work^ I have fornished a general 
account of the ancient Indian writings, which are comprehended nnder 
the designation of Yeda or S^mtil These works, which, as we have 
seen, oonstitute the earliest literature of the Hindus, are broadly divi- 
sible into two classes : (1) The Mantras or hymns, in which the praises 
of the gods are celebrated and their blessing is invoked ; (2) the Brah- 
manas, which embrace (a) the liturgical institutes in which the cere- 
monial application of these hymns is declared, the various rites of sacri- 
fice are prescribed, and the origin and hidden import of the different 
farms are explained, and {h) the Aranyakas,' and Upanishads (called also 
Vedantaa, t.e. concluding portions of the Yedas), which in part possess 
the same character as some of the earlier portions of the Brahmanas, and 
are ui part theological treatises in which the spiritual aspirations which 

> See Vol. I. pp. 2ff. and YoL II. pp. 169 ff. See also Professor Max Mailer's 
Hvtory of Ancient Sanskrit Literature. 

* For more precise information see Mttller's Ane. Sansk. Lit pp. 313 ff. from which 
it win be perceiyed that only some of the Aranyakas form part of the Br&hmanas, and 
that two of tho Upanishads are included in a Sanhita. 



were gradually developed in tbe minds of fhe more devout of the 
Indian sages are preserved. It is, therefore, clear that the hymns con- 
stitute the original and, in some respects, the most essential portion of the 
Veda ; that the Brahmanas arose out of the hymns, and are subservient 
to their employment for the purposes of worship ; while the Upanishads . 
give expression to ideas of a speculative and mystical character which, 
though to some extent discoverable in the hymns and in the older 
portion of the Brahmanas, are much further matured, and assume a 
more exclusive importance, in these later treatises. 

I content myself here with referring the reader who desires to obtain 
a fuller idea of the nature of the hymns, and of the mythology which 
they embody, to the late Professor H. H. Wilson's translation of the 
earlier portion of the Eig-veda, to his prefaces to the several volumes, 
to Professor Max Miiller's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, 
and to two papers of my own in the Journal of the Eoyal Asiatic 
Society, entitled Contributions to a knowledge of the Cosmogony and 
Mythology of the Eig-vcda. In the fourth volume of this work I 
return to the latter branch of the subject, and compare the conceptions 
which the rishis entertained of the different objects of their worship, 
with those representations of the deities who bore the same names, 
which occur in Indian writings of a later date, whether mythological 
or theological. 

The task to which I propose in the meantime to devote myself, is to 
supply some account of the opinions entertained by Hindu writers, 
ancient and modem, in regard to the origin and authority of the Ycdas. 
With this view I have collected from some of the later hymns, from 
the Indian writings of the middle and later Yedic era (the Brahmanas 
and Upanishads) as well as from the books, whether popular or scien- 
tific, of the post-vedio period (the Puranas, the Itihasas, the Institutes 
of Manu, the aphorisms of the Dar^nas, or systems of philosophy, and 
their commentators, and the commentaries on the Yedas) such passages 
as I have discovered which have reference to these subjects, and propose 
to compare the opinions there set forth with the ideas entertained on 
some of these points by the writers of the more ancient hymns, as 
deducible from numerous passages in their own compositions. 

The mythical accounts which are given of the origin of the Yedas 


are mntnally conflicting. In some passages they are said to have been 
created by Frajapati from fire, air, and the sun, or by some other 
process. In other texts they are said to have been produced by 
Brahma from his different mouths, or by the intervention of the 
Gayatify or to have sprang from the goddess Sarasvatl, or to have 
otherwise arisen. I proceed to adduce these several passages* 

Sect. I. — Origin of (he VedoB aeeording to the FurushasUlta, the 
Atharva-veda, the Brdhmanas, UpanUhade^ and Inetitutes ofManu. 

Purueha-mita, — ^In the ninth verse of this hymn (Eig-yeday x. 90, 
already quoted in Yol. I. pp. 8 and 9) the three Yedas are said to have 
been produced from the mystical victim Furusha: Tasmdd ya^n&t 
earva-hutah fieha^ sdmdni jqfnire \ ehhandd0m jqfnire taemdd yajue 
taemdd ajdyata \ '* From that universal sacrifice sprang the rich and 
aaman verses : the metres sprang from it : from it the yajush arose."' 

This is the only passage in the hymns of the Eig-veda in which the 
creation of the Yedas is described. 

In the Atharva-veda the following texts refer to that subject : 

X. 7, 14. Tattra fUhayah prathamajdh fiehah sdma yqfur mdhl \ 
ekarMr yaeminn drpitah Skamhhaih tarn hruhi katama^ tvid eva sah | 
• . • . 20. Tasmdd fieho apdtakshan yqfur yaemdd apdkashan \ sdtndni 
yaeya lomdni atharvdnyiraso mukham \ Skambham tarn hrUhi katama^ 
mndevaea^ | 

« Declare who that Skambha (supporting-principle) is in whom the 
primeval rishis, the rich, saman, and yajush, the earth, and the one 
lifihi, are sustained. .... 20. Declare who is that Skambha from 
whcm. they cut off the rich yerses, from whom they scraped off the 
yiguahy of whom the saman verses are the hairs, and the verses of 
Atharvan and Angiras the mouth." 

* The word p$da, in whatever seiue we are to understaiid it, ocean in B.Y. tIIi- 
19, 6 : TaJ^ mmidha ydf^ ahiUt yo vedena dadasa martyo agnaye \ yo namata tvadhvo' 
raJ^ I 6. Tuya id arwmto rmkhayanU atavM tatya dyumnitamam yaia^ \ na tarn 
tmho d0pa-'kfrUam kutai ehana na martythkfitam not at \ ** The horses of that mortal 
who, deroted to sacrifice, does homage to Agni with fuel, with an ohlation, with ritaal 
knowledge (?), with rererence, — (6) speed forward impetuously ; and his renown is 
BMst glorious. Ko calamity, caused either by god or by man, can assail him from 
lay quarter." 


ziii. 4, 38. Sa vat figlhyo qfdyata tasm&d ficho ajdyanta \ 
*' He (apparently Indra, see verse 44) sprang from the fich verses : 
the f ich verses sprang from him." 

six. 54, 3. Kdldd fichah samabhavan yaju^ kdldd ajdyata \ 
" From Time the rich verses sprang : theyajush sprang from Time.'* * 
The following texts from the same Veda may also be introduced here : 
iv. 35, 6. Yasmdt pakvdd amritaih samhahhUva yo gdyatrydh adhi- 
patir lahhuva \ yasmin veddh nihitdh viharupds tenaudanendti tardmi 
mfityum \ 

'* I overpass death by means of that oblation {odafia\ from which, 
when cooked, ambrosia {amrita) was produced, which became the lord 
of the Gayatri, and in which the omniform Yedas are comprehended." 

vii. 54, 1. Richam sdma yajdmahe ydhhydtn karmdni kurvate j ete sadasi 
rdjato yaj'nam deveshu yachhatah \ 2. Richafh sdma yad aprdhiham havlr 
ojo yajur halam \ esha md tasmdd md hitnsid vedah pfishfah iachipaU j 

'* We worship the Eich and the Saman, wherewith men celebrate 
religious rites, which shine in the assembly, and convey sacrifices to 
the gods. 2. Inasmuch as I have asked the Eich and the Saman for 
butter and for vigour, and the Yajush for strength,— let not the Veda, 
80 asked, destroy me, o lord of strength (Indra)." 
The next passage is from the Sktapatha Brahmaiia, xi. 5, 8, Iff.: 
Prajdpatir vai tdam ogre dsid ekah eva \ so ^kdmayata ay dm prajdyeya 
iti I SoHrdmyat 8Q tapoHapyata \ tasmdeh ehrdntdt tepdndt trayo lokdh 
asrijyanta pfiihivy antarikshaih dyauh \ sa imams trln lokdn ahhitatdpa \ 
Uhhyas taptehhyas tfini jyotlmshy ajdyanta agnir yo ^yam palate sHryah \ 
sa imdni trini jyotlmshy ahhitatdpa \ tehhyas taptehhyas trayo veddh 
ajdyanta agner figvedo vdyor yqjurvedah sUrydt sdmavedah \ sa imdms 
trln veddn ahhitatdpa | tehhyas taptehhyas trini iuhrdny ajdyanta hhur 
ity figveddd hhuvah iti yajwrveddt star iti sdmaveddt | Tad rigvedenaiva 
hotram akurvata yajurvedena- ddhoaryavam sdmavedena udgltham \ yad 
eva trayyai vidydyai itikram tena hrahmatvam uchchahrdma, 

"Prajapati was formerly this universe [t.^. the sole existence], one 
only. He desired, * may I become, may I be propagated.* He toiled 

* See my translation of the entire hymn in the Jonmal of the Roy. As. Soc. for 
1865, p. 381. The Yifihna Parana, L 2, 13, says : Tad eva tarvam waitad vyakta^ 
vyakta-svarupavat \ tatha purutha-rupena kala-rvpma cha sthitam | " This (Brahma) 
is all this nniyerse, existing hoth as the perceptible and the imperceptible ; existing 
also in the forms of Punisha and of Kala (Time).*' 


in devotion, he performed austerity. From him, when he had bo 
toiled, and performed austerity, three worlds were created, — earth, air, 
and sky. He infused warmth into these three worlds. From them, 
thus heated, three lights were produced, — ^Agni (fire), this which 
purifies {i.e. Pavana, or Yayu, the wind),^ and Surya (the sun). Ho 
infused heat into these three lights. From them so heated the three 
Yedas were produced, — the Eig-veda from Agni (fire), the Yajur-veda 
from Yayu (wind), and the Sama-veda from Surya (the sun). He 
infused warmth into these three Yedas. From them so heated three 
luminous essences were produced, — hhuh from the Rig-veda, bhuvah 
from the Yajur-yeda, and svar from the Sama-veda. Hence, with the 
Big-veda they performed the function of the hotfi ; with the Yajur- 
Teda, the office of the adhvaryu ; with the Sama-veda, the duty of the 
udgatri ; while the function of the brahman arose through the luminous 
essence of the triple science [i.e. the three Yedas combined]." 

Ckkandogya UpanUhad. — A similar passage (already quoted in Yolume 
Second, p. 200) occurs in the Chhandogya TJpanishad (p. 288 of 
Dr. Boer's ed.) : 

Prajdpatir lokan ahhyatapat \ tesham tapyamdndndm rasdn prdhrihad 
apiim prithivy&h vdyum antarikshdd ddityam diva^ \ sa etds tiero devatdh 
ahhyatapat \ tdsd^ tapyamdndndm rasdn prdhrihad ayner f^cho vdyor 
fajUmehi sdma dditydt \ sa etdm traytfh vidydm ahhyatapat | taeyde 
tapyam&ndydh rasdn prdhrihad bhUr iti fighhyo hhuvar iti yajurhhyali 
$var iti sdmahhyah \ 

" Prajapati infused warmth into the worlds, and from them so heated 
he drew forth their essences, viz. Agni (fire) from the earth, Yayu 
(wind) from the air, and Surya (the sun) from the sky. He infused 
warmth into these three deities, and from them so heated he drew forth 
their essences, — from Agni the yich verses, fix)m Yayu the yajush 
Teraes, and from Surya the saman verses. He then infused heat into 
this triple science, and from it so heated he drew forth its essences, — 
from rich verses the syllable bhuh, from yajush verses bhuvah, and 
from siman verses svar." * 

^ See Satapatha Brahmana, vi. 1, 2, 19 : . • . ayam eva m Vaifur yo *yampavat0 
. . . '*Tlus is that Yaju, he who parifiee." 

* Fusages to the same effect occur also in the Aitareya (▼. 32-34) and Eauahl* 
tiki BrihmaQaB. That in the former will be found in Dr. fiaug's translation of the 


Manu. — The same origin is assigned to the three Yedas in the follow- 
ing verses from the acconnt of the creation in Mann, i. 21-23, where 
the idea is no doubt borrowed from the Brahmanas : 

Sarveshdm tu sa ndmdni karmdni cha prithak pfithah \ VedO'&abdehhya 
evddau prithak samsthdi eha nirmame \ Edrmdtmandm cha devanafh so 
^sfijat prdnindm prabhuh j sddhyan&m eha ganam tUkshmafk yqfnaih 
chaiva sandtanam \ Agni-vdytHravihhyas tu trayam hrahma sandtanam \ 
dudoha yajna-siddhyartham fiy-yafu^'Sdma-lakshanam \ 

''He [Brahma] in the beginning fashioned from the words of the Yeda 
the several names, functions, and separate conditions of all [creatures]. 
That Lord also created the subtile host of active and living deities, and 
of Sadhyas, and eternal sacrifice. And in order to the performance of 
sacrifice, he drew forth from Agni, from Yayu, and from Suryu, the 
triple eternal Veda, distinguished as Kich, Yajush, and Saman." 

Kulluka Bhatta, the commentator, annotates thus on this passage : 

8andtana0i nityam \ veddpawrtuheytUva-paksho Manor alhimatah | 
purva-kalpe ye vedds t$ eva FaramdtnuhmHrtter Brahmana^ Borvajnatya 
rnnfity-drHi^h \ tan eva kalpdddv ogni-vdytHravihhya^ dehakarsha \ 
irautai eha ayam artho na iankanlya^ \ tathdcha h^tih \ " ayner fiyvedo 
^yor yajurvedah dditydt sdmaveda^ " iti \ 

^ The word sandtana means ' eternally pre-existing.' The doctrine 
of the superhuman origin of the Yedas is maintained by Manu. The 
same Yedas which [existed] in the previous mimdane era (Kalpa) were 
preserved in the memory of the onmiscient Brahma, who was one with 
the supreme Spirit. It was those same Yedas that, in the beginning of 
the [present] Kalpa, he drew forth from Agni, Yfiyu, and Surya : and 
this dogma, which is foimded upon the Yeda, is not to be questioned, 
for the Yeda says, ' the Big-veda comes from Agni, the Yajur-veda from 
Yayu, and the S^ona-veda from Surya.' " 

Another commentator on Manu, Medhatithi, explains this passage in 
a more rationalistic fashion, " by remarking that the Big-veda opens 
with a hymn to fire, and the Yajur-veda with one in which air is men- 
tioned." — Oolobr. Misc. Ess. L p. ll, note. 

Br&hmaea ; and the one in the latter iB rendered into Gennan by Weber in his Ind. 
Btad. ii. 803 ff. 

^ XnllQka explains this to mean, ''Having nnderstood them from the words of 
the Yeda" {Veda-^abdahyai eva wagamya). 


To the verses firom Mann (i. 21-23) jnst cited, the following from 
the second book may be added, partly for the purpose of completing 
the parallel with the passages previously adduced from the S'atapatha 
Brahma^a and the Chhandogya Upanishad : 

Manu, iL 76 ff. Akdram chdpy ukdram cha tnakdrafh eha Prajdpatih \ 
Veda-traydd niraduhad hhur hhuvah war itlti cha \ 77. IHbhyah eva tu 
vedebhyah pddam pddam aduduhat \ *^tad** ity j^choUydh sdvitryd^ 
parameshthl prajdpatih \ .... 81. Onikdra-pUrvihas titro mahdvydh- 
ritayo *vyaydh | Tripadd chaiva gdyatrl vijneyam Brahmano mukham. 

76. *' Frajapati also milked out of the three Yedas the letters a, u, 
and «i, together with the words hhah, hhuva^, and war. 77. The same 
supreme Frajapati also milked from each of the three Yedas one of the 
[three] portions of the text called sdvitrl [or gdyatrl], beginning with 
the word tat.^ .... 81. The three great imperishable particles {hhuh, 
hhuvah, war) preceded by om, and the gdyatrl of three lines, are to be 
regarded as the mouth of Brahma." 

The next passage, from the Sktapatha Brahmana, vi. 1, 1, 8, first 
speaks generally of Frajapati creating the three Yedas, and then after- 
wards, with some inconsistency, describes their production from the 
waters : • 

So ^yam purushah Prajdpatir akdmayata *' hhuydn sydm prajdyeya " 
f^f I io 'irdmyat sa tapo ^tapyata \ sa irdntas tepdno hrahma eva pratha- 
mam oijijata traylm eva vidydm ( sd wa asmai pratishfhd ^hhavat \ taS' 
mad dhur '* hrahma asya sarvasya pratishfhd " iti \ tasmdd anUchya 
praiitishfhati j pratishfhd hy eshd yad hrahma \ tasydm pratishfhdydm 
prat%sh(hito 'tapyata | 9. So ^po *spjata vdehah eva lokdt \ vdg wa asya 
sd *srijyata \ sd idarh sarvam dpnod yad idam kincha \ yad dpnot tasmdd 
dpah I yad avfinot tasmdd vd^ \ 10. So 'kdmayata '* dhhyo ^dbhyo *dhi 
wrajdyeya " iti | so *nayd trayyd vidyayd saha qpah prdviiat \ tatah 
dndam samavarttata \ tad ahhyamriSat \ *'astv'^ ity **astu hhuyo 'stv" ity 
wa tad ahravlt \ tato hrahma wa prathamam asrijyata trayy wa vidyd \ 
tasmdd dhur "hrahma asya sarvasya prathamajam^^ iti \ api hi tasmdt 
pttrushdd hrahma wa p&rvam asjrijyata tad asya tad mukham eva 
asrijyata \ tasmdd anUehdnam dhur '^ agni-kalpah^' iti | mukham hy 
etad agner yad hrahma 

* This text, Rig-yeda, iiL 62, 10, will be quoted in the seqnel. 

* Thia passage with the preceding context is given in the Fourth Yolume of this 
work, pp. 18 f. 


" This Male, Prajapati, desired, * May I multiply, may I be propa- 
gated.' He toiled in devotion ; he practised austere-fervour. Having 
done BO be first of all created sacred knowledge, the triple Yedic science. 
This became a basis for him. Wherefore men say, ' sacred knowledge 
is the basis of this universe.' Hence after studying the Yeda a man 
has a standing ground; for sacred knowledge is his foundation. Besting 
on this basis he' (Prajapati) practised austere-fervour. 9. He created 
the waters from Yach (speech), as their world. Yach was his : she was 
created. She pervaded all this whatever exists. As she pervaded {apnot\ 
waters were called * apal^.' As she covered {avrinoi) all, water was called 
' var.' 10. He desired, ' May I be propagated from these waters.' Along 
with tliis triple Yedic science he entered the waters. Thence sprang 
an egg. He gave it an impulse ; and said, ' Let there be, let there be, 
let there be again.' Thence was first created sacred knowledge, the 
triple Yedic science. Wherefore men say, ' Sacred knowledge is the 
first-born thing in this universe. Moreover, it was sacred knowledge 
which was created from that Male in front, wherefore it was created as 
his mouth. Hence they say of a man learned in the Yeda, ' He is like 
Agni ; for sacred knowledge is Agni*s mouth.' " 

The next passage from the Taittiriya Brahmana, ii. 3, 10, 1, briefiy 
states that the Yedas were created after Soma : 

Praj&patih Somarh rdjdnam <ujrijata \ tarn trayo veddh anv aifijyanta \ 
''Prajapati created king Soma. After him the three Yedas were 

The same Brahmana in other places, as iii. 3, 2, 1, speaks of the 
Yeda as derived from Prajapati {Prajdpaiyo vedah), 

&atapath4i Brdhmana, — According, to the following passage of the 
S'atapatha Brahmana, xiv. 5, 4, 10 (=Bi:ihad Aranyaka Upanisbad, 
p. 455 of Boer's ed. and p. 179 of trans.) the Yedaa, as well as other 
S^stras, are the breath of Brahma : 

Sa yaihd drdredhdgner ahhydhitdt prithag dhumdh viniieharanti evam 
vai are ^sya mahato hMtasya nikasitam etad yad fiyvedo yajurvedak 
sdmavedoHharvdngirasaJ^ itihdsah purdnam vidyd apanishadah ilokdi^ 
sUtrdny anuvydkhydndni vydkhydndni asyaiva etdni sarvdni ntira- 
titdni I 

'' As from a fire made of moist wood various modifications of smoke 
proceed, so is the breathing of this great Being the Big-veda, the 


Yajnr-veda, the Sama-veda, the Atharvangirases, the Itihasas, Puranas, 
science, the TJpanishads, verses (Jlokai), aphorisms, comments of dif- 
foent kinds — all these are his breathings." 

It is curious that in this passage the Yedas appear to be classed in 
the same category with various other works, such as the Sutras, from 
some at least of which (as we shall see further on), they are broadly 
distinguished by later writers, who regard the former (including the 
Brahmanas and Upanishads) as of superhuman origin, and infallible 
correctness, while this character is expressly denied to the latter, which 
are represented as paurusheya^ or merely human compositions, possessed 
of no independent authority. 

In the Bfihad Aranyaka Upanishad (pp. 50-53 of Dr. Boer's ed.) 
Frajapati [identified with Death, or the Devourer] is said to have pro- 
duced Vdch (speech), and through her, together with soul, to have 
created all things, including the Yedas : 

Sa tayd vdehd Una dtmand tdam sarvam asfijata yad idaih kincha 
fieho yajiimahi $dmdni chhanddthn yajndn prajahpaiun \ 

''By that speech and that soul he created all things whatsoever, 
rich, yajush, and saman texts, metres, sacrifices, creatures, and animals.*' 

And in SiEitapatha Brahmaga, xiv. 4, 3, 12 (p. 290 of the same Bfi- 
had Aranyaka Upanishad) it is said : 

Drayo veddh ete eca \ vdg eva rig-vedo mano yajur-vedah prdnah suma- 
vedah \ 

" The three Yedas are [identifiable with] these three things [speech, 
mind, and breath]. Speech is the Big-veda, mind the Yajur-veda, and 
breath the Sama-veda." 

The following text, from the S^atapatha Brahmana, vii. 5, 2, 52, gives 
a dngular account of the production of the Yedas : 

**Samudre tvd »adane sddaydmi^' iti \ Mano vat samudrah \ manaso vai 
iomudrdd vdchd ^hhryd deeds tray tin vidydfh nirakhanan \ tad esha iloko 
^hhyuktah **ye(jyat}) samudrdd nirakhanan devdi tikshndhhir ahhrihhih \ 
tudevo adya tad tidydd yatra nirvapanam dadhur " iti \ manah satnudro 
vdk ^hhnd *hhris trayl vidyd nirvapanam \ etad esha iloko ^hhyuktah \ 
wumasi tdik sddayati \ 

" * I settle thee in the ocean as thy seat.' ^' Mind is the ocean. 

* I am indebted to ProfbBor Aafrecht for the foUowing explanatioii of tliii formula, 
vhieh is taken from the Yajnaneji Sanhita, xiiL 68. The words are addressed to a 


Prom the mind-ocean with speech for a shovel the gods dug out tho 
triple Yedio science. Hence this verse has been uttered : ' May the 
brilliant deity to-day know where they placed that offering which 
the gods dug out with sharp shovels/ Mind is the ocean ; speech is the 
sharp shovel ; the triple Yedic science is the offering. In reference 
to this the verse has been uttered. He settles it in Mind." 

The next passage from the Taittiriya Brahmana, iii. 39, 1, speaks of 
the Yeda as being '' the hair of Prajapati's beard " {Prajdpater vai 
etdni ima^ni yad vedah). The process of its germination is left to the 
imagination of the reader. 

In another text of the same Brahmana, Yach (speech) is called the 
mother of the Yedas : 

ii. 8, 8, 5. Vd^ aksharam prathamajd fitasya veddndm mdtd amfitaaya 
ndhhih I 8d no jushdnd upa yqjnam dgdd avanii devl suhavd me astu \ 
ydm fishayo mantra-krito manUhtnah anvaichhan devds tapasd iramena \ 

''Yach (speech) is an imperiBhable thing, and the first-bom of the 
ceremonial, the mother of the Yedas, and the centre-point of immor- 
tality. Delighting in us, she came to the sacrifice. May the pro- 
tecting goddess be ready to listen to my invocation, — she whom the 
wise rishis, the composers of hymns, the gods, sought by austere- 
fervour, and by laborious devotion." 

SiscT. II. — Origin of the Vedae according to the Vishnu^ Bhdgavata, and 
Mdrkandeya Purdnas, the ITarivamia, the Mahdhhdrata ; eternity of 
the Veda ; miecettawous statements regarding it. 

. In the Yishnu and Bhagavata Puranas we find a quite different 
tradition regarding the origin of the Yedas, which in these works are 
said to have been created by the four-faced Brahma from his several 
mouths. Thus the Yishnu Purana says, i. 5, 48 ff. : 

Gdyatram cha fiehai chaiva trivfit-sdma-rathantaram \ Agnishtomaih 
cha yajndndm nirmame jprathamdd mukhdt \ yajUmshi traishtuhharh 
chhanda^ stomafh panchadaiam tathd \ Vrihat sdma tathokthyaih cha 
dakshindd asfijad mukhdt \ sdmdni jagatl-ckhandah stomam saptadaiam 

brick at the time when the hearth {chitya) for the reception of the sacred fires is being 
constmcted. As the bricks are severally called apaaya (properly ' efficacious,* but 
enroneonsly dcriyed from ap) they are addressed as if placed in various parts of water 


iatkd I vairHpam at%rdtra§i eha paSehimdd asrijad mukhdt \ ehmmiam 
atharvdnam dpUrydmdnam eva eha \ Antuhtubham sa vairdjftm tUtardd 
aar^ad m\M&t \ 

** Fiom his eastern mouth Brahma formed the gajatra, the rich verses, 
the trivrit, the sama-rathantara, and of sacrifices, the agniahtoma. 
From his southern mouth he created the yajush verses, the trishfuhh 
metre, the panchada^a-stoma, the vphat-saman, and the ukthya. From 
his western mouth he formed the saman verses, the jagati metre, the 
saptadaia-stoma, the vairupa, and the atiratra. From his northern 
month he framed the ekavinia, the atharvan, the aptoryaman, with the 
annshtnbh and viraj metres." " 

In like manner it is said but with variations, in the Bhagavata Purana, 
iiL 12, 34, and 37 ff. : 

Kaddehid ^dyatah irashtur veddh dsaihi chaturmukhdt \ katharh 
vakihydmy ahaih lokdn samavetdn yathd purd | • • • . ^ig-yajuh-sdmd" 
tharvdkhydn veddn pnrvddihhir tnukhaih \ iastram ijydm ituti-aiomam 
prdyaiehiitam vyadhdt hramdt \ 

« Once the Yedas sprang from the four-faced creator, as he was me« 
ditating 'how shall I create the aggregate worlds as before?' .... 
He formed from his eastern and other mouths the Yedas called rich, 
yajush, saman, and atharvan, together with praise, sacrifice, hymns, 
and expiation." 

And in verse 45 it is stated that the ushnih metre issued from his 
hairs, the gayatri from his skin, the trishfubh from his flesh, the 
anushtubh from his tendons, the jagati from his bones {Tasyoshnig dill 
lomebhyo gdydtrl cha tvaeho vihhoh \ trishfup md^dt mtUo ^nuahfup 
fagaty asthnah Prajdpateh), 

The Markan^eya Purana says on the same subject, 102, 1 : 

Tasmdd anddd vthhinndt tuBrahmano 'vyakta^'anmanah \ fieho habhn^ 
vah prathamam prathamdd vadandd mune | 2. Javd-pushpa-nihhdh sadyoi 
UfthrUpdnta-aa^ihatd^ \ prithak prithag mbhinndi eha rajo-rHpa-vahdM 
UUi^ I 3. Tqfu^M dakshindd vaktrdd aniruddhdni kdnehanam \ yddfig^ 
varnam taihd-^arndny aaathhati^hardni cha \ 4. Faichimam yad vibhar 
taktram Braihmanah parameshfhina^ \ dvirhhutdni sdmdni iatai ehhan^ 
damn idny aiha | 5. Atharvanqm akahaih cha hhringdnjana-chaya-prab* 
tarn I ghordghora-^varupa^ tad dhhichdrika-idntikam | 6. UUardtpra* 

u Bee WOflon's TransL toL l p. 84. 


katthhatam vadandt tasyavedhasah \ sukha-sattva'taTna^'prdyani saumyd" 
saumya-svarUpavat \ 7. ficho rajo-gunah sattvam yajushdih eha guno 
mune \ tamo-gunani sdmdni tamah-sattvam atharvasu \ 

1. ''From the eastern mouth of Brahma, who sprang by an imper- 
ceptible birth from that divided egg (Mann, i. 9, 12), there suddenly 
issued first of all the rich verses, (2) resembling China roses, brilliant 
in appearance, internally united, though separated from each other, 
and characterized by the quality of passion (rajas). 3. From his 
southern mouth came, unrestrained, the yajush verses of the colour 
of gold, and disunited. 4. From the western mouth of the supreme 
Brahma appeared the saman verses and the metres. 5 and 6. From 
the northern mouth of Ycdhas (Brahma) was manifested the entire 
Atharvana of the colour of black bees and collyrium, having a cha- 
racter at once ten:ible and not terrible,^' capable of neutralizing the 
arts of enchanters, pleasant, characterized by the qualities both of 
purity and darkness, and both beautiful and the contrary. 7. The 
verses of the ^ ich are distinguished by the quality of passion (rajas), 
those of the yajush by purity {sattva), those of the saman by darkness 
{tamas), and those of the atharvan by both darkness and purity." 

HarivaMa. — In the first section of the Harivamia, verse 47, the 
creation of the Yedas by Brahma is thus briefly alluded to : 

^icho yajumshi sdmdni nirmame yajna-siddhaye \ sddhyds tair ayajan 
devun ity evam anuSidruma \ 

** In order to the accomplishment of sacrifice, he formed the rich, 
yajush, and saman verses: with these the Badhyas worshipped the 
gods, as we have heard." 

The following is the account of the same event given in another part 
of the same work ; Harivamia, verse 11,516: 

Tato ^Sfijad vat tripaddm gdyatrlm veda-rndtaram \ Akaroch chaiva cha- 
turo veddn gdyatri-sambhavdn \ 

After framing the world, Brahma '' next created the gayatrl of three 
lines, mother of the Yedas, and also the four Yedas which sprang from 
the gayatri." " 

" Qhoraghoru is the correct MS. reading, as I learn from Br. Hall, and not 
^avaddhora, as given in Professor Banerjea's printed text 

^ The same words gayatrlik veda^mataram also occur in the M.Bh. Yanaparran, 
verse 13,432 ; and the same title is applied to Yach in the Taitt Br. as quoted above, 
p 10. 


A little further on we find this expanded into the following piece of 
mjsticismy verse 1 1,665 ff. : 

Samdhita-mand Brahmd moksha-^dpt&na hetund \ ohandra-mandala' 
tamsthdndj jyotiS'Ujo mahat tadd \ Praviiya hridayarh kshipram ydyatrydh 
nayandntare \ Oarhhasya samhhavo yai cha chaturdkd purushdtmaka^ \ 
Brahma-tejomayo ^vyaktah idivato Hha dhruvo *vyayah \ na chendriya- 
gunair yukto yuktoi tejo-gunena cha \ chandrdmSu-vtmala-prakhyo hhrd- 
jishnur varna-iamsthitah \ Netrdhhydm janayad deva^ fig-vedaih yajushd 
saha I idma/cedam cha jihvdgrdd atharvdnam cha tnUrddhatah {Juta-rndtrdB 
iu U ceddh kshetram vindanti tattvatah \ Tena vedatvam dpannd yasmdd 
vindanti tat padam \ Te srijanti tadd veddh hrahma purvaih sandtanam \ 
Purusham divya^Updbham waih wair hhdvair mano-hhavaih ] 

^'For the emancipation of the world, Brahma, sunk in contem- 
plation, issuing in a luminous form from the region of the moon, 
penetrated into the heart of Gayatrl, entering between her eyes. 
From her there was then produced a quadruple being in the form 
of a Male, lustrous as Brahma, undefined, eternal, undecaying, de- 
void of bodily senses or qualities, distinguished by the attribute of 
brilliancy, pure as the rays of the moon, radiant, and embodied in 
letters. The god fEishioned the Big-veda, with the Yajuah from, his 
^yes, the Sama-veda from the tip of his tongue, and the Atharvan 
from his head. These Yedas, as soon as they are bom, find a body 
{kshetra). Hence they obtain their character of Yedas, because they 
find {rindanti) that abode. These Yedas then create the pre-existent 
eternal brahma (sacred science), a Mole of celestial form, with their 
own mind-bom qualities." 

I extract another passage on the same subject from a later section of 
the same work, verses 12,425 ff. When the Supreme Being was intent 
on creating the universe, Hira^yagarbha, or Prajapati, issued from his 
mouth, and was desired to divide himself, — a process which he was in 
great doubt how he should effect. The text then proceeds : 

Iti chintayatas tasya ^'am'^ ity evotthitah svarah \ sa hhumdv antarikshe 
cha ndke cha kritavdn svanam \ Tarn chaivdhhyasatas tasya manah'Sdra* 
mayam punah | hridaydd deva-devasya vashafkdrah samutthitah | hhumy 
antariksha ' ndkdndm hhuyah svardtmakdh pardh | mahdsmrttimaydh 
pvny&h mahdvydhritayo 'bhavan | ehhandasdm pravard devl chaturvmsd- 
kshard 'hhavat \ Tat-padam sarhsmaran divyam sdvttrlm akarot prahhuh 


fik-sdmatharva-yajusha^ ehaturo hhaga/cdn prabhu^ | ehakdra niXhildn 
veddn hrahma-yuktena karmand \ 

** Wliile he was thus reflectmg, the sound " om ^ issued from him, 
and resounded through the earth, air, and sky. While the god of 
gods was again and again repeating this, the essence of mind, the 
yashatkara proceeded £rom his heart. Next, the sacred and transcen- 
dent yyahj-itis, (bhu^, bhuva^, svar), formed of the great smpiti, in the 
form of sound, were produced £rom earth, air, and sky. Then appeared 
the goddess, the most excellent of metres, with twenty-four syllables 
[the gayatrl]. Beflecting on the divine text [beginning with] '' tat," 
the Lord formed the savitri. He then produced all the Yedas, the l^ich, 
8aman, Atharvan, and Yajush, with their prayers and rites." (See also 
the passage from the Bhag. Pur. xii. 6, 37 ff., which will be quoted in 
a following section.) 

Mahdhhdrata. — The Mahabharata in one passage speaks of Sarasvatl 
and the Yedas as being both created by Achyuta (Vishnu) from his 
mind (Bhiahma-parvan, verse 3019 : Sarasvatlm cha vedafni cha manasah 
aasf^e ^chyutah). In another place, S^anti-parvan, verse 12,920, Saras- 
vatl is said, in conformity with the texts quoted above, pp. 10 and 12, 
from the Taittiriya Brahmana, the Yana-parvaUi and the Harivaffi^a, 
to be the mother of the Yedas : 

Veddndm mdtaraih ptUya mat^thdm devlm Sarasvatlm \ 
« Behold Sarasvatl, mother of the Yedas, abiding in me." 
Manu. — According to the verses in Manu, xii. 49, 50, quoted in the 
Pirst Yolume of this work, p. 41, the Yedas, with the other beings and 
objects named along with them, constitute the second manifestation of 
the sattva guna, or pure principle; while Brahma is placed in a higher 
rank, as one of the first manifestations of the same principle. The word 
Yeda in this passage is explained by XuUuka of those '' embodied 
deities, celebrated in the Itihasas, who preside over the Yedas " ( Vedd- 
hhtmdninyai cha devatdh vigraha/vatyah itihdaa-praHdddh). 

SscT. m.— P(M«a^M of the Brdhmaruu and other works in which the 
Vedae are spoken of as being the sources of all things, and as infinite 
and eternal. 

The first text of this sort which I shall cite is firom the ffatapatha 
BrahmaQfi, x. 4, 2, 21 : 


Atha iorvdni hhutdni paryaikshat \ sa trayyam eva vidydydm sarvdni 
hhutdny apaiyat \ aUra hi sarveshdTh ehhandasdm dtmd sarveshdm stamd^ 
nam iorveshdm prdndndm sarveshdm devdndm \ etad vai asti \ etad hy 
amjitam \ yad hy amritam tad hy asti \ etad u tad yad martyam \ 22. Sa 
aikshata Prajdpdtih ** tray y dm vdva vidydydm sarvdni hhutdni \ hanta 
trayim eva vidydm dtmdnam abhisarhikaravai " iti \ 23. Sa ficho vyau- 
hat I dvddaSa hfihati-Bahasrdny etdvatyo ha richo yd^ Prajdpati-srishtds 
tdi trimiattame vyiihe panktishv atishthanta | tdh yat irimiattame vyuhe 
ftishf hanta tasmdt trimSad mdaasya rdtrayah \ atha yat panktishu tasmdt 
pdnktah Prajdpatih \ tdh ashtdiatam iatdni panktayo *hhavan \ 

21. '' Then he looked around upon all beings. He beheld all beings 
in this triple Yedic science. For in it is the soul of all metres, of all 
hymns of praise, of all breaths, of all the gods. This, indeed, exists.*' 
It is an undying thing. For that which is nndying (really) exists. 
This is that which is mortal.^ Prajapati reflected, 'Ail beings are com- 
prehended in the triple Yedic science : come let me dispose myself in the 
shape of the triple Yedic science.** He arranged the verses of the Big- 
yeda. Twelve thousand Bf ihatis, and as many Bich-verses which were 
created by Prajapati, stood in rows in the thirtieth class. Since they 
stood in the thirtieth class there are thirty nights in the month. Since 
they stood in rows {pankti) Prajapati is called Pankta. They formed 
eighteen hundreds Of rows." 

The next text, irom the Taittiriya Brahmana, iii. 12, 9, 1, speaks of 
the three Yedas as being respectively the sources of form, motion, and 
heat, or brilliancy : 

fiyhhyojdtdm sarvaio mUrttim dhuh sarvd gatir ydjushl haiva iakat \ 
sarvam tefah sdma-rupyam ha ia&vat \ 

** They say that form universally proceeds from fich verses; that 
motion is always connected with the yajush, and that all heat has the 
nature of the saman." 

We have already seen, p. 6, that Manu (i. 21) speaks of the names, 

M ^ AX-wv^ exists" [iarvada vidyate), — Comin. 

u On this the commentator remarks : Yaeh eha martyam marana-dharma^am ma- 
nmhyadi tad apy $tat irayl-bhutam eva \ ato marttyamfitatmakafh »arvam jagad 
attrantarbhutam | ** And that which is mortal, subject to death, the human race, etc., 
is also one with the triple Yedic science. Hence the latter includes all the world both 
mortal and immortaL" 

M I owe this interpretation of this clause to Prof. Aufrecht. 


fiinctionB, and conditions of all things as fashioned from the words of 
the Yeda. It is similarly said in the Vishnu Parana, i. 5, 58 : 

Nama rUpafn cha hhutdndm kritydndm eha pravarttanaih \ Veda-icilh' 
dehhya evddau devddlndm chakdra Bah \ fishind^ ndmadheydni yathd 
veda-srutdni vai \ yathd-niyoga-yogydni sarveshdm apt so ^karot \ 

« In the beginning he created from the words of the Yeda the names, 
forms, and functions of the gods and other beings. He also assigned 
the names of all the rishis as indicated in the Yedas, and as appro- 
priate to their respective offices." 

The same idea is repeated in the Mahabharata, S'antiparvan, 8533 : 
RUhayaa tapasd veddn adhyaishanta divdnUam \ An-ddi-nidhand 
vidyd vdg utsrishfd Svayambhuvd \ ddau vedamayl divyd yatah sarvdh 
pravfittayah \ fishindm ndmadheydni ydi cha vedeshu arishfayah | ndnd^ 
rupam cha hhutdndm karmandih cha pravarttayan {pravarttanam?) \ 
veda-iahdehhya evddau nirmimite sa Iharah \ 

*' Through austere-fervour {tapas) the rishis studied the Yedas, both 
day and night. In the beginning knowledge (vidydy without begin- 
ning or end, divine speech, formed of the Yedas, was sent forth by 
Svayambhu (= Brahma, the self-existent) : from her all activities are 
derived. It is from the words of the Yeda that the lord in the begin- 
ning frames the names of the rishis, the creations which (exist) in the 
Yedas, the various forms of beings, and the activity manifested in works." 
The Mangalacharana, or prayer prefixed to their commentaries on 
the Eik Sanhita and Taittirlya Sanhita, by both Sayana and Madhava, 
is as follows : 

Yasya niisvasitaih veddh yo vedehhyo ^khilamjagat \ nirmame tarn ahaih 
vande vidyd-tirtham tnaheSvaram \ 

*^ 1 reverence Mahe^vara the hallowed abode of sacred knowledge, of 
whom the Yedas are the breathings, and who from the Yedas formed 
the whole universe." 

The following passage from the Taittiilya Brahmana, iii. 10, 11, 3, 
asserts that the Yedas are infinite in extent : 
Bharadvdjo ha trihhir dyurhhir hrahmacharyyam uvdaa \ tarn hajirnim 

^^ In quoting this line in a passage of hia Yedartha-praltasa, or commentary on the 
Taittiiiya Sanhita, which I shall adduce further on, Madhava Acharyya gives the 
reading nitj/Uf * eternal/ instead of vid^a, 'knowledge.' It is possible that the line 
may be taken from some other book. 


sAamraih iaydnam Indrah upavrajya uvdcha \ ^' Bharadvdja yat U oho- 
turtham dyur dadydih Um etena kuryydh^^ iti \ ** hrahmacharyyam eva 
enena char ey am " iti ha uvdcha \ 4. Tarn ha trln yiri-rUpdn avijndtdn iva 
dariaydnehakdra | teshdm ha ekaikasmdd mttihfim ddade | sa ha uvdcha 
*'£haradvdja** ity dmantrya \ ^*veddh vai ete \ anantdh vai veddh \ etad 
vai etais trihhir dyurbhir anvavochathdh \ atha U itarad ananuktam eva \ 
eh$ imam viddhi \ ay am vai sarva-vidyd " iti \ 5. Tasrnai ha etam agnim 
sdvitram uvdcha \ tarn sa viditvd amrito hhutvd svargam lokam iydya 
ddityasya adyujyam \ amrito ha eva hhutvd svargam lokam ety ddityasya 
sdyujya0i yah evam veda \ eshd u eva trayl vidyd \ 6. Ydvantafh ha vai 
trayyd vidyayd lokam jay ati tdvantam lokam jay ati yah evam veda \ 

"Bharadyaja lived through three lives ^^ in the state of a religious 
student {hrahmacharyya). Indra approached him when he was lying 
old and decrepit, and said to him : ' Bharadvaja, if I give thee a fourth 
life, how wilt thou employ it ? ' 'I will lead the life of a religious 
fltudenti' he replied. 4. He (Indra) showed him three mountain-like 
objects, as it were unknown. From each of them he took a handM : 
and, calling to him, ' Bharadvaja,' said, ' These are the Yedas. The 
Yedas are infinite. This is what thou hast studied during these three 
Htcs. Now there is another thing which thou hast not studied, come 
and learn it. This is the universal science.' 5. He declared to him 
this Agni Savitnu Having known it he (Bharadvaja) hecame immortal, 
and ascended to the heavenly world, to union with the sun. He who 
knows this ascends to heaven, to union with the sun. This is the 
triple Yedic science. He who knows this conquers a world as great as 
he would gain by the triple Yedic science." 

Another text from the Taittiriya Sanhita, vii. 3, 1, 4, puts the 
matter somewhat differently : 

Aiha hra^md {brahma-vddino ?) vadanti parimitdh vai fichah parimi- 
idni sdmdni paHmitdni yajuvkshi atha tasya eva anto ndsti yad hrahma \ 

''The expounders of sacred science say, 'Bich verses are limited, 
saman verses are limited, yajush verses are limited ; but there is no 
end of sacred knowledge." 

Vishnu Purdna, — ^At the end of Section 6 of the third book of the 

V This does not appear to mean, three lives in three different births, but a life of 
diriee the usual length, or already twice renewed. 



Yiahnu FuraQa we have the following assertion of the eternity of the 

Iti idkhdh prMankhydtah idkhd-bhedds tathaiva cha \ karttdrai chaiva 
Sdkhdndm bheda-hetus tathoditah I iarva-manvantaretho eva idkhd-hheddh 
samdh smritd^ \ Prdjdpatyd SrtUir nityd tad-vikalpds tv ime dvija \ 

"Thus the S^dkhas, their divisions, their authors, and the cause of 
the division have hcen declared. In all the manvantaras the divisions 
of the S'akhas are recorded to be the same. The imii (Yeda) derived 
from Prajapati (Brahma) is eternal : these, o Brahman, are only its mo* 

In another passage of the same hook, Yishnu is identified with the 
Yedas : Yishnu Purana, iii. 3, 19 if. : 

Sa rin-mayah sa sdmamayah sa ehdtmd sa yajurmayah \ fig-yt^u^" 
Bdma-sdrdtrnd sa evdtmd ^arlrindm \ sa hhidyate vedamayah sa vedam 
karoti Ihedair hahubhih sa&dkham \ idkhd-pranetd sa samasUhidkhah 
fndna-svarilpo hhagavdn anantahk \ 

'< He is composed of the Eich, of the Saman, of the Yajush ; he is the 
soul. Consisting of the essence of the Eich, Yajush, and Saman, he is 
the soul of embodied spirits. Formed of the Yeda, he is divided ; he 
forms the Yeda and its branches (idkhds) into many divisions. Framer 
of the S&khas, he is also their entirety, the infinite lord, whose essence 
is knowledge." 

Sect. IY. — Passages from the 8>atapatha Brdhmana and Manu^ eulogiiiic 
of the Veda, with some statements of a different tenor from Manu and 
other writers. 

The following panegyric on Yedic study is taken from the Si atapatha 
Brahmana, zi. 5, 6, 1 : 

Fancha eva mahdyajndh \ tdny eva mahdsattrdni hhuta-yajno manu- 
shya^ajnah pitfi-yajno deva-yajno hrahma-yajnahk iti \ 2. Ahar ahar 
hhutehhyo halim haret \ tathd etam hhuta-yajnam samdpnoti \ ahar ahar 
dadydd d uda-pdtrdt tathd etam manushya^yajnatn samdpnoti \ ahar ahah 
svadhdkurydd d uda^dtrdt tathd etafh pitfi-yajnam samdpnoti \ ahar ahah 
svdhdkurydd d hdshthdt tathd etam deva-yajnam samdpnoti \ 3. Atha 
Irakmthyajnai \ svddhydyo vai hrahma-yajna^ \ tasya vai etasya brahma- 


fqfiuujfa vdg eva juhUr manah updbhrtch ehdkshur dhruvd mdhd sruvah 
udyam avdbhfithah svargo lokah udayanam \ ydvantam ha vai imdm pri' 
ikiviffi vittena pHrndm dadam lokaih jayati iris tdvanta0i jayati hhnydm- 
mm eha ah%hayya7n yah evam vidvdn ahar ahah wddhydyam adhlte | 
iasmdt svddhydyo ^dhetavyah \ 4. Faythdhutayo ha vai etdh devdnd^i yad 
fiehah \ %a yah wafk vidvdn ficho ^har ahah wddhydyam adhlte paya- 
dhutibhir &va tad devdms tarpayati \ te enam triptds tarpayanti yoga- 
kshemena prdnena retasd sarvdtmand Barvdhhihk punydhhih sampadhhif^ \ 
ghfita-hvUydh madhu-kulydh pitfin svadhd dbhivahanii \ 5. Ajydhutayo 
ha vai etdh devdndm yad yajumshi \ sa ya^ evam vidvdn yajumshy ahar 
ahah wddhydyam adhlte djydhutihhir wa tad dwdms tarpayati te enam 
tfiptde tarpayanti yoga-kshemena ityddi \ 6. Somdhutayo ha vai etdh 
devdndm yat sdmdni \ ea yah wain vidvdn edmdny ahar aha^ wddhydyam 
adhnte eomdhutibhir wa tad dwdrJis tarpayati ityddi \ 7. Meda-dhtUayo 
ha vai eidl^ dwdndm yad atharvdngirasah \ »a yalf. wain vidvdn atharvdn- 
giraso ^har ahah wddhydyam adhlte medo'dhutibhir wa tad dwdm tar- 
payati ityddi \ 8. Madhv-dhutayo ha vai etdh dwdndm yad anuidsandni 
vidyd vdkovdkyam itihdea-purdnaih gdthdh ndrdiarheyah \ sa yah waih vid- 
vdn ityddi \ 9. Tasya vai etasya hrahma-yajnasya ehatvdro vaihathdrdh 
yad vdto vdti yad vidyotate yat stanayati yad avasphnrjati \ taemdd warn 
vidvdn vdte vdti vidyotamdne stanayaty avasphurjaty adhlylta wa vaehaf' 
Idrdndm achhamhatkdrdya \ ati ha vaipunar mfitytun muchyate gacKhati 
BrahmanaJ^ edtmatdm | $a ohed apiprdbalam iva na Saknuydd apy ekarh 
deva-padam adhlylta wa tathd hhatehhyo na hiyate \ xi. 5, 7, 1 : Atha 
aiah wddhydya-praSa^d \ priye wddhydya-pravachane bhavatah | yukta^ 
mandh bhavaty aparddhlno^har ahar arthdn eddhayate iukham wapiti 
parama-eMkitsakal^ dtmano bhavati \ indriya-samyamaS eha eJcdrdmatd 
cha prt^d-vfiddhir yaio loka-paktih \ prajnd varddhamdnd chaturo dhar- 
mdn brdhmanam abhinishpddayati brdhmanyam pratirHpO'charygdih yaio 
It^ta-paktim \ lokah paehyamdnaS chaturbhir dharmair brdhmanam bhun^ 
ahiy archayd eha ddnena eha qfyeyatayd eha abadhyatayd eha \ 2. Ye ha vai 
he eha Sramdh ime dydvd-pjrithivl antarena wddhydyo ha wa teshdrnpara- 
9uM kdshthd ya^ warn vidvdn wddhydyam adhlte \ tasmdt wddhydyo 
*dheiavya^ \ 3. Tad yad ha vai ayam ehhandaeah wddhydyam adhlte tena 
Una ha wa asya yajna-kratund ishfam bhavati yah warn vidvdn svddhyd- 
yam adhlte \ tasmdt wddhydyo 'dhetavyafk \ 4. Yadi ha vai apy abhyak- 
ta^ edankfiiah euhital^ eukhe iayane iaydna^ evddhydyam adhlte d ha 


eva sa nakhdgrebhyaB iapyaU yah evaih vidvdn BVddhydyam adhUe \ tas* 
mat wddhydyo 'dhetavyah \ 5. Ifadhu ha vat ficho ghritam ha admdny 
amj^tam yajumshi \ yad ha vai ayam vdkovdkyam adhJte hshlraudana- 
mdmsaudanau ha eva tau | 6. Madhund ha vai esha devdm tarpayati yah 
evaJh vidvdn jrieho *har ahah svddhydyam adhUe \ te enam triptds tarpa- 
yanti sarvaih kdmaih sarvair hhogaih \ 7. Ohritena ha vai esha devdms 
tarpayati yah evaih vidvdn edmdny ahar ahah svddhydyam adhlte \ te 
enaffi triptdh ityddi \ 8. Amfitena ha vai esJia devdms tarpayati yah 
evam vidvdn yajumshy ahar ahah svddhydyam adhlte \ te enam triptdh 
ityddi \ 9. Kshiraudana-indiksaudandhhydm ha vai esha devdms tarpa- 
yati yah evaih vidvdn vdkovdkyam itihdsa-purdnam ity ahar ahah svd' 
dhydyam adhlte \ te enafh triptdh ityddi \ 10. Yanti vai dpah \ ety 
ddityah \ eti chandramdh \ yanti nakshattrdni \ yathd ha vai na iyur na 
kuryur evaih ha eva tad ahar hrdhmano hhavati yad ahah svddhydyam na 
adhlte I tasmdt svddhydyo ^dhetavyah j tasmdd apy richarh vd yajur vd 
tdma vd ydthdm vd kumvydUfi vd dbhivydhared vratasya avyavachheddya \ 
*^ There are only five great sacrifices, which are the great ceremonies, 
Tiz., the offering to living creatures/^ the offering to men, the offering 
to the fathers, the offering to the gods, and the Yeda-offering {brahma- 
yajna). 2. Let an oblation be daily presented to living creatures. Thus 
the offering to them is fulfilled. Let (hospitality) be daily bestowed even 
down to the bowl of water. Thus is the offering to men fulfilled. Let 
the oblation to the fathers be daily presented,^ down to the bowl of water 
with the svadha formula. Thus is the offering to the fathers fulfilled. 
Let the oblation to the gods be daily presented as far as the £Eiggot of 
wood. Thus is the offering to the gods fulfilled. 3. Next is the Yeda- 
offering. This means private study'^ (of the sacred books). In this 
Yeda-sacrifice speech is, the juhu, the soul the upabhfit, the eye the 
dhruva, intelligence the sruva,^' truth the ablution, and paradise 

^' This sacrifice, as I learn from Prof. Aufrecbt, coxunsts in scattering grain for the 
benefit of birds, etc. See Bohtlingk and Roth's Lexicon, $.v. bali. In regard to the 
other sacrifices see Colebrooke's Misc. Essays, i. pp. 150, 153, 182 ff., 203 ff. 

^ In explanation of this Professor Aufrecht refers to EatySyana's S'rauta SQtras, 
iy. 1, 10, and Mann, iii. 210, 214, 218. 

*i SvadhyayaJk wa^iakhadhyanam \ ** Beading of the Yeda in one's own s&khfi.*'— 

'> These words denote sacrificial spoons or ladles of different kinds of wood. See 
the drawings of them in Prof. Miiller's article on the funeral rites of the BrShmans, 
Jonm. of the Germ. Or. Soc. toI. ix. pp. Ixxviii. and Ixxx. 


the condasion. He who, knowing this, daily studies the Yeda, 
conquers an undecaying world more than thrice as great as that 
which he acquires who hestows this whole earth filled with riches. 
Wherefore the Yeda should be studied. 4. Verses of the Eig-yeda 
are milk-oblations to the gods. He who, knowing this, daily reads 
these verses, satisfies the gods with milk-oblations; and they being 
satisfied, satisfy him with property, with breath, with generative 
power, with complete bodily soundness, with all excellent blessings. 
Streams of butter, streams of honey flow as svadha-oblations to the 
Others. 5. Yajush-verses are ofierings of butter to the gods. He who, 
knowing this, daily reads these verses, satisfies the gods with ofiferings 
of butter; and they, being satisfied, satisfy him, etc. (as in the 
precediug paragraph). 6. Saman-verses are soma-libations to the gods. 
He who, knowing this, daily reads these verses, satisfies the gods with 
soma-libations ; and they being satisfied, satisfy him, etc. (as above). 

7. Verses of Atharvan and Angiras {atJuirvdngtrasah^) are oblations 
of &t to the gods. He who, knowing this, daily reads these verses, 
satisfies Otb gods with oblations of fat; and they etc. (as above). 

8. Prescriptive and scientific treatises, dialogues, traditions, tales, 
Terses, and eulogistic texts are oblations of honey to the gods. He 
who, knowing this, daily reads these, satisfies the gods with oblations 
of honey ; and they etc. (as above). 9. Of this Veda-sacrifice there 
are four Vadhafkaras, when the wind blows, when it lightens, when it 
thunders, when it crashes ; wherefore when it blows, lightens, thunders, 
or crashes, let the man, who knows this, read, in order that these Va- 
shatkaras may not be interrupted.** He who does so is freed from 
dying a second time, and attains to an union with Brahma. Even if 
he cannot read vigorously, let him read one text relating to the gods. 
Thus he is not deprived of his living creatures." 

zi. 5, 7, 1 : '' Now comes an encomium upon Vedic study. Study 
and teaching are loved. He (who practises them) becomes composed 
in mind. Independent of others, he daily attains his objects, sleeps 
pleasantly, becomes his own best physician. Control of his senses, con* 
centration of mind, increase of intelligence, renown, capacity to educate 
mankind [are the results of study]. Increasing intelligence secures for 

^ Tbe Atharva Sanhita Ib bo called. 

^ See Bothlingk and Eoth's Lexicon, a.v. ehhambaf» 


the Brahman the four attributes of saintlinesB, suitable conducti renown, 
and capacity for educating mankind. When so educated, men guarantee to 
the Brahman the enjoyment of the four prerogatives which are his due, 
reverence, the receipt of gifts, freedom from oppression, and from death 
by yiolence. 2. Of all the modes of exertion, which are known between 
heaven and earth, study of the Yeda occupies the highest rank, (in the 
case of him) who, knowing this, studies it. Wherefore this study is to 
be practised. 3. On every occasion when a man studies the Yedic 
h3nnn8 he (in fact) performs a complete ceremonial of sacrifice, i.e. 
whosoever, knowing this, so studies. Wherefore this study, etc., etc. 
4. And even when a man, perfumed with unguents, adorned with 
jewels, satiated with food, and reposing on a comfortable couch, studies 
the Yeda he (has all the merit of one who) performs penance (felt) to 
the very tips of his nails :^ (such is the case with him) who, knowing 
thisy studies. Wherefore etc. 5. Big-veda-verses are honey, Sama- 
verses butter, yigus-verses nectar {amjrita). When a man reads dia- 
logues (vdkavdkya) [and legends], these two sorts of composition are 
respectively oblations of cooked milk and cooked flesh, h. He who, 
knowing this, daily reads Eig-veda-verses, satisfies the gods with 
honey ; and they, when satisfied, satisfy him with aU objects of desire> 
and with all enjoyments. 7. He who, knowing this, daily reads Samar 
verses, satisfies the gods with butter ; and they, when satisfied, etc. (as 
before). 8. He who, knowing this, daily reads Yajus-verses, satisfies 
the gods with nectar ; and they, etc. (as before). 9. He who, knowing 
this, daily studies dialogues and the different classes of ancient stories, 
satisfies the gods with milk- and flcsh-oblations ; and they, etc. (as 
before). 10. The waters move. The sun moves. The moon moves. 
The constellations move. The Brahman who on any day does not study 
the Yeda, is on that day like what these moving bodies would be if the 
ceased to move or act. Wherefore such study is to be practised. Let 

3' This sentence is differently rendered by Professor Weber, Ind. Stud. x. p. 112, 
as follows: "He bums (with sacred fire) to the Tery tips of his nails." In 
a later page of the same Essay we are told that accordint? to the doctrine of a 
teacher called Naka Maudgalya as stated in the Taittirlya Aranyaka, the study and 
teaching of the Veda are the real tapas {ivadhyaya-pravachane era tad hi tapah). In 
the text of the Aranyaka itself, Tii. 8, it is declared that study and teaching should 
always accompany such spiritual or ritual acts as fitam, §atyam, tapagj dama, ioma, 
the agnihotra sacrifice, etc. See Indische Stndien, ii. 214, and 1. 113. 


a man therefore present as his offering a verse of the Eig-yeda, or the 
Saman, or the Yajush^ or a Gatha, or a Kumyya, in order that the 
course of his observances may not be interrupted." 

Manu emplo3rs the following honorific expressions in reference to the 
Vedas (xiL 94 ff.) : 

JPitfi'devihmanushf/dnd^i vedaS chakshuh iandtanam \ aiakyafh chaprO" 
meyaff^ cka v^da-Sastram iti sthitih \ Yd veda-vdhyah smritayo ydS eha 
hdieha kudfishfayah | ^ sarvds id nishphaldh pretya tamo-nishthdh hi 
tdh smritah \ UtpadyawU chyavante cha ydny ato 'nydni kdnichit \ Tdny 
arvdk-kdlikatayd ^ nishphaldny anritdni eha \ Chdturvarnyam trayo lokdS 
ehatvdra^ ch^iramd^ pfithak \ JBhutam hhavad hhavishyam eha sarvam 
€eddt prastddhyati \ Sahdah aparSaS eha rupam eha raso yandhai eha 
panehamah \ veddd eva prasiddhyanti praiHti-yuna-karmatah \ Bihhartti^ 
sarva-hhatdni veda-idstram sandtanam \ Tatmdd etat param manye yaj 
jantwr asya sddhanam \ Satndpatyam eha rdjyawH eha danda-netritvam 
dva eha \ Borva-lokddhipatyaih eha veda-Sdstra-vid arhati \ Tathd jata- 
halo vahnir dahaty drdrdn api drttmdn \ tathd dahati veda-jnah karma-' 
fa^ daaham dtmanah \ veda-idstrdrtha-tattva-jno yatra tatrdirame vatan \ 
ihaiva loke tuhfhan sa hrahmahhuydya kalpate \ 

"The Veda is the eternal eye of the fathers, of gods, and of men; 
it is beyond human power and comprehension ; this is a certain con- 
clusion. Whatever traditions are apart from the Yeda, and all heretical 
yiewsi are fruitless in the next world, for they are declared to be 
founded on darkness* All other [books] external to the Yeda, which 
arise and pass away, are worthless and false from their recentness of 
date. The system of the four castes, the three worlds, the fbur states 
of life, all that has been, now is, or shall be, is made manifest by the 

* Drishfartha^akyani" ehaitycMfandanat tvargobhavati** ity adfmi yani eha aaaU 
UNrka-mulani devata'purvSdi-nirakaranatmakani vida^iruddhani eharvalca-dario' 
fiam I *' That is, dedactions &om experience of the Tisible world ; such doctrioes as 
that ' heaven is attained by obeisance to a chaitya,' and similar Charraka tenets 
founded on false reasonings, contradicting the existence of the gods^ and the efficacy 
of religious rites, and contrary to the Vedas." — EullQka. 

^ Jdanlntanatvat \ ** From their modemness." — EullOka. 

38 ^^ Mavir agnau huyate \ ao'ynir adityam upaaarpati \ tat turyo rasmibhir vaf' 
thati I tenannam bhavati \ atka iha bhutanam utpatti-athitii eheti havir jayaU " iti 
hrnhmanam \ " 'The oblation is cast into the fire ; fire reaches the sun ; the sun causes 
nin by bis rays ; thence food is produced ; thus the oblation becomes the cause of the 
generatum and maintenance of creatures on this earth ; ' so says a Brahmana."" 


Yeda. The objects of touch and taste, sound, form, and odour, as the 
fifth, are made known b j the Yeda, together with their products, qua- 
tilies, and the character of their action. The eternal Yeda supports all 
beings : hence I regard it as the principal instrument of well-being to 
this creature, man. Command of armies, royal authority, the adminis- 
tration of criminal justice, and the sovereignty of all worlds, he alone 
deserves who knows the Yeda. As fire, when it has acquired force, 
bums up even green trees, so he who knows the Yeda consumes the 
taint of his soul which has been contracted irom works. He who 
comprehends the essential meaning of the Yeda, in whatever order of 
life he may be, is prepared for absorption into Brahma, even while 
abiding in this lower world." 

The following are some further miscellaneous passages of the same 
tenor, scattered throughout the Institutes (Manu, ii. 10 ff.) : 

S'rutis tu redo vijneyo dharma-idatram tu vat smritih \ U sarvartheshv 
amlmdni8t/fi i&bhydm dharmo hi nirhahhau \ 11. 7b ^vamanyeta te tnHle 
hetu-SdstrdSraydd dvijah \ sa sddhuhhir vahMkdryyo ndstiko veda-ninda- 
hah i . . . . 13. DJukrmam jijndsamdfidndm pramdnam paramam irutih\ 

" By ^ruti is meant the Yeda, and by smriti the institutes of law : 
the contents of these are not to be questioned by reason, since from 
them [a knowledge of] duty has shone forth. The Brahman who, 
relying on rationalistic treatises,^ shall contemn these two primary 
sources of knoVledge, must be excommunicated by the virtuous as a 

sceptic and reviler of the Yedas 13. To those who are seeking a 

knowledge of duty, the ^ruti is the supreme authority." 

In the following passage, the necessity of a knowledge of Brahma is 
asserted, though the practice of ritual observances is also inculcated 
(vi. 82ff.): 

Dhydnikam sarvam evaitad yad eiad ahhUahditam \ na hy anadhydtma- 
vit kaschit kriyd-phalam vpdSntUe \ adhiyajnam hrahma japed ddhidai' 
vxkam eva cha | ddhyatmikam cha satatam veddntdhhihiiam cha yat \ Idam 
iaranam ajndndm idam eva vijdnatdm \ idam anvichchhatdm svaryam idam 
dnantyam ichchhatdm \ 

^ This, however, must be read in conjunction with the precept in zii. 106, which 
declares : ar»ham dharmopadeiam cha veda'iaatravirodhina | yas tarkenanusandhatU 
aa dharmam veda naparah | ** He, and he only is acquainted with duty, who investi- 
gates the injunctions of the rishis, and the precepts of the smiiti, by reasonings which 
do not contradict the Yeda." 


'' All this whicli has been now declared Is dependant on devout me- 
ditation : no one who is ignorant of the supreme Spirit can reap the 
fruit of ceremonial acts. Let a man repeat texts relating to sacrifice, 
texts relating to deities^ texts relating to the supreme Spirit, and what- 
ever is declared in the concluding portions of the Yeda (the Upanishads). 
This [Yeda] is the refuge of the ignorant, as well as of the under- 
standing ; it is the refuge of those who are seeking after paradise, as 
well as of those who are desiring infinity." 

The following text breathes a moral spirit, by representing purity of 
life as essential to the reception of benefit from religious observances 
(ii. 97) : 

Vedds tyugai eha yafnai eha nit/amdS eha tapdmsi cha \ na vipra- 
dushfa-hhavatya aiddhim gachhanti karchichit \ 

''The Yedas, almsgiving, sacrifices, observances, austerities, are in- 
effectual to a man of depraved disposition." 

The doctrine which may be drawn from the following lines does not 
seem so favourable to morality (xi. 261 ff.) : 

HiUvd lokan aplmufhs trln ainann apt yatastatah \ Rigvedam dharayan 
Ttpro nainah prapnoti kinchana \ Riksayhhitdm trir ahhyasya yajushdm 
€a samdhitah \ sdmndm vd sa-rahasydndTh sarva-pdpaih pramuchyaU \ 
yathd mahd-hradam prdpya hhiptam loshfam vinaiyati \ tathd dtUcha- 
ritam sarvam vede trivjriti majjati \ 

** A Brahman who should destroy these three worlds, and eat food 
received from any quarter whatever, would incur no guilt if he retained 
in his memory the Big-veda. Eepeating thrice with intent mind the 
Sanhita of the Bik, or the Yajush, or the Saman, with the Upanishads, 
he is freed from all his sins. Just as a clod thrown into a great lake is 
dissolved when it touches the water, so does all sin sink in the triple 

Considering the sacredness ascribed in the preceding passages to all 
the Yedas, the characteristics assigned to three of them in the passage 
quoted above (p. 12) from the Markanc^eya Purana, as well as the 
epithet applied to the Sama-veda in the second of the following verses 
are certainly remarkable ; (Manu, iv. 123 if.) : 

Sdma-^ilhvandv jrig-yajiuhl nddhiylta haddchana \ vedasyddhttya vd ^py 
siUam dranyakam adhltya eha \ J^igvedo deva-daivatyo yqfurvedas tu 
mdmtiha^ \ SdmavedaJ^ imfita^ pttryaa tasmdt taaydiuchir dhvanih | 


'' Let no one read the Kich or the Yajosh while the Saman is sounding 
in his ears, or after he has read the conclusion of the Yeda {i.e. the 
Upanishads) or an Aranyaka. The Eig-veda has the gods for its 
deities ; the Yajur-yeda has men for its objects ; the Sama-Teda has 
the pitf is for its divinities, wherefore its sound is impure." 

The scholiast Kulluka, however, will not allow that the sound of the 
Sama-veda can be really "impure." "It has,'' he says, "only a 
semblance of impurity " {tasmdt tasya aiuchir iva dhvanih \ na iv aSu- 
chir eva). In this remark he evinces the tendency, incident to so many 
systematic theologians, to ignore all those features of the sacred text on 
which they are commenting which are at variance with their theories 
regarding its absolute perfection. As it was the opinion of his age 
that the Yeda was eternal and divine, it was, he considered, impossible 
that impurity or any species of defect could be predicated of any of its 
parts; and every expression, even of the highest authorities, which 
contradicted this opinion, had to be explained away. I am not in a 
position to state how this notion of impurity came to be attached to the 
Sama-veda. The passage perhaps proceeded from the adherents of 
some particular Yedic school adverse to the Sama-veda ; but its sub- 
stance being found recorded in some earlier work, it was deemed of 
sufficient authority to find a place in the miscellaneous collection ot 
precepts, — gathered no doubt from different quarters, and perhaps not 
always strictly consistent with each other, — which make up the 

Vishnu Furana. — ^The following passage from the Yishnu Purana, at 
the close, ascribes the same character of impurity to the Sama-veda^ 
though on different grounds, Yish. Pur. ii 11, 5 ; 

Yd tu iaktih para Vtshnar rip'^aJuh'SdmO'Sanjmtd \ satshd trayl 
iapaty aihho jagata^ cha hinasti yat \ saiva Vishnuh sthitah sthxtydm 
jagaiah pdlanodyatah \ j^ig-yajuh-sdma-hhuto ^nta^ satitur dcija tUh- 
thati I mdsi mdsi ravir yo yaa tatra tatra hi sd pard \ traylmayl Vishnu- 
iaktir avasthdnam karoti vai | Richas tapanti pUrvdhne madhydhne Hha 
yajnmshy atha \ vrihadrathantarddini sdmdny ahiah kshaye ravau \ 
angam eshd trayl Vishnor fig-yajuh'Sdma-san/nitd \ Vishnu-iaktir avas- 
thdnam mdsdditye karoti sd \ na kevalaih ravau iaktir vaishnavl sd tra- 
ylmayl I Brahmd Hha Purusho Rudras tray am etat traylmayam \ sar* 
gdddv finmayo Brahmd sthitau Vishnur yajurmayah \ Rudra^ sdmamayo 
*nidya tastndt tasydiuohir dhcanih \ 


''The Bnpreme energy of Yishnu, called the Eich, Yajash, and 
Saman — ^this triad boms up sin and all things injurious to the world. 
Baring the continuance of the world, this triad exists as Vishnu, who is 
occupied in the preservation of the universe, and who in the form of the 
Kich, Yajush, and Saman, abides within the sun. That supreme energy 
of Vishnu, consisting of the triple Veda, dwells in the particular form 
of the sun, which presides over each month. The Rich verses shine in 
the morning sun, the Yajush verses in the meridian beams, and the 
Yfihad-rathantara and other Sama verses in his declining rays. This 
triple Veda is the body of Vishnu, and this his energy abides in the 
monthly sun. But not only does this energy of Vishnu, formed of 
the triple Veda, reside in the sun : Brahma, Purusha (Vishnu), and 
Budra also constitute a triad formed of the triple Veda. Acting in 
creation, Brahma is formed of the Big-veda ; presiding over the con- 
tinuance of the universe, Vishnu is composed of the Yajur-veda ; and 
for the destruction of the worlds, Eudra is made up of the 8ama-veda ; 
hence the sound of this Veda is impure.'' 

Vdffu Furdna, — Other passages also may be found in works which 
are ficir from being reputed as heretical, in which the Vedas, or parti- 
cular parts of them, are not spoken of with the same degree of respect 
as they are by Manu. Thus the Vayu Purana gives precedence to the 
Furanas over the Vedas in the order of creation (i. 56^) : 

Prathama^ aarva-idstrdnaih Purdnafk Brahmand smjritam | anantaram 
eha taktrehhyo vedds tasya vinmritdh \ 

** First of all the Skitras, the Purana was uttered by Brahma. Sub- 
Bequently the Vedas issued from his mouths." 

Similarly the Padma Purana says : 

Pwrdnam aarvthidstrdndm prathamam Brahmand tmfitam | tri-varga- 
tddhanam punyath iata-koti-pravistaram \ nirdagdheshu cha loheshu vdji' 
rupena ITeSavah \ Brahmanas iu samddeidd veddn ahritavdn asau | angdni 
ehaturo veddn purdna-nydya-vistardln}'] \ mimdmsd[rh}'] dharma-sdstram 
cKa parigrihydtha sdmpratam \ maUya-mpe^ cha punah kalpdddv uda- 
kdntare \ aSesham etat Jcathitam ityddi \ ^ 

** The Purana, which is an instrument for effecting the three objects 

^ Page 48 of Prof. Aufrechf a Catalogue of Saiukrit the Bodleian Library 
at Oxford. 
*^ See the same Catalogae p. 12, coL i. 


of life, which is pnre, and extends to the length of a hundred crores of 
verses, was the first of all the S^astras which Brahma uttered. When 
the worlds had been burnt up, Keiava (Kfishna), in the form of a 
horse, and obeying Brahma's command, rescued the Yedas. Having 
taken them with their appendages, the Puranas, the I^yaya, the Ml- 
mansa, and the Institutes of Law, he now at the beginning of the 
Kalpa promulgated them all again in the form of a Fish from the midst 
of the waters." 


In the Matsya Furana, iii. 2 ff., not only is priority of creation 
claimed for the Puranas, but also the qualities of eternity and identity 
with sound, which are generally predicated of the Yedas alone : 

Ruparh dadhdra^ prathamam amardnam Pitamahah \ dvirhhutus tato 
veddh sdngopdnga'pada-hramdh \ 3. Furdnam sarva'Sdsirdndm pratha- 
mam Brahmand smritam \ nityaih iahdamayam punyam sata-kofi-pra- 
vistaram \ 4. Anantaram cha vaktrehhyo vedds tasya vinisBfitdh \ mf- 
mdmsd nydya-vidyd cha pramdndshtakO'Samyutd | 5. Veddhhydsa^ata- 
sydsya prajd-kdmasya mdnasdh \ manasd pUna^srishtd^ vai jdtdh ye 
tena mdnasdk \ 

2. ''Pitamaha (Brahma), first of all the immortals, took shape : then 
the Yedas with their Angas and Upangas (appendages and minor ap- 
pendages), and the various modes of their textual arrangement, were 
manifested. 3. The Purana, eternal, formed of sound, pure, extending 
to the length of a hundred crores of verses, was the first of the S^astras 
which Brahma uttered: and afterwards the Yedas, issued from his 
mouth ; and also the Mimansa and the Nyaya with its eightfold system 
of proofs. 5. From him (Brahma), who was devoted to the study of 
the Yedas, and desirous of ofispring, sprang mind-bom sons, so called 
because they were at first created by his mind.'' 

The Yayu Purana says further on in the same section from which I 
have already quoted : " 

To vidydch chaturo veddn sdngopanuhado dvijah^ \ na ehei purdnam 
tafhvidydd naiva sa aydd vicJiakshanah \ Itihdsa-purdndhhydm veddn 
tamupavrimhayet \ vihhety alpa-h'utdd vedo mum ayam praharUhyati \ 

^ This quotation is made from the Taylor MS. No. 1918 of the India Office 
Library. The Guikowar MS. No. 3032 of the same collection, reads here tapai eha^ 
ehara, " practised austerity/' Instead of rupam dadhdroy *' took shape," and baa 
besides a number of other yarious readings in these few lines. 

'^ See p. 50 of Dr. Aufrechfs Catalogue. 


" He who knows the four Yedas, with their supplements and XTpani^ 
shads is not really learned, unless he know also the Pur&nas. Let a 
man, therefore, complete the Yedas by adding the Itihasas and Puranas. 
The Yeda is afraid of a man of little learning, lest he should treat it 

The first of these verses is repeated in the Mahabharata, Adiparvan 
Terse 645, with a variation in the first half of the second line na chd' 
hkydnam idath vidydt, ''unless he know also this narrative" {i.e, the 
Mahabharata). The second of the verses of the Yayu Purana also is to 
be found in the same book of the Mahabharata verse 260, and is fol- 
lowed by these lines : 

261. Kdnhnam vedam imafn vidvdn irdvayitvd ^nnam ainute | . . • • 
264. JSkataS chatttro veddn Bhdratam chaitad ehatah \ purd kila swrail^ 
aarvai^ %ametya tulayd dhrttam \ chaturhhyak aa-rahasyehhyo vedebhyo 
hy adhikam yadd \ tadd-prahhriti loke *8min mahdhhdratam ucHyate \ 

<< The man who knows this Yeda relating to Krishna (the Mahabha- 
rata), and repeats it to others, obtains food 264. All the col- 
lected gods formerly weighed in a balance the four Yedas which they 
placed in the one scale, and this Bharata which they put into the other. 
When the latter was found to exceed (in weight) the four Yedas with 
the TJpanishads, it was thenceforward called in this world the Maha- 

Here there is a play upon the word Bharata, as in part identical with 
hhdra, "weight." 

The following verses of the same Adiparvan and many others are 
also eulogistic of the great epic poem : 

2298. Idam hi vedaih tammitam pavitram apt chottamam | Srdvydndm 
uttamam chedam purdnam fUhi-samstutam | 

" This (Mahabharata) is on an equality with the Yeda, pure, most 
excellent, the best of all works that are to be recited, ancient| and 
praised by rishis." 

2314. Vijneyah sa cha veddndm pdrago Bhdratam pafhan \ 

The reader of the Bharata is to be regarded as having gone through 
the Yedas." 

The benefits derivable from a perusal of the same poem are also set 
forth in the Svargarohanikarparvany verses 200 ff. 

In the same way the Ramayana, i. 1, 94, speaks of itself, as '^ this 


pure and holy narrative, which is on an equality with the Yedas'' 
{idam pavitram dkhydnam punyam vedaiS cha sammitam). 

And in the Bhagavata Purana, ii. 8, 28, it is said : Prdha Ihdgavataik 
ndma purdnam hrahma'Sammitam \ Brahmane Bhagavat-proktam Brahma^ 
kalpe updgate \ ^ 

*' (Brahmarata) declared the Pura^a called the Bhagavata, which 
stands on an equality with the Yeda {hrahma), and was declared hy 
Bhagavat to Brahma when the Brahma-kalpa h^d arrived." 

Brahnuhvaivartta Furdna. — The Brahma- vaivartta Purana asserts in 
a most audacious manner its own superiority to the Veda (i. 48 ff.) : 

Bhavagan yat ivayd pfishfam jndiam aarvam abhlpsiiam \ sdra-hhuta^ 
purdneshu Brahnuhvaivarttam uttamam \ Purdnopapurdndndm veddndm 
hhramchlhanjanafh \ 

'' That ahout which, venerahle sage, you have inquired, and which 
you desire, is all known to me, the essence 'of the Puranas, the pre- 
eminent Brahma-vaivartta, which refutes the errors of the Puranas alid 
Upapnranas, and of the Vedas." (Professor Aufrccht's Cat. p. 21.) 

In the following passage also, from the commencement of the Mun- 
4aka Upanishad, the Yedic hymns (though a divine origin would no 
douht he allowed to them ^) are at all events depreciated, hy heing 
classed among other works as part of the inferior science, in contrast to 
the Brahma-vidya or knowledge of Brahma, the highest of all know- 
ledge, which is expressly ascribed to Brahma as its author : 

1. Brahmd devdndm prathamah samhahhUvaviSvasya karttd hhuvanasya 
goptd I sa hraJmuhvidydm sarva-vidyd-pratishfhdm Jiharrdya jyeshfha- 
putrdya prdha \ 2. Atharvane ydm pravadeta Brahmd Atharvd tdm 
purovdchdngire hrahma-vidydm \ sa Bhdradvdjdya Satyavdhdya prdha 
Bhdradvdjo ^ngirase pardvardm \ 3. S'aunako ha vat 2fahdidlo*ngira8am 

** In fact the following Terses (4 and 6) occur in the second chapter of the same 
Mnnd. Up. : Agnir murddha ehakshuahl ehandra-turyyau diiah sroire vag vivfitai 
cha vedah \ vayuh prano hfidayam viavam asya padbhyam pfithivl hy esha sarva" 
bhutantaratma | .... 6. Tasmad fichah sama yqfumthi dJksfta yq/fuii eha tarve 
hratavo dakthinas cha \ samvaUarafh chayajamanat cha lokahsomoyatrapavateyatra 
auryah | " Agni ifl his [Brahma^s] head, the sun and moon are his eyes, the four 
points of the compass are his ears, the uttered Vedas are his roicc, the wind is his hreath, 
the universe is his heart, the earth issued from his feet : he is the inner soul of all 

creatures 6. From him came the Rich verses, the Saman verses, the Yajush 

verses, initiatory rites, all ohlations, sacrifices, and gifts, the year, the sacrificer, and 
the worlds where the moon and sun purify." 


vidhivad upapannah prapaehchha \ kasmin nu hhagavo vijndfe sarvam idark 

vijndtam hhavatlti \ 4. Tcumai sa hovdcha \ dve vidye veditavye iti ha sma 

yad hrahma-vido vadanti pard ehaivdpard cha \ 5. Tatrdpard " rigvedo 

yajurvedah admavedo Hharvaveda^ iikshd kalpo vydkaranam niruktaih 

ehhando jyotisham*' iti \ athapard yayd tad aksharam adhigamyate \ 

''Bralima was produced the first among the gods, maker of the 
universe, preserver of the world. He revealed to his eldest son 
Atharva, the science of Brahma, the basis of all knowledge. 2. Atharvan 
of old declared to Angis this science, which Brahma had unfolded to 
him; and Angis, in tarn, explained it to Satyavaha, descendant of 
Bharadvaja, who delivered this traditional lore, in succession, to 
Angiras. 8. Maha^ala Siaunaka, approaching Angiras with the proper 
formalities, inquired, 'What is that, o venerable sage, through the 
knowledge of which all this [universe] becomes known ? ' 4. [Angiras] 
answered, ' Two sciences are to be known — ^this is what the sages versed 
in sacred knowledge declare — the superior and the inferior. 5. The 
inferior [consists of] the Big-veda, the Yajur-veda, the Sama-veda, the 
Atharva-veda, accentuation, ritual, grammar, commentary, prosody, and 
astronomy. The superior science is that by which the imperishable is 

I adduce some further passages which depreciate the ceremonial, or 
exoteric parts of the Yedas, in comparison with the esoteric knowleclge 
of Brahma. 

liy attention was drawn to the following passage of the Bhagavad 
Glta, iL 42 ff., by its quotation in the Bev. Professor K. M. Baneijea's 
Dialogues on Hindu Philosophy : 

Tdmimdmputhpitdmvdchampravadanty ampaiehitah \ veda-vdda^atd^ 
pSfiha ndnyad astUi vddinah \ kdmdtmdnah warga-pardh janma-kanna- 
phUa-praddm \ kriyd^vUesha-hahuldm hhogaiharya-gatim prati \ hhogaii- 
9arya-pra8aktdndm tayd ^pahrita - ehetasdm \ vyavasdydtmikd huddhi^ 
mwUMau na vidhlyaie \ traigunya^ishaydh veddh nistraigunyo hhavdr- 

^ Compare the Mahabharata, Adip. yene 258, which speaVs of the Aranyakas as 
■nperior to (the oUier parts of) the Yedas, and amrita as the hest of medicines (aran- 
^fnkam cha vedebhyad ehauahadhibhyo *mritam yatKd). Similarly the S'atapatha Brab- 
mtna, x. 3, 6, 12 (quoted in MUller's Anc. Sansk. Lit. p. 316, note), speaks of the 
Uptsiihads ai being the essence of the Tajush : Tasya vai etatya yqjusho ratah epa 



juna I • • • • yQv^n arihah udapdne sarvatah satnplutodake | tdvdn aoT' 
veahu vedeshu hrdhmanasya vijdnatah \ 

" A flowery doctrine, promising the reward of works performed in 
this embodied state, prescribing numerous ceremonies, with a view to 
future gratification and glory, is preached by unlearned men, deyoted 
to the injunctions of the Yeda, assertors of its exclusive importance, 
lovers of enjoyment, and seekers after paradise. The restless minds 
of the men who, through this flowery doctrine, have become bereft of 
wisdom, and are ardent in the pursuit of future gratification and glory, 
are not applied to contemplation. The Yedas have for their objects the 
three qualities {sativa, r(^'asy tamos, or ' goodness,' ' passion,' and ' dark- 
ness ') ; but be thou, Arjuna, free from these three qualities . ... As 
great as is the use of a well which is surrounded on every side by over- 
flowing waters, so great [and no greater] is the use of the Yedas to a 
Brahman endowed with true knowledge." 

Chhandogya Upanishad, vii. 1, 1, p. 473 (Colebrooke's £ssap, i. 12) : 
*^ Adhihi hhagavah " iti ha upasasdda Sanatkumdram Ndradah^ \ taik 
ha uvdcha ^^ yad vettha Una md upasida tatas U Urddhvam vakshydmV^ 
iti I 2. Saha uvdcha ^^fiyvedam hhagavo'dhyemi yajurvedaih sdtnavedam 
dtharvanam chaturtham itihdia - purdnam panchamam veddndm vedam 
pitryam rdiim daivam nidhim vdkovdJcyam ehdyanam deva-vidydm hrah' 
ffUhvidydm bhuta-vidydm kshatra-^idydih nakshatra-vidydfh sarpa-deva^ 
jatuhvidydm etad Ihagavo 'dhyemi \ 3. So ^ham hhagavo mantra^id wdsmi 
na dtma-vit \ Srutafh hy eva me hhagavaddrisehhyoB *taraii hkam dtma-vid ' 
iti so *ham hhagavah iochdmi tarn md hhagavdn iolcasya pdraih tdrayatv " 
iti \ tarn ha uvdclia *^ yad vai kincha etad adhyaglshthdh ndma evaiiat \ 
4. Ndma vai figvedo yajurvedah sdmavedah dtharvanai chaturtha^ itihdsa- 
purdnah panchamo veddndm vedah pitryo rdSir daivo nidhir vdkovdkyam 
ekdyanam deva-vidyd hrahma-vidyd hhuta-vidyd kshatra-vidyd nakshairo' 
vidyd sarpa-deva-jana^idyd ndma evaitad ndma updsva " iti j 5. '' 8a yo 
ndma hrdhma ity updste ydvad ndmno gatafh tatra asya yathd kdmachdro 
Ihavati yo ndma hrahma ity updste^* \ *^asti hhagavo ndmno hhuyal^^^ 
iti I ^* ndmno vdva hhuyo *sti " iti | " tan me hhagavdn hravitv " iti \ 

1. '' Narada approached Sanatkumara, saying, 'Instruct me, venerable 
sage.' He received for answer, ' Approach me with [i.e. tell me] that 
which thou knowest ; and I will declare to thee whatever more is to 
be leamt.* 2. Narada replied, ' I am instructed, venerable sage, in the 


Big-yeda, the Tajur-veda, the Sama-veda, the Atharvana, [which is] 
the fourth, the Itihasas and Puranas, [which are] the fifth Veda of the 
YedaSy the rites of the pitris, arithmetic, the knowledge of portents, and 
of great periods, the art of reasoning,** ethics, the science of the gods, the 
knowledge of Scripture, demonology, the science of war, the knowledge 
of the stars, the sciences of serpents and deities ; this is what I have 
studied. 8. I, yenerahle man, know only the hymns {mantras) ; while 
I am ignorant of soul. But I have heard from reverend sages like 
thyself that ' the man who is acquainted with soul overpasses grief.' 
Now I, venerable man, am afflicted ; but do thou transport me over my 
grief.' Sanatkumara answered, ' That which thou hast studied is 
nothing but name. 4. The Eig-vcda is name ; and so are the Yajur-veda, 
the Sama-veda, the Atharvana, which is the fourth, and the Itihasas 
and Puranas, the fifth Yeda of the Yedas, etc. [all the other branches 
of knowledge are here enumerated just as above], — all these are but 
name : worship name. 5. He who worships name (with the persuasion 
that it is) Brahma, ranges as it were at will over all which that name 
comprehends; — such is the prerogative of him who worships name 
(with the persuasion that it is) Brahma.' * Is there anything, venerable 
man,' asked Narada, ' which is more than name ? ' ' There is,' he replied, 
* Bomething which is more than name.' * Tell it to me,' rejoined Narada." 

(S^ankara interprets the words panchamam veddnum vedam differently 
from what I have done. He separates the words veddndih vedam from 
panehama^^sji'di makes them to mean 'Hhe means of knowing the 
Vedas," %,e, grammar. See, however, the Bhag. Pur. i. 4, 20, below, 
p. 42, and iii. 12, 39, to be quoted further on. 

8atapatha Brahmana, xiv. 7, 1, 22 (= Brihadaranyaka Upanishad| 
IT. 3, 22, p. 792 ff., p. 228-9 of Dr. Boer's English) : Atra pita apita 
hhaoati mdtd amdtd lokdh alokdh devdh ad^vuh veddh aveddh yajndh aya^ 
jndh I atra ateno ^steno hhavati hhruna-hd ahhruna-hd paulkaso ^paulkasai 
ch&nddh *ehdnddlah Sramano 'iramanas tdpaso ^tdpaso nanvdyatam pun- 
fena ananvdyatam pdpma^ tlrno hi tadd sarvdn iokdn hridayasya hhavati 

'Fakoffakyam=tarka'8aatr§m^'S5YBM, The word is elsewhere explained as 

" dialogues *' (ukti-pratyukti-rupam prakaranam—Comm. on S' P. Br. xi. 

5, 6, 8). The sense of some of the terms in this list of sciences is ohscore; but 

enrtnfi is not of any great importance to the general drift of the passage. 

" I give here the reading of the Br. Ar. Up. The S'. P. Br. in Professor Weber's 



'' In that [condition of profound slnmber, ^tuhupti^l a &ther is no 
father, a mother is no mother, the worlds are no worlds, the gods are 
no gods, and the Yedas are no Yedas, sacrifices are no sacrifices. In 
that condition a thief is no thief, a murderer of embryos is no murderer 
of embryos, a Paulkasa no Paulkasa, a ChaQ<}^ i^o ChaQ<}^^ & S^n^ 
mana no S'ramana, a deyotee no devotee ; the saint has then no relation, 
either of advantage or disadvantage, to merit or to sin ; for he then 
crosses over all griefs of the heart" 

(I quote fiom the commentary on the Br. Ar. Up. S^ankara's explan- 
ation of the unusual words nanvdgata and ananvagata : Nanvdgatam na 
anvdgaiam ananvdgaiam aaamhaddham ity etat punyena Sdttrthvihit&na 
karmand taihd pdpena vihitdkarana'prafishiddha'kriyd'Iakshanena \ 
^* Nanvdgata' (not) anvdgata, and ananvdgata^zasamhaddha^ uncon* 
nectcd. This condition is unconnected either with merit, i.0. action 
enjoined by the iastra, or with sin, «.«. action defined as the neglect 
of what is enjoined, or the doing of what is forbidden." 

To the same effect the great sage N&rada is made to speak in the 
Bhagavata Purd^a, iv. 29, 42 ff. : 

Prajupati-pati^ sdksJidd hhagavdn Giriio Manuh \ DaksMdayah prti^ 
jddhyakshdh naiahfhikdh Sanakddaya^ \ Marlchtr Atry-angtrasau PuIm- 
tyah Fukiha^ Kratu^ \ Bhfigttr Vaiishtha^ ity eU mad-antdh hrahmO' 
vddina^ \ adydpi vuchaspatayas tapo-mdyd'Samddhibhi^ \ paiyawto ^py 
na paiyanti paiyantam Parameharam \ ioMa-hrahmani dushpdre eho" 
ranta^ uruvistare I mantra-lingair vyavachchhinnam hhajanto na vtdti^ 
param \ yadd yasydnugfthndti hhagavdn dtma-hhdviiah \ saj'ahdii matiiSk 
hke vede cha parimshphitdm \ taatndt karmasu varhuhmann ajndnad 
ariha-kdiiihu \ md ^rtha^dfuh(tm kfithdk irotra-^pariithv aSprishta-^MU' 
twhu I wa^lokam na vtdus U vat yatra devo Jandrdanah \ dhur dhumra^ 
dhiyo v&daih sa-karmakam a-tad-vidah \ dstirya darhhaih prdg-agrai^ 
kdrtsnyena kihiti-mandalam \ stabdho vfihad-^adhdd mdnl karma ndvaiskt 
yat param \ tat karma Mari-tosha^ yat ad vidyd tan-matir yayd \ 

''Brahma himself, the divine Giriia (Siva), Manu, Daksha and the 
other Prajapatis, Sanoka and other devotees, Marlchi, Atri, Angiras, 
Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Bhpgu, Yaiishtha — all these expounders of 
sacred knowledge, and masters of speech, including myself (Narada) as 

text gives mumvagtUaJ^ pufiyena onanvagataJ^ papena. And yet the commentary 
slludet to the ivord ananvdgaia being in the neoteb 


the last, though seeing, are yet, to this day, unable, by austerity, by 
science, by contemplation, to see Parame^vara (the supreme Ood), who 
sees all things. Wandering in the vast field of the verbal brahma (the 
Yeda), which is difficult to traverse, men do not recognise the Supreme, 
while they worship him as he is circumscribed by the attributes speci- 
fied in the hymns (mantras). When the Divine Being regards sftiy 
man with favour, that man, sunk in the contemplation of soul, aban- 
dons all thonghts which are set upon the world and the Veda. Cease, 
therefore, Yarhishmat, through ignorance, to look upon works which 
merely seem to promote the chief good, as if they truly effected that 
object, (works) which only touch the ear, but do not touch the reality. 
The misty-minded men, who, ignorant of the Yeda, declare that works 
are its object, do not know [hisj own world, where the divine Janar- 
dana abides. Thou who, obstinate man that thou art, strewest the 
whole earth with sacrificial grass, with its ends turned to the east, and 
art proud of thy numerous immolations, — thou knowest not what is the 
highest work of all. That by which Hari (Yishnu) is pleased, is work ; 
that by which the thoughts are fixed on him, is science.'' 

I copy the comment on a part of this passage, viz. on verses 45 and 46 : 
Bahda-hrahmani vedi urur vutdro yasya arthato *pi p&ra-iunye tasmin 
varttamandh mantrdn&fk lingair vajra-haatatvddi'gufia'yukta'Vividha' 
defMM'hhidhdnO'Sdtnarthyai^ pariehchhinnam eva Indrddi-rHpam tat-tat' 
harmdgrahena hhajantah paratn Parameharam na viduh \ Tarhy anyal^ 
ho ndma \ karrnddy-dyraham hitvd parameivaram eva hhajed ity ata dha 
**yadd yam anvyfihndti^' \ anuyrahe hetuh \ dtmani hhdvitah son sa tadd 
Ule hkorvya/oahdre vede eha harma-mdrge parinishfhitdm matim tyajati \ 
** Men, conversant with the verbal brahma, the Yeda, of which the 
extent is vast, and which, in fact, is boundless, worshipping Para- 
meivara [the supreme God] under the form of Indra, etc., circum- 
scribed by the marks specified in the hymns, i.e. limited to various 
particular energies denominated deities, who are characterised by such 
attributes as ' wielder of the thunderbolt,' etc. ; worshipping Him, 
I say, thus, with an addiction to particular rites, men do not know the 
supreme God.' What other [god], then, [is there] ? He therefore, in 
the words,.' When he regards any one with favour,' etc., says, let a 
man, abandoning all addiction to works, etc., worship the supreme God 
alone. The reason for this fi»vour [is supplied in the following words] : 


* Sunk in fhe contemplation of soul, he then relinquishes his regard 
directed to the business of the world and to the Yeda, i,e. to the method 
of works.' " 

The following passage from the Katha XTpanishad (ii. 23) is of a some- 
what similar tendency (p. 107 of Eoer's ed. and p. 106 of Eng. trans.) :. 

Ndyam dtmd pravachanena lahhyo na medhayd tia hahund iruUna \ 
yam evai'sha vrinute Una lahhyaa tasyaisha dtmd vrinute tanuih svdm | 

** This Soul is not to be attained by instruction, nor by understanding^ 
nor by much scripture. He is attainable by him whom he chooses. The 
Soul chooses that man's body as his own abode." 

The scholiast interprets thus the first part of this text : 

Tadyapi durvijneyo *yam dtmd tathdpy updyena suvijneyah wa ity 
dha ndyam dtmd pravachanena aneka-veda-svlkaranena lahhyo jneyo ndpi 
medhayd granthdrtha-dhdrand-iaktyd na hahund hiitena kevalena \ kena 
tarhi lahhyah ity uchyate \ 

'' Although this soul is difficult to know, still it may easily be known 
by the use of proper means. This is what [the author] proceeds to say. 
This soul is not to be attained, known, by instruction, by the acknow- 
ledgement of many Vedas ; nor by understanding, by the power of re- 
collecting the contents of books; nor by much scripture alone. By 
what, then, is it to be attained ? This he declares." 

It is not necessary to follow the scholiast into the Yedantic explana- 
tion of the rest of the passage.^ 

The preceding passages, emanating from two different classes of 
writers, both distiDguished by the spirituality of their aspirations, 
manifest a depreciation, more or less distinct and emphatic, of the 
polytheism of the Yedic hymns, as obstructive rather than promotive, 
of divine knowledge, and express disregard, if not contempt, of the 
ceremonies founded on that polytheism, and performed with a yiew to 
the enjoyments of paradise. 

Sect. V. — Division of the Vedae^ according to the Vishntt^ VdyUf and 
JBhdyavata Furdnas, and the Mahdhhdrata, 

Some of the Puranas, as we have seen above, represent the four 
Yedas as having issued from Brahma's different mouths. If they had 
** See Pro£ MUller*8 Anc. Saxuk. Lit. Ist ed. p. 320, and p. 109. 


each a separate origin of this kind, it would seem that they most have 
had from the time of their production a distinct existence also. And 
jet it is elsewhere said that there was originally hut one Yeda, which 
was subsequently divided into four portions. 

Thus the Vishnu Purana gives the following account of the division 
of the Yeda, described as having been originally but one, into four 
parts, iii. 2, 18 : 

KriU yuge paraih jndnam Kapilddi'Warilpa'dhrih \ dadati sarva-hhn- 

tdndm sarva-hhUta-hiU ratah \ chakravartti-svarUpena tretdydm apt sa 

prahhuh \ Dushfdndfn nigrahafh kurvan paripdti jagattrayam \ Vedam 

ehaih ehatur-hhedam kfitvd idkhd-iatair vihhuh \ karoti hahulam hhUyo 

Vedavydsa-ivarikpa-dhrik \ veddms tu dvdpare vyasya^ etc. 

'' In the Kfita age, Yishnu, devoted to the welfare of all creatures, 
assumes the form of Kapila and others to confer upon them the highest 
knowledge. In the Treta age the Supreme Lord, in the form of a uni- 
rersal potentate, represses the violence of the wicked, and protects the 
three worlds. Assuming the form of Yedavyasa, the all-pervadiug Being 
repeatedly divides the single Yeda into four parts, and multiplies it by 
distributing it into hundreds of ^akhas. Having thus divided the 
Yedas in the Dvapara age," etc.'' 

This is repeated more at length in the following section (Yish. Pur. 
iii. 3, 4ff.): 

Veda-drumasya Maitreya idkhd-hhedaih sahasrah^ \ na iakyo mstaro 
vaktum aankshepena ifinushva tarn | Dvdpare dvdpare Vishnur Vydaa- 
r&pi mahdmune \ Fedam ekam aa hahudhd kurute jagato hitah \ vlryafk 
tejo hdlam ekdlpam manushydndm avekshya vai \ hitdya Mrva-hhutdndrh 
veda-hheddn karoti sa^ \ yayd sa kurute tanvd vedam ekam prithak pra- 
Muh I Vedavydsdhhidhdnd tu ad mUrtttr Madhuvidvishah | • . . . Ashfd' 
9i^iati'kritvo vai veddh vyaatdh maharahihhih \ Vaivaavate *ntare taamin 
dfdpareshu punal^ punah \ 

** It is not possible, Maitreya, to describe in detail the tree of the 
Yedas with its thousand branches {sakhda) ; but listen to a summary. 
A friend to the world, Yishnu, in the form of Yyasa, divides the single 
Yeda into many parts. He does so for the good of all creatures, because 
he perceives the vigour, energy, and strength of men to have become 

* Compare on this subject portions of the passage of the MahSbhirata quoted in 
the Firrt Volume of this work, pp. 144-146. 


decreased. Yedavyasa, in whose person he performs this division, is an 

impersonation of the enemy of Madhu (Yishnu) Eight-and- 

twenty times in the Dvapara ages of this Yaivasvata Manvantara^ 
have the Yedas been divided by great sages." These sages are then 
enumerated, and Krishna Dvaipayana^ is the twenty-eighth. 

The subject is resumed at the beginning of the next section (Yish. 
Pur. iii. 4, 1 ff.) : 

Adyo vedai ehatushpSda^ iata-sdhasra-sammitah \ Tato daSa-ptna^ 
Ifitmo yajno 'yam sarva-kdmadhuk \ Tato Hra mat-mto Vyaso '«/«fdv»i3i- 
iatitame 'rUare \ vedam eJtam ehatushpddam chaturdhd vyahhajat prabhu^ \ 
yathd tu tena vat vyaatdh Vedavydsena dhlmatd \ Veddt tathd samastait 
tair vyastdh Vydsais tathd mayd \ tad anenaiva v$ddndfk idkhdhheddn 
dvijottama \ ehaturyuyeshu rackitdn sanuuteshv avadhdraya | ^jishnO' 
dvaipdyanam Vydsam viddhi Ndrdyanam prahhum | ko ^nyo hi hhuvi 
Maitreya Mdhdbhdrata-krid hhavet \ Tena vyaatdh yathd Veddh mat-pu" 
trena mahdtmand \ Dvdpare hy atra Maitreya tad tne Sftnu yathdrthatah \ 
Brahmand ehodito Vydao veddn vyastum prachahrame \ Atha iishydn ea 
jagrdha chaturo veda-pdra-gdn \ ftiyveda-h'dvakam Failam jagrdha $a 
mahdmunih \ Vaiiampdyana-ndrndnam Yajurvedasya ehdgrahlt | Jaimp- 
nim Sdma-vedasya tathaivdtharvaveda-vit \ Sumantus tasya Sishyo *bhild 
Vedavydsasya dhlmatah \ Romaharshana-ndrndnam mahdhuddhim mahd^ 
munim \ Sutam jagrdha Ushyam sa itihdsa-purdnayoh \ 

'' The original Yeda, consisting of four quarters, contaiued a hundred 
thousand verses. From it arose the entire system of sacrifice, tenfold 
(compared with the present) and yielding all the objects of desire. Sub- 
sequently, in the twenty-eighth manvantara my son, [Paraiara is tho 
speaker] the mighty Yyasa, divided into four parts the Yeda which 
was one, with four quarters. In the same way as the Yedas were divided 

*o For an account of the Manyantaras, see the First Part of this work, pp. 39, 43 ff. 

41 Lassen (Ind. Ant. 2nd ed. i. 777» note) remarks: "Yyasa signifies arrangement, and 
this signification had still retained its place in the recollection of the ancient recorders of 
the legend, who haTe formed from his name an irreg^r perfect, viz. vivyata** 
Lassen refers to two passages of the Mahubharata in which the name is explained^ 
viz. (i. 2417), Vivyasa vedan yamat sa tasmad VyaaaJ^ iti tmritah | ** He is called 
YySsa because he divided the Veda." And (i. 4236) To vytuya vedami ekaiuras 
tapasa hhagavan fwAi^ | loie vyasatvam apede karshnyat kfishnatvam eva eha \ "The 
divine sage (Krishna Dvaipfiyana VySsa) who, through fervid devotion, divided the 
four Yedas, and so obtained in the world the title of Yyiiaa, and from his blaoknesa, 
the name of Krishna." 


by the wiae Vyaea, so had they been divided by till the [preceding] Vy- 
asas, including myself. And know that the ^akha diyisicus [formed] by 
him [were the same as those] formed in all the periods of four yugas. 
Learn, too, that Krishna Dvaipayana Yyasa was the lord Karayana ; for 
who else on earth could have composed the Mahabharata ? Hear now 
correctly how the Yedas were divided by him, my great son, in this Dva- 
para age. When, commanded by firahma, Yyasa undertook to divide the 
Yedas, he took four disciples who had read through those books. The 
great muni took Paila as teacher of the Eich, Yaiiampayana of the 
Yajush, and Jaimini of the Saman, while Sumantu^ skilled in the 
Atharva-veda, was also his disciple. He took, too, as his pupil for the 
Itihasas and Puranas the great and intelligent muni, Suta, called 
Bomaharshana. "^ 

Vdyu Fwdna, — In the same way, and partly in the same words, the 
Yayu Purana (section Iz.) represents the Yedas to have been divided in 
the Dvapara age. It first describes how this was done by Manu in the 
Svayambhuva, or first manvantara, and then recounts how Yyasa per- 
formed the same task in the existing seventh, or Yaivasvata manvan- 
tara; and, no doubt, also in the Dvapara age, though this is not 
expressly stated in regard to Yyasa. 

The following is an extract from this passage (as given in Dr. 
Aufrecht's Catalogue of the Bodleian Sanskrit MSS. p. 54) : 

Dvdpare tu pur&vjitU Mano^ iv&yamhhuve 'ntare \ Brahma Manum 
usSehedam vedarh vyasya mahdmaU | Parivfittaih ytngam tdta Bvalpa- 
virydh dvijatayah \ sarnvfitta^ yuga-doshena sarvaih chaiva yathukramam \ 
hkrashta-mdnam ytiga-vaidd alpa-iUhfarh hi dfiiyaU \ Daia'Sdhasra-hhd' 
gemt hy avaiUhtam kfitdd idam \ vJryam tejo halaih chdlpam sarvam 
chaiva pranaiyati \ vede veddJf. hi kdryydJ^ syur md hhud veda-vinaianam \ 
vede nddam anmprdpU yajno ndiam gamishyati \ yajne nashfe deva-ndia^ 

^ Mabldhara on the Vajasaneyi Sanhita (Weber's ed. p. 1) says, in regard to tbe 
dxvision of the Yedas : Tatradau Brahma-paramparaya prapiam Vedam Vedavyaw 
mmnda-matTn manushyan viehintya tai-kfipaya c/mturdha vyasya Rig-yajuh-aamri» 
tharvakhyami ehaturo vedan Faila-Vaiiampayana-Jaimini-Sumantubhyah hramad 
wpmdidesa U eha ava^iUhthhyah \ Evam paramparaya sahasra-sakho Vedo Jaiah \ 
** YedavjSsa, having regard to men of doll understanding, in kindness to them, diyided 
into four parts the Veda which had been originally lianded down hy tradition from 
BrahmS, and taught the four Yedas, called Rich, Yajush, Saman, and Atharvan, in 
«rder, to Paila, Vaitfampayana, Jaimini, and Sumantu; and they again to their disciples. 
In this way, by tradition, the Veda of a thousand s'akhfis was produced." 


iatah sarvam pranaiyati \ Adyo vedak cTiatush-pado kata-Bahasra'Sammi* 
tah I Punar daia-gunah kritsno yajno vai sarva-kuma-dkuk \ JEvam uktat 
tathety uktvd Mdnur loka-hite ratah \ vedam ekam chatush-padaih chulur^ 
dhd vyahJiajat prahhuh \ Brahmano vachandt tdta lokdndm hita-kdmyayd \ 
tad aham varttamdnena yushmdkam veda-kalpanam I manvantarena vo- 
kshydmi vyatUdndm prakalpan<im \ pratyaksftcna paroksham vai tad nibo* 
dhata sattamdh \ Asmin yuge krito Vydsah Pdrdsaryah parantapah \ 
**J)vaipdyanay* iti khydto Vishnor amkah prakirttitah \ Brahmand chodi" 
tah 80 *8min vedaih vyastum prachakrame \ Atha iishydn sa jagrdha cha* 
turo veda-kdrandt \ Jaiminim ch<t Sumantuih cha Vaisampdyanam eva 
cha I Pailam teshdm chaturtham tu pancliamam Lomaharshanam \ 

'* In the former Dvapara of the Svayambhuva manTantara, Brahm& 
said to Manu, * Divide the Veda, o sago. The age is changed ; through 
its baneful influence the Brahmans have become feeble, and from the same 
cause the measure of everything has gradually declined, so that little is 
seen remaining. A part (of the Veda) consisting of only these ten thousand 
(verses) is now left to us from the Kpita age ; vigour, fire, and energy 
are diminished ; and everything is on the road to destruction. A plurality 
of Vedaa must bo made out of the one Veda, lest the Veda be destroyed. 
The destruction of the Veda would involve the destruction of sacrifice ; 
that again would occasion the annihilation of the gods, and then every- 
thing would go to ruin. The piimeval Veda consisted of four quarters 
and extended to one hundred thousand verses, while sacrifice was ten- 
fold, and yielded every object of desire.' Being thus addressed, Manu, 
the lord, devoted to the good of the world, replied, ' Be it so,' and ia 
conformity with the command of Brahma, divided the one Veda, which 
consisted of four quarters, into four parts.** I shall, therefore, narrate 
to you the division of the Veda in the existing manvantara ; from which 
yisible division you, virtuous sages, can understand those invisible 
arrangements of the same kind which were made in past manvantaras. 
In this Yuga, the victorious son of Para^ara, who is called Dvaipayana, 
and is celebrated as a portion of Vishnu, has been made the Vyasa. In 
this Yuga, he, being commanded by Brahma, began to divide the Vedas. 
Por this purpose he took four pupils, Jaimini, Sumantu, Vai^ampayana, 

« Tho MahttbhSrata, S'Sntip. verBe 13,678, says the Vedaa were divided lA the 
STfiyambhaTa manvaiitara by Apantaratunaa, son of SaraaTati (2Wui bhinnas tada 
veda manoh svayambhupo *ntar0). 


and Faila, and, as a fifth, Lomaharshana " [for the Furanas and Iti- 
hasas, etc.] 

Bhagavata Purdfui, — It is in its third hook, where the different man- 
vantaras are described, that the Yishnu Parana gives an account of the 
division of the Yedas. In the book of the Bhagavata Purana where 
the manvantaras are enumerated^ there is no corresponding allusion to 
the division of the Yedas ; but a passage to the same effect occurs in 
the fourth section of the first book, verses 14 ff. : 

Bvapare aamanuprapte triilya-yuga'paryayi \ j'dtah FaraSardd yogi 
Vdsavydm kalayd Hareh \ 15, Sa kaddchit Sarasvatydh ttpasprtsya j'alam 
htchi j viviktah ekah dshiah udxt$ ravi-tnandale | 16. Fardvara-jnah sa 
fishih kdlendvyakta-ramhoftd \ yuga-dharmchvyatikaram prdptam hhuvt 
yuge yuge \ 17. Bhautikdndm cha hhdvdndm iakti-hrdsayn cha tat-kri- 
tam I airaddhadhdndn nmatvdn durmedhdn hrasitdyushah \ 18. Dur- 
hhagdmsjandn vlkshya munir divyena ehakshushd \ sarva-varndSramdndih 
yad dadhyau hitam amogha-dfik \ 19. Chdturhotram karma iuddham prch- 
fdndm vlkshya vaidikam \ vyadadhdd yajna-santatyai vedam ekam chatuT' 
vidham \ 20. fttg-yajuh'Sdrndtharvakhydh veddi cJiatvdra uddhritdh \ 
iiihdsa-purdnam cha panchamo veda uchyaU \ 21. Tattrarg-veda-dharch 
Failah sdmago Jaiminih kavih \ Vaiiampdyana evaiko nishndto yajushdm 
Mta I 22. Atharvdngirasdm dsit Sumantur ddruno munih \ itihasa^purdnd- 
ndmpitd me Romaharshanal^ \2Z, Te ete rishayo vedam svam svam vyasyann 
anekadhd \ iishyaih praiishyais tach-chhishyair vedds U Sdkhino 'hhavan | 
24. Te eva veddh durmedhair dhdryante purushair yathd \ evam chakdra 
Ihagavdn Vydsah kripana - vatsala^ \ 25. *Strl - Sudra - dvijahandhundih 
irayl na iruti-goehard \ karma-ireyasi mudhdndfh ireyah eva hhaved iha \ 
Hi Bhdratam dkhydnam kfipayd munind kritam \ 

14. " When the Dvapara age had arrived, during the revolution of 
that third yuga, the Yogin (Yyasa) was bom, a portion of Hari, as the 
son of Paraiara and Yasavya. 15. As on one occasion he was sitting 
solitary at sunrise, after touching the pure waters of the SarasvatI, (16) 
this rishi, who knew the past and the future, perceiving, with the eye 
of divine intelligence, that disorder had in each yoga been introduced 
into the duties proper to each, through the action of time, whose march 
is imperceptible, (17) that the strength of beings formed of the elements 
had in consequence declined, that men were destitute of faith, vigour, 
and intelligence, that their lives were shortened, (18) and that they 


were mi^rable, — reflected with nnerring insight on the means of bene- 
fitting the sereral castes and orders. 19. Discerning that the pureYedio 
ceremonies ought to be performed for men by the agency of four classes 
of priests, he divided the one Yeda into four parts, with a view to the 
performance of sacrifice. 20. Eour Yedas, called the Bich, Yajush, 
Saman, and Atharvan, were drawn forth from it ; while the Itihasas 
and Furanas are called the fifth Veda. 21. Of these the Eich was held 
by Paila, the sage Jaimini chanted the Saman, Yaisampayana alone 
was versed in the Yajush, (22) the dreadful muni Sumantu in the 
yerses of Atharvan and Angiras, and my father Eomaharshaga in the 
Itihasas and Puragas. 23. Each of these rishis arranged his own Yeda 
in many ways ; and by the successive generations of their disciples 
the Yedas were separated into branches {idkhds), 24. The venerable 
Yyasa, kind to the wretched, acted thus in order that the Yedas might 
be recollected by men of enfeebled understanding. 25. And as women, 
S^ildras, and the inferior members of the twice-born classes were un- 
fitted for hearing the Yeda, and were infatuated in desiring the bless- 
ings arising from ceremonies, the muni, with a view to their felicity, 
in his kindness composed the narrative called the Mahabharata." 

But notwithstanding the magnitude of the great legendary and theo- 
logical repertory which he had thus compiled, Yyasa, we are told, was 
dissatisfied with his own contributions to sacred science until he had 
produced the Bhagavata Purana consecrated to the glory of Bhagavat 
(Kjrishna).^* The completion of this design is thus narrated, Bhag. 
Pur. i. 7, 6 : 

Anarthopaiamafk sakshdd hhakti-yogam Adhokahaje \ lohuyaj&nato 
vidvufhi chahre Sdivaia - samhitdm \ 7. Yaaydm vai SrUyamdndydm 
Kriahne parama-pHrmhe \ hhaktir udpatyate pumah ioka-moha-hhayd- 
pahd I 8. Sa saihhitdm Bhugavatifn kritvd ^nukramya chatmajam \ 
S'ukam adhydpaydmdaa nivritti-niratam munift \ 

'* Knowing that devotion to Adhokshaja (Krishna) was the evident 
means of putting an end to the folly of the world, which was ignorant 
of this, he composed the Satvata-Sanhita (the Bhagavata). 7. When a 
man listens to this work, devotion to Kfishna, the supreme Purusha, 
arises in his mind, and frees him from grief, delusion, and fear. Having 

M See Wilson'B VishoTi Purana, Preface, p. xlvi. 


completed and arranged this Sanhita, the muni tanght it to his son 
8>aka, who was indisposed to the pursuit of secular objects." 

Towards the close of this Purana also, in the sixth section of the 
twelfth book (verses 87 ff.), there is to be found what Professor Wilson 
(Vish. Pur. Pref.) calls "a rather awkwardly introduced description of 
the arrangement of the Vedas and Puranas by Vyasa." 

The passage (aa given in the Bombay lithographed edition) is as 
follows : 

Suta uvScha \ iamahitdtmano brahman Brahmana^ parameshthinah | 
hrii-Okdi&d abhud nddo vfitti-rodhdd vihhdvyate \ yad-updeanaya hrah- 
mum yogino malam dtmanah \ dravya-Jcriyd'k&rak&khyaffi dhuivd ydnty 
apanurhhavam \ Tato ^hhat trivfid orhkdro yo ^vyakta-prahhavah svardf \ 
yat ial Ungam Bhagavaio Brahmanah paramdtmanah \ srinoti yah imaM 
sphofam supta-irotre eha iHnya-dfik \ yena vdg vyajyate yaaya vyaktir 
dkdie dtmanah \ svadhdmno hrahmanal^ sdkshdd vdchakah paramdtmanah \ 
sa-sarva-^nantropanishad-veda-vljatfi sandtanam \ tasya hy dsanu trayo 
tarndh a-kdrddyd^ BhfigHdvaha \ dhdryante yaU trayo Ikdvdh gund^ 
ndrndrtha-vfittayah \ tato ^kshara-tamdmndyam asfijad hhagavdn ajah \ 
AtUaasthoihnuhsvara-sparia-hrasva-dirghddi-lakahanam \ tendaau chaturo 
vtddmi ehaturbhir vadanair vibhu^ \ sa-^ydhritikdn Borhkdrdm& ehatW' 
hoira^vakshayd \ putrdn adhydpayat tdms tu brahmarshln brahma- 
kopiddn \ te tu dharmopadeshfdra^ sva-putrebhya^ samddiSan \ te param' 
parayd prdptdi tat-tach-ehhishyair dhfita^rataih \ chaturyugeshv atha 
vyastd^ dvdparddau maharshibhih \ kshlndywha^ kshind-sattvdn dur^ 
medhdn vlkshya kdlata^ \ veddn brahmarshayo vyasyan hfiduthdeh- 
yuia-noditd^ \ A$minn apy antar$ brahman bhagavdn loka-bhdvanah \ 
brcJimeiddyair lokapdlair ydehito dharma-guptage \ Fardiardt Satyavat' 
ydm affUdffiia-kalayd vibhuh \ avatirno mahdbhuga vedam ehakre chatuT" 
vidham \ fig-atharva-yajuf^-idmndih rdiln uddhfitya vargaia^ \ chatasrah 
§amhitd8 ehakre mantrair manigandh iva \ tdsdm sa chaturah iishydn 
updhHya mahdmati^ \ Ekaikdm samhitdm brahman ekaikasmai dadau 
vihhu^ I Paildya samhitdm ddydm bahvfichdkhydm u/odeha ha \ Vaiiam' 
pdyana-ianjndya nigaddkhyafh yajur-ganam \ sdmndih Jaiminaye prdha 
iathd chhandoga-satnhitdm \ Atharvdngiraaltn ndma sva-iuhdya Su- 
maniave \ 

'* Suta speaks : ' From the aether of the supreme Brahma's heart, 
when he was plunged in meditatioui there issued a 80und| which is 


perceived [by the devout] when they close their organs of sense. By 
adoring this sound, devotees destroy the soul's threefold taint, extrinsic, 
inherent, and superhuman,*^ and become exempt from future birth. 
From this sound sprang the omkdra, composed of three elements, self- 
resplendent, of imperceptible origin, that which is the emblem of the di- 
vine Brahma, the supreme spirit. He it is who hears this sound {sj>hota\ 
when the ears are insensible and the vision inactive, — (this sphofa or om- 
kdra) through which speech is revealed, and which is manifested in the 
aether, from the Soul.** This [ofhkdra] is the sensible exponent of Brahma, 
the self-sustained, the supreme spirit; and it is the eternal seed of the Ye- 
das, including all the Mantras and Upanishads. In tliis [ofnkdra] there 
were, o descendant of Bhpgu, three letters, A and the rest, by which 
the three conditions, the [three] qualities, the [three] names, the [three] 
significations, the [three] states*^ are maintained. Erom these [three 
letters] the divine and unborn being created the traditional system of 
the letters of the alphabet, distinguished as inner (y, r, 7, v), ushmas 
(i, sh, s, A), vowels, long and short, and consonants. With this [al- 
phabet] the omnipresent Being, desiring to reveal the functions of the 
four classes of priests, [created] &om his four mouths the four Yedas 
with the three sacred syllables {vydhritis) and the omJcdra.^ These he 
taught to his sons, the brahmarshis, skilled in sacred lore ; and these 
teachers of duty, in turn declared them to their sons. The Yedas were 
thus received by each succeeding generation of devout pupils from their 

^ Dravya-iriya-karaka^ which the scholiast interprets as answering to adhibhuta^ 
adhyatma^ and adhidaiva. See the eipUnation of these terms in Wilson's Sankhya- 
kfirika, pp. 2 and 9. 

^ I quote the scholiast's explanation of this obscure Tcrsc : Ko *8au paramaima 
tarn aha *8finoli* Hi \ imam tphofam avyaktam omkaram \ nanu jlvah evo tarn 
ifinoiu I na ity aha \ iupta^irotre karno'pidhanadim avfittike *pi srotre tati \j'iva9 
iu karanadtnaivad na tadd iroth \ tad-upalabdJiia tu iasya paramatma^dvarika era iti 
bhavah I Isvaras tu naivam \ yatah iunya-drik dunye *pi indriya-varye dfik jnanam 
yatya \ talhd hi tupto yadd aabdaih irutva prabuddhyate na tadd jivah irotu linen' 
' driyatvdt \ ato yas tadd aabdain arutvd jlvam prabodhayati sa yathd paramdttnd eva 
tadvat I ko *tdv omkdras tain viiinashii sdrdhena yena vag brihatl vyajyate yasya cha 
hridayakdae atmanah aakasdd vyakiir obhioyaLtih, The word tpJu>(a will be explained 
below, in a future section. 

^' These the scholiast explains thus : Gundh aaitvddayah \ ndmdni fiy-yajuh-sd' 
tndnl I art hah bhiir»bhwH^war'lokdh \ vjittayo jdgrad'-ddydh \ 

^ If I have translated this correctly, the onikdra is both the Bouroe of the alphabet, 
and fhfi alphabet of the mkdra i 


predecessors, and in each of the systems of four yugas were divided hy 
great sages at the beginning of the Dvapara.^ The Brahmarshis, im- 
pelled by Achyuta, who resided in their hearts, divided the Yedas, be- 
cause they perceived that men had declined in age, in power, and in under- 
standing. In this manvantara also,^ the divine and omnipresent Being, 
the author of the universe, being supplicated by Brahma, Isa (S^iva), and 
the other guardians of the world, to maintain righteousness, became par- 
tially incarnate as the son of Para^ara and SatyavatI, and divided the 
Teda into four parts. Selecting aggregates of Kich, Atharvan, Yajush, 
and Saman verses, and arranging them in sections {varga8\ he formed 
four tanhitaa (collections) of the hymns, as gems [of the same description 
are gathered together in separate heaps]. Having summoned four dis- 
ciples, the wise lord gave to each of them one of these sanhitas. To 
Paila he declared the first sanhita, called that of the Bahvf ichas ; to 
Taiiampayana the assemblage of Yayush verses, called Nigada; to 
Jaiimini the Chhandoga collection of Saman verses \ and to his pupil, 
Sumantu, the AtharvangirasT." 

The Bhagavata Purana, however, is not consistent in the account 
which it gives of the division of the Yedas. In a passage already 
quoted in the First Volume of this work, p. 158, it speaks of that division 
as having been the work of the monarch Pururavas, and as having 
taken place in the beginning of the Treta age. From the importance 
of this text I will extract it here again at greater length. 

The celestial nymph Urva^i, the Purana tells us, had been doomed, 
in consequence of a curse, to take up her abode upon earth. She there 

^ Dvaparadau can only mean the *' beginning of the Dvapara ; " but the scholiast 
undertakes by the following process of reasoning to show that it means the tnd of that 
jnga : Dvaparadau dvaparam adir yasya tad-antyamaa-lakihanasya kaldtya \ taamin 
dtaparanU veda - vibhaga - prasiddheh S'antanu - tama - kala - Vyasavatara'prasiddhea 
eha I vyatia vibhakiah \ ** Dvaparadau means the period of which the dvapara was 
the beginning, i.e. the time distinguished as the concluding portion of that yuga ; 
■ince it is notorious that the Yedas were divided at the end of the Dvapara, and that 
the incarnation of Vyasa was contemporaneous with S'antanu. Vyaatah^vibhakta^^ 

^ From this it appears that hitherto the account had not referred to the present 
manvantara. The scholiast remarks : Evam aamanyato veda-vibhaga-kramatn uktva 
vaipomfatO'fnanvantare vis'eahaio nirupayiium aha \ ** Having thus [in the preceding 
Toses] generally described the manner in which the Yedas are divided, [the author] 
BOW states [as follows], with the view of determining particularly [what was done] in 
the Yaif asf ata manvantara." 


fell in love with King Faruravas, the report of whose manly beauty 
had touched her heart, even before she had been banished from para- 
dise. After spending many happy days in the society of her lover, she 
forsook him in consequence of his having infringed one of the conditions 
of their cohabitation, and Fururavas was in consequence rendered very 
miserable. He at length, however, obtained a renewal of their inter- 
course, and she finally recommended him to worship the GandharvaSy 
who would then re-unite him with her indissolubly. 

The Furana then proceeds (ix. 14, 43 ff.) : 

Tasi/a sarhituvatas tushfd^ agni$thatim dadur nfipa \ Urvailm manyth 
manas turn io ^hudhyata eharan vane \ Sth&llm nyasya vans yatvd yfih&n 
adhyuyato niii \ TVetdydfk sampravfittdydm manaii trayy avartUUa \ 
Sihdll'Sthdnaih gato ^hattham iaml-garhhafk vilakshya iah \ Tena dve 
aranl kfitvd UrtaSi-loka-kdmyayd \ Urvailm mantrato dhydyann adhard' 
ranim uttardm \ Atmdnam uhhayar madhye yat tat prajananam prabhuh \ 
Tasya nirmathandj jdto jdtaveddh vibhdvasuh | Trayy d eltavidyayd rdjnd 
putraive kalpiias trivfit \ Tendyajata yajnesam Ihagavantam adhoksha' 
jam I UrvaSl'lokam anvichhan iarva-devamayam Harim \ Ekah eva purd 
veda^ pranava^ sarva^dnmayah \ Devo ndrdyano ndnyal^ $ko *gnir varnah 
eva eha \ FurHravasa evdAt trayl tretd-mukhe nripa \ Agnind prajayd 
rdjd lokam gdndharvam eyivdn \ 

*' The Gandharvas, gratified by his praises, gave him a platter con- 
taining fire. This he [at first] supposed to be Urvail, but became 
aware [of his mistake], as he wandered in the wood. Having placed 
the platter in the forest, Fururavas went home ; and as he was medi- 
tating in the night, after the Treta age had commenced, the triple Yeda 
appeared before his mind.'^ Betuming to the spot where ho had placed 
the platter, he beheld an aSvattha tree springing out of a Saml tree, and 
formed from it two pieces of wood. Longing to attain the world where 
Urvaiii dwelt, he imagined to himself, according to the sacred text, 
TJrvai^ as the lower and himself as the upper piece of wood, and the place 
of generation as situated between the two." Agni was produced frx)m its 

*^ Earma^hodhakam veda-trayafh praiurahhui \ "The three Yedas, expomiden of 
riteB, were manifested to him,'* at the scholiast explains." 

" Allusion is here made to a part of the ceremonial for kindling a particular sacri- 
ficial fire ; one of the formulas employed at which, as given in the Ysj. SanhitS, 6, 2, 
is, "thou art UrTas!" {JTrvaiy mi), and another, "thou art rnrturayas" {Pmuru^^ 


friction^ and, according to the threefold science [Yeda], was nnder his 
triple form, adopted by the king as his son. With this fire, seeking to 
attain the heaven of UrvasI, he worshipped the divine Hari, the lord of 
aacrifice, Adhokshaja, formed of the substance of all the gods. There 
was formerly but one Yeda, the sacred monosyllable om, the essence of 
aU speech; one god, Narayana; one Agni, and [one] caste. From 
Fnruravas came the triple Yeda in the begiDning of the Treta age. 
Through Agni, his son, the king attained the heaven of the Gan- 

On the close of this passage the commentator remarks ; 

Ifanv anddir veda-traya-hodhito hr&hmanddlnam Indrddy-aneka'devth 
ytijantna warga-prdpti-hetu^ karma-^ndrgal^ kathaih iddtr iva varfiyaU \ 
Tatrdha *^eka eva^* iti dvdhhydm \ Furd Tcrita-yuge sarva-vdnmaya^ 
mnrvdsdfh vdehdm i^ja-hhutah pranavah eka eva vedah \ Devai eha Ndrd' 
yanah eka eva \ Agnii cha eka eva laukika^ \ Varnai cha eka eva hamso 
ndma \ Veda-trayl tu Pururavaeah eakdidd dsit • • . • jiyam hhdvaJ^ \ 
krita-^fuge sattva-pradhdndh prdyaiah sarve ^pi dhydrm-nUh^hd^ \ rajahs 
pradhdne tu Tretd-yuge vedddi^ihMgena karma-mdrgah prakafo hdbhuva 
Uy arthal^ \ 

'< How is it that the eternal method of works, which is pointed out 
by the three Vedas, and through which Brahmans and others, by wor- 
shipping Indra and many other gods, attain to paradise, is spoken of 
[in the preceding verses] as if it had a beginning in time ? He [the 
author of the Furana] answers this iii these two verses. Formerly, i.e, in 
the Kf ita age, there was only one Yeda, the sacred monosyllable om, the 
essence of all words, i.e. that which is the seed of all words ; and there 
was only one god, Karaya^a; only one fire, that for common uses ; and 

rt), the fonner denoting the lower {adhararani), and the Intter the npper, piece of 
wood {uitararanx)^ by the friction of which the fire was to be produced. See Weber's 
Indiiche Stndien, i. 197, and note; Roth's Illnstrations of the Nirukta, p. 154; 
the S'atapatha Br&hmana, iii. 4, 1, 22, and Kdtyayana's S'rauta Sutras, t. 1, 28 ff. 
The commentator on the Vajanasaneyi Sanhita explains the formula Urvasy ati thus : 
Ya(hia Urvaii PururavO'fifipatya bhogaya adhaatat iete tadval tvam adho *v(uth%ta 
*9i I " As Urras'T lies under King PurQrayas for sexual connection, so thou art placed 

^ This story is also told in a prose passage in the Yish. Pur. \j, 6. It is there 
■tmted that PurC^yas divided fire, whidi was originally one, in a threefold manner 
{Eho*gniir addv ubhavad Ailena tu atra manvantare traita pravarttita). No mention, 
however, is there made of his haying divided the Yedas, or partitioned society into 


only one caste, the Hansa. But the triple Yeda came from PururaTos. 
«... The meaning is this : in the Kf ita age the quality of goodness 
predominated in men, who were almost all absorbed in meditation. But 
in the Treta age, when passion {rajaa) prevailed, the method of works 
was manifested by the division of the Ycdas." ^ 

This last quoted passage of the Bhagavata gives, as I have intimated, 
a different account of the division of the Vedas &om that contained in 
the other two texts previously adduced from the same work, and in the 
citations from the Vishnu and Yayu Puranas. The one set of passages 
speak of the Yeda as having been divided by Yyasa into four parts in the 
Dvapara age; while the text last cited speaks of the triple Yeda as haying 
originated with Fururavas in the Treta age ; and evidently belonged to 
a different tradition from the former three. The legend which speaks 
of three Ycdas may possibly have a somewhat more ancient source than 
that which speaks of four, as it was not till a later date that the Atharva 
asserted its right to be ranked with the three others as a fourth Yeda. 
The former tradition, however, would appear to have had its origin 
partly in etymological considerations. The word Tretd, though designat- 
ing the second Yuga, means a triad, and seems to have been suggested 
to the writer's mind by the triple fire mentioned in the legend. 

MaMhhdrata, — The following passage from the Muhabhdrata, S^anti* 
parvan (verses 13,088 ff.), agrees partially in tenor with the last 
passage from the Bhagavata, but is silent regarding Fururavas : 

Idam krita-ytigam ndma kula^ Sreshfhah pravarttitah \ AhifTisyd^ 
yajna-paiavo ytige ^smin na tad anyathd \ Chatushpdt sakalo dharmo hha^ 
viihyaty atra vat stirdh \ Taia$ Tretd-yuyam ndma trayl yatra bltavtah^ 
yati I Frokshitdh yajna-paiavo badham prdpsyanti vai makhe " | Yatra 

^* This legend is borrowed from the S'atapatha Bruhmana, zi. 5, 1, 1 ff. (pp. 855- 
858 Weber's ed.), where the motive for its introduction is to describe the process by 
which fire was generated by FurQravas in obedience to the command of the Gan- 
dhanras, as the means of his admission into their paradise. See Professor Muller*s 
translation of this story in the Oxford Essays for 1856, pp. 62, 63, or the reprint in 
his Chips from a German Workshop ; and the First Volume of this work, p. 226. 
The legend is founded on the 95th hymn of the tenth book of the Rig-veda. 

S9 Manu (i. 85, 86) differs from this passage of the Mahubhurata in making the 
Dvapara the age of sacrifice : Any$ Icfitaytige dhannaa Tretayam Dmparepare \ Any^ 
kaiiyuye njrlnnm yttga-krawnurupatah | Tapah pa ram Kfitayug$ Treta yuih juanam 
uehyate \ Dvapare yajnam evahur danam tkam kalau yuye \ ^* Different duties are 
practised by men in the Kfita age, and different duties in the Treta, Dvapara, and 


pdiai ehaturtho vat dharmasya na hhamhyati \ Tato vat dvuparafk n&ma 
mUrah k&lo hhavuhyati \ 

** This present £f ita age is the hest of all the yngas ; in it it will be 
unlawful to slay any animals for sacrifice ; in this age righteousness shall 
consist of all its four portions and be entire. Then shall follow the 
Treta age, in which the triple Yeda shall come into existence, and 
animala fit for sacrifice shall be slaughtered as oblations. In that age 
the fourth part of righteousness shall be wanting. Next shall succeed 
the Dv§para, a mixed period." 

The M. Bh. (S^antip. 13,475) relates that two Asuros, who beheld 
Brahma creating the Vedas, suddenly snatched them up and ran off. 
Brahma laments their loss, exclaiming : 

Vedo me paramdm cTiakahur vedo me paramam lalam | • . • • Veddn 
fUe hi Jdih kurydm hkandth efiahtim uttamdm \ 

" The Veda is my principal eye ; the Veda is my principal strength. 
. • . . What shall I do without the Vedas, the most excellent creation 
in the universe ? " They were, however, recovered and restored to 
Brahma (verses 13,506 S.). 

Fishnu Purdna. — The following verse, Vish. Pur. iii. 2, 12, refers to 
the periodical disappearance of the Vedas : 

ChUuryiigdnte veddndm jdyaU kali-^iplava^ | pravarttayanti tdn etya 
Ihuoi saptarshayo diva^ \ 

** At thjB end of the four ages {yuyas)'i}ie disappearance of the Vedas, 
incident to the Elali, takes place. The seven rishis come from heaven 
to earth, and again give them currency." (Compare A£. Bh. S>antip. 
Terse 7660| which will be quoted further on.) 

8scT. VI. — AeeounU in the Vishnu and Vdyu Purdnae of the sehisme 
between the adherents of the Yajw-veday Vaiiampdyana and Ydjna- 
wdkya : hostility of the Atharvanas totoards the other Vedas ; and of 
the Chhandogas towards the Rig-veda* 

The VishQU Fura^a, iii. 5, 2 ff.| gives the following legend regarding 

KaU tgei, in proportion to the decline in those yngas. DeTotion is stid io be supreme 
in the Kiita, knowledge in the Tretft, sacrifice in the Drfipara, and liberality alone in 
fbe SaH." See also Mahltt>hfirata, S'Sntiparran, Terse 8506, which agrees with Mann. 
8m also the First Volume of this work, pp. 89 ff. 


the way in which the Ytgur-veda oame to he divided into two Bohool^ 
the hlack and the white : 

Ydjnavalkyaa tu tasyalhud Brahmarata-sttto dvija | S'ishyah pttrama- 
iharma-jno guru-vritli-para^ sgdd \ ftishir yo ^dya mahdmeru^ ^amdje 
ndgamiahyati \ Tasya vai iapta-rdtram tu hrahma-hatyd Ihavtshyati \ 
Furvam eva muni-ganaih satnayo ^hhut kfito dvija \ Vaisatnpdyana ekoi 
tu tarn vyatihrdntavdtM tadd \ S'vaSrJyam hdlakam 90 Hha padd 9pfi%hr 
tarn aghdtayat \ S'uliydn aha sa '^ hhoh h'ahydh hrahma-Jtatydpahaih firth 
tarn I CJutradhvam mat-kfite sarve na vichdryyam idam tathd " | Athdha 
Ydjnavalkyas tarn '' kirn ehhir hhagavan dvijaih \ Kleiitair alpatejohhir eha- 
rishye ^ham idam vratam " | Tatah kruddho guruh prdha Ydjnavdlkyam 
mahdmatih Y^ Mucky aidih yat tvayd *dhUam matto viprdvamanyaka {NiBte- 
f'aso vadasy etdn yas team hrdhmana-pungavdn | Tena iishy^a ndrtho ^Hi 
mamdjnd'hhanga-kdrind " | Ydjnavalkyai tatah prdha hhaktau tat te mayo^ 
ditam \ Mamdpy alam tvayd ^dhitam yad mayd tad idam dvija \ Ity uktvd 
rudhirdktdni iarUpdni yq/HfJishi 8ah \ Chhardayitvd dadau tatmai yayau 
eha avechhayd munih | yajAmahy atha visfishfani Ydjnavalkyena vai dvija \ 
Jagrihus tittirlhhutvd TailtirJyds tu te tatah \ Brahna-hatyd-vratam 
chlrnam gurund choditais tu yaih \ Charakddhvaryavas te tu eharandd 
munisaitamdh \ Ydjnavalkyo Uha Maitreya prdndydma-pardyanal^ \ tuek^ 
Idva prayatah iuryam yajUmshy abhilasham tatah | • . . . Ity evam-^ 
ddibhia tena stUyamanah stavaif^ ravih \ vdji-rupa-dharah prdha ^' vjriya- 
fdm^* iti *' vdnchhitam" \ Ydjnavalkyas tadd prdha pranipatya divd* 
haram \ yajumshi tdni me dehi ydni santi nu me gurau | JSvam ukto db- 
dau tasmai yajUmehi hhagavdn ravi^ \ ayCtaydma-sanfndni ydni vettinm 
tad-guruh \ Yajumshi yair adhiidni tdni viprair dvijottama \ vdjinaa U 
iamdkhydtd^ eUryo *Svah so ^hhavad yatafi | 

'* Tajnavillkya, son of Brohmarata, was his [Vailampayana's]] di»« 
ciple, eminently versed in dnty, and always attentive to hi^ teacher. An 
agreement had formerly heen made by the Mnnis that any one of their 
number who should fuil to attend at an assembly on Mount Meru on 
a certain day should incur the guilt of Brahmanicide during a period 
ot seven nights. Yai^ampayana was the only person who infringed 
this agreement, and he in consequence occasioned the death of his 
sister's child by touching it with his foot. He then desired all his 
disciples to perform on his behalf an expiation which should take away 
his guilti and forbade any hesitation. Yajnavalkya then said to him, 


'Beverend Bur, what is the necessity for these faint and feeble Brah- 
minB? I will perform the expiation.' The wise teacher, incensed, 
jeplied to Ydjnavalk ja, ' Contemner of Brahmans, give up all that thoa 
Jiast learnt from me ; I have no need of a disobedient disciple, who, 
like thee, stigmatizes these eminent Brahmans as feeble.' Yujnavalkya 
rejoined, ' It was from devotion [to thee] that I said what I did ; but 
ly toOy have done with thee : here is all that I have learnt from thee.' 
Having spoken, he vomited forth the identical Yajush texts tainted 
with blood, and giving them to his master, he departed at his will. 
[The other pupils] having then become transformed into partridges 
(Jtittirt), picked up the Yajush texts, which were given up by Yajna- 
Talkya, and were thence called Taittirlyas. And those who by their 
teacher's eommand had performed the expiation for Brahmanicide, 
were from this performance {charana) culled Charakadhvaryus. Yajna- 
Talkya then, who was habituated to the exercise of suppressing his 
breath, devoutly hymned the sun, desiring to obtain Yajush texts. . . • 
[I pass over the hymn.] Thus celebrated with these and other praises, 
the snn assumed the form of a horse, and said, ' Ask whatever boon 
thon desirest.' Yajnavalkya then, bowing down before the lord of 
day, replied, ' Give me such Yajush texts as my teacher does not pos- 
sess.' Thus supplicated, the sun gave him the Yajush texts called 
Ay&tayama, which were not known to his master. Those by whom 
these texts were studied were called Yajins, because the 9un (when he 
gave them) assumed the shape of a horse {vcLjin)*^ 

I quote also the parallel text from the Yayu Fur&Qa, as it exhibits 
aome slight variations from the preceding (Aufr. Cat. p. 55) : 

Kdryam dsld fishin&ih eha hinehid brdhmana-sattamu^ \ M&ru-prish" 
tAMk samdsddya tats tadd '"^^v" t^i maniritam \ To nostra sapUh 
liUres^ tiAgaehhid dv^fa-iottamd^ \ sa kwryad hrahma-hadhydm vai 
9§maif0 na^ fraklrHtta^ \ Tatas U sa-^and^ sufrve Vaiiampdf/amhvarfi' 
i&i \ Prayayul^ sapiardtreM yaU-a iandhi^ Jcfito ^hhaioai \ Brdhmand' 
mSUk tu vaehandd hrahma-hadhydih ehakdra sa^ ] 8'ithydn atha %amdnlya 
m V^ifampdyano ^hravU \ '' Brdhmthhadhydrk charadhvam vat mai-kfiU 
tktfa^-$aitamdh \ sarve y^ya0t iamdgamya hruta me tad-hitaih vaehali " | 
Ydjnavalkyah uvdeha \ Aham eva charishydmi tishfhantu munayas tv ime \ 
idlaM chotihdpayiihydmi tapasd wena hhdvita^ | JSvam uktas tatal^ krud^ 
Ho YUfnavalkyam athdbravU ] wodeha "yai tvayd 'dhitam $arvam praiy- 



arpayawa me " | Evam uktah sarupdni yajufhshi pradadau guroh \ rv- 
dhirena iaihd ^ktdni chharditvd hrahmchvittamah \ Tatah sa dhydnam 
dathdya 9uryam drddhayad dvijah \ **silrya hrahma yad uchehhinnaih 
kham gatvd pratitishfhati^^ \ Tato ydni gatdny Urddham yajilm$hy 
dditya-mandalam | Tdnt lasmai dadau tushtah aUryo vat Brdhmardtaye \ 
Aha-rUpaS cha mdrttando Yajnavalkydya dhlmate \ YajUmshy adhlyaU 
ydni hrdhmandh yena kenachit {yam kdnichit ?) | aha^updni {-rupena ?) 
dattdni tataa te Vujino *hhavan ^ \ Irahma-hatyd tu yaii chlrnd charandt 
eharakdh amritdh \ VaiSampdyana-iishyds te charakdh iamuddhfitd^ \ 

** The rishis having a certain occasion, met on the summit of Mount 
Meru, when, after consultation, they resolved and agreed together that 
any one of their number who should fail to attend there for seven 
nights should become involved in the guilt of brahmanicide. They all in 
consequence resorted to the appointed place for seven nights along with 
their attendants. Yai^ampayana alone was absent, and he, according to 
the word of the Brahmans, committed brahmanicide. He then as- 
sembled his disciples, and desired them to perform, on his behalf, an 
expiation for his offence, and to meet and tell him what was salutary 
for the purpose. Yajnavalkya then saidf ' I myself will perform the 
penance ; let all these munis refrain : inspired by my own austere- 
fervour I shall raise up the boy (whom thou hast slain).' Incensed at 
this speech of Yajnavalkya [Yaii^ampayana] said to him, ' Eestore all 
that thou hast learned (from me).' Thus addressed, the sage, deeply 
versed in sacred lore, vomited forth the identical Yajush texts stained 
with blood, and delivered them to his teacher. Plunged in meditation, 
the Brahman (Yajnavalkya) then adored the sun, saying, * Sim, every 
sacred text which disappears [from the earth] goes to the sky, and 
there abides.' The sun, gratified, and [appearing] in the form of a 
horse, bestowed on Yajnavalkya, son of Brahmarata, all the Yajush 
texts which had ascended to the solar region. As all the Yajush texts 
which these Brahmans study were given by him in the form of a horse, 
they in consequence became Yajins. And the disciples of Yai^am- 
payana, by whom the expiatory rite was accomplished, were called 
Charakod, from its accomplishment {eharanay" 

^ lam indebted to Dr. Hall for communicating to me the variouB readings of ihii 
Tene in the India Office Library MSS., bat some parts of it seem to bo corrupt 
f* In a note io p. 461 (4to. ed.) of hit Traoalation of the YiBhua PnniQa, Prof. WilMm 


It 18 sufficiently evident from the preceding legend that the adherents 
of the two different divisions of the Yajorveda (the Taittirija or blacky 
and the Yajasaneyi or white), must in ancient times have regarded each 
other with feelings of the greatest hostility — feeh'ngs akin to those with 
which the followers of the rival deities, Vishnu and S^iva, look npon 
each other in modem days. On this subject I translate a passage from 
Professor Weber's History of Indian Literature, p. 84 : 

** Whilst the theologicans of the Eich are called Bahvrichas, and 
those of the Saman Chhandogas, the old name for the divines of the 
Tajush is Adhvaryu : and these ancient appellations are to be found in 
the Sanhita of the Black Yajush (the Taittirlya), and in the Brahmana 
of the White Yajush (the S^atapatha Brahmana). The latter work ap- 
]>lies the term Adhvaryus to its own adherents, whilst their opponents 
are denominated Charakadhvaryus, and are the objects of censure. This 
hostility is also exhibited in a passage of the Sanhita of the White 
Yajush, where the Charakacharya, as one of the human sacrifices to be 
offered at the Purushamedha, is devoted to Dushkf ita or Sin." " 

In his Indische Studien (iii. 454) Professor Weber specifies the fol- 
lowing passages in the S^atapatha Brahmana as those in which the Cha- 
rakas, or Charakadhvaryus are censured, viz. iii. 8, 2, 24; iv. 1, 2, 19; 
iv. 2, 3, 15 ; iv. 2, 4, 1 ; vi. 2, 2, 1, 10; viii. 1, 3, 7 ; viii. 7, 1, 14, 24. 
Of these I quote one specimen (iv. 1, 2, 19) : 

mentioiu the following legend illustratiye of the effects of this schism. '* The Yayv 
and Matsya relate, rather obscurely, a dispute between Janamejaya and Yais'ampayana, 
in consequence of the former's patronage of the Brahmans of the Yajasaneyi hranch 
of the Tajur-yeda, in opposition to the latter, who was the author of the Black or 
original Tajush. Janamejaya twice performed the Asyamedha according to the Yaja- 
saneyi ritual, and established the Trisarvl, or use of certain texts by As'maka and 
others, by the Brahmans of Anga, and by those of the middle country. He perished, 
howeyer, in consequence, being cursed by Yais'ampayana. Before their disagreement 
Vais'ampayana related the Mah&bharata to Janamejaya/* 

*^ Yajasaneyi Sanhit^ xxx. 18 (p. 846 of Weber's ed.) i Dushkfitaya charaka' 
gkaryyam | (eharakanam gurum — Scholiast). Prof. Miiller also says (Anc. Sansk. 
Lit p. 8^0), ** This name Charaka is used in one of the Ehilas (the passage just 
<{iioted) of the Yajasaneyi Sanhita as a term of reproach. In the 30th Adhyaya a 
list of people is giyen who are to be sacrificed at the Purushamedha, and among them 
we find the Char.ikacharya as the proper yictim to be offered to Dushkpta or Sin. 
This passage, together with similar hostile expressions in the S'atapatha Br&hmana, 
were eyidently dictated by a feeling of animosity against the ancient schools of the 
Adhyaryus, whose sacred texts we possess in the Taittirfya-yeda, and from whom 
Tajnayalkya seceded in order to become himself the founder of the new Charanas of 
tbe Yajasaneyins." 


Td^ u ha CharaJtd^ nSnd eta mantrShhydih jvhvati **prdnoddmm fw 
asya €tau \ ndnd-vlryau prdnoddnau kurma^'' iti vadantah \ Tadu tatkd 
na kurydt \ mohayanti ha U yajamdnatya prdnoddnau | apt id tot mum 
Hthnlih fuhuydt \ 

*' These the Charakas offer respectively with two mantru, saying 
thus : * These are his two breathings,' and ' we thus make these two 
breathings endowed with their respective powers.' But let no one 
adopt this procedure, for they confound the breathings of the wor- 
shipper. Wherefore let this libation be offered in silence." 

But these sectarian jealousies were not confined to the different 
schools of the Yajur-veda ; the adherents of the Atharra-veda seem to 
have evinced a similar spirit of hostility towards the followers of the 
other Yedas. On this subject Professor Weber remarks as follows in 
his Indische Studien, L 296 : '< A good deal of animosity is generally 
displayed in most of the writings connected with the Atharvan towards 
the other three Yedas ; but the strongest expression is given to this 
feeling in the first of the Atharva Pari^ishtas (Chambers Coll. No. 112)." 

He then proceeds to quote the following passage from that work : 

Bahvfieho hanti vat rdtthfram adhvaryur ndiaytt iutdn \ Chhandogo 
dhanath ndiayet tasmdd Atharvano guruh \ Ajndndd vd pramdddd vd 
yasya sydd hahvfieho guruh \ desa-rdshtra-purdrndtya-ndiat tatya na 
Baihiayah \ yadi vd 'dhvaryavafh rdjd niyundkti purohiiam \ iasirend 
hadhyate kshipram panlshtndrtha^dhanah \ yathaiva pangur adkcdnam 
apakihl chdnda-bhofanam {chdnda-jo nalhal^^)^ \ evaih chhandoga-gurund 
rdjd vriddhtm na gachhati \ purodhd jalado yasya maudo vd sydt kathan' 
ehana \ alddd daiahhyo mdaelhyo rdshfra-hhramSan^ sa gachhati \ 
. '< A Bahvricha (Rig-veda priest) will destroy a kingdom ; an Adh- 
varyu (Yajur-veda priest) will destroy offspring; and a Chhandoga 
(Sama-veda priest) will destroy wealth ; — hence an Atharvana priest 
is the [proper] spiritual adviser. (The king) who, through ignorance or 
mistake, takes a Bahvricha priest for his guide will, without doubt, lose 
his couQtry, kingdom, cities, and ministers. Or if a king appoints an 
Adhvaryu priest to be his domestic chaplain, he forfeits his wealth and 
his chariots, and is speedily slain by the sword. As a lamo man makes 
no progress on a road, and an egg-bom creature which is without wings 

"* For the ingenioui oonjectural emendation in bruketi, I am indebted to FtoftsMC 
Aofrecht I adopt it in mj translation. 


(Saimot soar into the tikj, so no king prospers who has a Chhandoga for 
his teacher. He who has a Jalada or a Maada for his priest, loses his 
kingdom after a year or ten months." 

''Thus," continues Professor Weber, '' the author of the Parii$ishta 
attacks the adherents of certain S^akhas of the Atharva-veda itself, for 
such are the Jaladas and the Haudas, and admits only a Bhargava, a 
Paippalada, or a S^aunaka to be a properly qualified teacher. He further 
declares that the Atharva-veda is intended only for the highest order of 
f riesty the brahman, not for the three other inferior sorts." 

The following passage is then quoted : 

Atharvd srijate ghoram adhhutafh iamayet fathd \ atharvd irahhaU 
fofnam yajnasya patir Angirah \ Divydntariksha-hhaumdndm utpdtdndm 
muikadhd \ iamayitd hrahma-veda-jnas tusmdd dahhinato Bhriguf^ \ 
Brahmd iamayed nddhvaryur na chhandogo na hahvriohaf^ \ raksh&0i%x 
taktihati hrahmd hrahmd tasmdd aiharvihvit \ 

*'The Atharva priest creates horrors, and he also allays alarming 
occurrences ; he protects the sacrifice, of which Angiras is the lord. 
He who is skilled in the Brahma-veda (the Atharva) can allay manifold 
portents, celestial, aerial, and terrestial ; wherefore the Bhpgu [is to 
be placed] on the right hand. It is the brahman, and not the adh- 
iraryu, the chhandoga, or the bahvpcha, who can allay [portents] ; the 
brahman wards off Eakshases, wherefore the brahman is he who knows 
the Atharvan." 

I subjoin another extract from Professor Weber's Indische Studien, 
L 63 ff., which illustrates the relation of the S&ma-veda to the Eig- 
Teda,^ as well as the mutual hostility of the different schools : '' To 
, understand the relation of the Sama-veda to the Hig-veda, we have 
only to form to ourselves a clear and distinct idea of the manner in 
which these hymns in general arose, how they were then carried to a 
distance by those tribes which emigrated onward, and how they were 
by them regarded as sacred, whilst in their original home, they were 
cither — as living in the immediate consciousness of the people — sub- 
jected to modifications corresponding to the lapse of time, or made way 
for new hymns by which they were pushed aside, and so became for- 
gotten. It is a foreign country which first surrounds familiar things 
^th a sacred charm ; emigrants continue to occupy their ancient men- 

** See the Second Yolame of this woik, pp. 202 L 


tal position, preserving what is old with painful exactness, while at 
home life opens ont for itself new paths. New emigrants follow those 
who had first left their home, and nnite with those who are already 
settlers in a new country. And now the old and the new hymns and 
usages are fused into one mass, and are faithfully, but uncritically, 
learned and imbibed by travelling pupils £rom different masters; — 
several stories in the Bfihad Aranyaka are especially instructive on 
this point, see Ind. Stud. p. 83 ; — so that a varied intermixture arises. 
Others again, more learned, then strive to introduce arrangement, to 
bring together what is homogeneous, to separate what is distinct ; and 
in this way theological intolerance springs up; without which the 
rigid formation of a text or a canon is impossible. The influence of 
courts on this process is not to be overlooked ; as, for example, in the 
case of Janaka, Kvag of Yideha, who in Yajnavalkya had found his 
Homer. Anything approaching to a clear insight into the reciprocal 
relations of the different schools will in vain be sought either from the 
Puranas or the Gharanavyuha, and can only be attained by comparing 
the teachers named in the different Brahmanas and Sutras, partly with 
each other and partly with the text of Panini and the ganapafha and 
commentary connected therewith (for the correction of which a thorough 
examination of Patonjali would offer the only sufficient guarantee). 
For the rest, the relation between the S.Y. and the E.Y. is in a certain 
degree analogous to that between the White and the Black Yajush; 
and, as in the Brahmana of the former (the S^atapatha Brahmana), we 
often And those teachers who are the representatives of the latter, men- 
tioned with contempt, it cannot surprise us, if in the Brahmana of the 
Sama-veda, the Paingins and Kaushltakins are similarly treated.'' 

It is sufficiently manifest from the preceding passages of the Puranas 
concerning the division and different S'akhas of the Yedas, that the 
traditions which they embody contain no information in regard to the 
composition of the hymns, and nothing tangible or authentic regarding 
the manner in which they were preserved, collected, or arranged. In fact, 
I have not adduced these passages for the purpose of elucidating those 
points, but to show the legendary character of the narratives, and their 
discrepancies in matters of detail. For an account of the Sakbas of the 
Yedas, the ancient schools of the Brahmans, and other matters of a 
similar nature, I must refer to the excellent work of Professor Miiller, 


the ''History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature/' pp. 119-132 and 864- 
888 and elsewhere. 

Sect. YII. — BeMonxng^ of the Commentators on the Vedas, %n support 

of the authority of the Vedae. 

I proceed now to adduce some extracts from the works of the more 
systematic authors who have treated of the origin and authority of the 
Yedas, I mean the commentators on these hooks themselves, and the 
authors and expositors of the aphorisms of several of the schools of 
llinda philosophy.*' Whatever we may think of the premises from 
which these writers set out, or of the conclusions at which they arrive, 

*> Although the authon of the different schools of Hindu philosophy (as we shall 
lee) expressly defend (on grounds which vary according to the principles of the several 
systems] the authority of the Vedas, they do not consider themselves as at all bound to 
assert that the different portions of those works are all of equal value : nor do they 
treat their sacred scriptures as the exclusive sources out of which their own theology 
or philosophy are to be evolved. On the relation of Indian thinkers generally to the 
Yedas, I quote some remarks from an article of my own in the Journal of the Royal 
Asiatic Society for 1862, pp. 310 f. : ** It is evident from some of the hymns of the 
Veda (see Miiller's Hist, of Anc. Sansk. Lit. p. 556 ff.) that theological speculation has 
been practised in India from a very early period. .... As, therefore, the religious 
or mythological systems of India became developed, it was to be expected that they 
should exhibit numerous variations springing out of the particular genius of different 
writers ; and more especially that, whenever the speculative element predominated in 
any author, he should give utterance to ideas on the origin of the world, and the 
nature and action of the Deity or deities, more or less opposed to those commonly 
received. In the stage here supposed, a fixed and authoritative system of belief or 
institotions had not yet been constructed, but was only in process of construction, and 
therefore considerable liberty of individual thought, expression, and action would be 
allowed ; as is, indeed, also shown by the existence of different schools of Bruhmans, 
not merely attached to one or other of the particular Yedas, but even restricting their 
all^iance to some particular recension of one of the Yedas. Even after the Brahmanical 
system had been more firmly established, and its details more minutely prescribed, it 
is clear that the same strictness was not extended to speculation, but that if a Brahman 
was only an observer of the established ceremonial, and an assertor of the privileges 
of his own order, he might entertain and even profess almost any philosophical opinion 
which he pleased (Colebrooke, Misc. Ess. i. 879 ; Miiller, Anc. Sansk. Lit. 79). In 
this way the tradition of free thought was preserved, and speculative principles of 
every character continued to be maintained and taught without hindrance or scandal. 
Meanwhile the authority of the Yedas had come to be generally regarded as para- 
mount and divine, but so long as this authority was nominally acknowledged, inde- 
pendent thinkers were permitted to propound a variety of speculative piinciples, at 
variaoe? with their general tenor, though perhaps not inconsistent with some isolated 


we cannot fail to be Btrnck with the contrast which their speculations 
exhibit to the loose and mystical ideas of the Puranas and Upanishads, 
or to admire the acnteness of their reasoning, the logical precision with 
which their arguments are presented, and the occasional liveliness and 
ingenuity of their illustrations. 

I. — The first passage which I shall adduce is from Sayana's intro- 
duction to his commentary on the Big-veda, the Yedarthaprakftia, 
pp. 3 ff. (Sayana, as we have seen in the Second Volume of this work, 
p. 172, lived in the 14th century, a.d.) : 

JNhnu Vedah eva tdvad ndsti \ kutas tad'Ovdntara-^iiesha^ figveds^ | 
Tathd hi I ko ^yaih vedo ndma \ na hi tatra laluhamfk pramdnaik 9d ^eii \ 
nacha tad-uhhaya-vyatirekena hinchid vastu prasidhyati \ Lakshana-prih 
mdnuhhydfh hi vastu-siddhir iti nyaya-viddm matam \ ** PratyakshdnU' 
mdndyameshu pramdna-viiesheshv antimo Vedah iti tallahhamm** iti ehet | 
na I Manv-ddi'Smfitishv aCivydpteh \ Samaya-halena samyak parokihd' 
nuhhava-sddhanam ity etasya dyama-lakshanasya tdiv api.sadhhdvdi | 
^* apaurusheyatve sati iti viieshandd adoshah^^ iti ehet \ na \ Vedasydpi 
parameivara-nirmitatvenapaurueheyatvdt \ " Sarlra-dhdri-jlva-nirmitai' 
vdhhdvdd apaurusheyatvam^^ iti ehet \ [na] | ** Sahatra-ilrsJid purusha^" 
ityddi-irutihhir Jsvarasydpi iarlritvdt \ ^^ Karma- phala-rHpa-iarira' 
dhdri'jlva'nirmitatvdhMva'fndtrena apaurueheyatvafii vivakshitam" M 
ehet I na \ Jlva-viieehair Agni- Vdyv-Adityair veddndm utpdditatvdt \ 
**fiy vedah eva Agner ajdyata Yajurvedo Vdyoh Sdmavedah Aditydd'* iti 
iruter Iharasya ayny - ddi - prerakatvena nirmdtfitvam draehfavyam \ 
*^ mantra-hrdhmandtmakah iabda-rdiir vedah** iti ehet \ na \ Idrih 
mantrah \ Idfiiam brdhmanam ity anayor adydpi antrnUatvdt \ Tasmdd 
ndsti hinchid vedasya lakshanam | Ndpi tat-sadhhdve pramdnafk paiyd- 
mah I " ' ftiyvedam hhagavo *dhyemi Yajurvedafh Sdmavedam Atharvanam 
ehaturtham ' ityddi vdkyatn pramdnam ** iti diet \ na \ tasydpi vdkyasya 
veduntahpdtitvena dtmdirayatva -prasangdt \ Na khalu nipuno *pi eva- 
ekandham drodhum prahhaved iti | " ' Vedah eva dvijdtindth nihireyasa- 
kara^ parah ' iti ddi snifiti-vukyam pramdnam " iti ehet \ na \ taeydpy 
ukta-iruti-mvilatvena nirdkfitatvdt \ pratyakehddikam iankitum apy ay(h 

portions of their contents. It was only when the authority of the sacred books was 
not merely tacitly set aside or nndermined, but openly discarded and denied, and the 
institutions founded on them were abandoned and asniled by the Buddhists, that the 
orthodox party took the alarm.*' 


nam I Vedthviahayd loha-prasiddhih idrvajanlnd *pi ** nllafh nahhah " 
iiyddi'Vad bhr&nid \ Taimdl lahhana-pramdna-rMtM^a v$daaya sad- 
ikdvo na anglkarttunt iakyate iti pUrva-pakihah \ 

Attn uehyaU j mantra-hrdhmafUltmaka^ tdvad adtuhfafh lahhanam | 
mU 0VB Apoitamho yajna-parihhdBhdydm evdha ^* mantra-hrdhmandyor 
peda-ndwutdheyam " Ui \ tayos iu riipam vparishfhdd nirneshyaU \ apaU" 
tutheyO'Vdkyatvam Hi idam apt yddriiam (umdhhir vivakshitaih tddrUam 
mUaratra ipMhfihhavUhyati \ pramdndny api yathoktdni irtUi-emriti' 
Toka-pranddhi-rHpuni veda-aadhhdve draahfavydni | Tathd yKata-patddi' 
drwydndm wa*prakdiatvdhhdve *pi sUrya-ehandrddlndih wa-prdkdiaUoam 
mnmdham tathd maniuhyddlndfk ita-akandhdrohdaarnhhave *py akunthita- 
iakUr vedaaya itara^aatu-pratipildakatva^at wa-pratipddaJcatvam apy 
Mstu I Ata eva sampraddya-vido *kunthitdm Saktim vedaaya darSayanti 
*' ehodand hi hhiktam hhaviahyantaih aUkahmaih vyavahitam viprakfiahtaM 
Uy evanjddyam artham iaknoty avayamayitum " iti \ Tathd aati vedo' 
muldyd^ amjritea tad-ubhaya-mnldydh loka-praaiddhei cha prdmdt^yaih 
iurvdram \ Taamdl hkahana-pramdna-aiddho vedo na kmdpi churvdkddind 
^podhu^ iakyata iti athitam \ 

Nan/9 aatu ndma Feddkhyah kaSchit paddrthah \ tathdpi ndaau vyd' 
tkydnam arhati apramdnatvena anupayuktatvdt \ Na hi Vedah pramdnafh 
ial-ldkahanaaya tatra duhaampddatvdt | tathd hi " aatnyay anuhhava-ad* 
ihana^ pramdnam " iti kechil lakahanam dhuh \ apara tu '* anadhiyatdr' 
ika-^antji pramdnam^* ity dehakahate \ na chaitad uhhayam veda aambha- 
9mti I mantra-hrdhmandtmako hivedah | tatra tnantrd^kechidahodhakdh\ 
**Mmyak ad ta Indra rishfir" (R.V. i. 169, 3) ity ako mantrah \ ''Yd- 
drii/nin dhdyi tarn apaayayd vidad" (11. V. v. 44, 8) ity anyah \ *'S'ri^yd 
iMJarhharl turpharitu'' (R.V. x. 106, 6) ity aparah \ ^'Apdnta-manyua 
tlipala-prahharmd " (R.y. z. 89, 5) ity-ddayah uddhdryah \ na hy etair 
manlraih ka&chid apy artho ^vahudhyata \ etaahv anuhhavo eva yadd ndati 
tadd tat-'aamyaktvam tadlya-addhanatvafh cha dnrdpetam \ *iAdhah avid 
iUid " (R.y. z. 129, 5) iti mantraaya hodhakatve *pi *' athdnur td puruaho 
vd** ityddi'Vdkya-vat aandiydhdrtha-hodhakatvdd ndati prdmdnyam \ 
** Oahadhe trdyaava anam*' (Taitt. Sanh. i. 2, 1, 1) iti fnantro darhha* 
tMayah \ *^8vadhita md enath himalr " (Taitt. Sanh. i. 2, 1, 1) itikahura- 
viakayah \ '^Srinota yrdvdnah" iti pdahdna-viahayah \ Eteahv aehetand' 
mdih darlha-hahurihpdah&ndndvk chetanchvai aambodhanaih irUyate \ tato 
*' Ami ehtmdramaadv '' iU vdkya^ad viparitdrtha-bodhakatvdd aprdrndn- 


yam I ^*Ekah eva Rudro na dvitlyo *vatasthe '' | ^'aahasrdni aahasraio y# 
Rudr&h adhi hhnmydm^^^ ity anayoa tu manirayar '* ydvaj^'ivam aham 
maunl** ity vdkya-vad vydghdta-hodhahatvdd aprdtndnyam \ **Apa^ im- 
dantu'^ (Taitt. Sanh. i. 2, 1, 1) iti mantro yajamdnaaya kahaura-kdU 
jalena Hra&ah kledanam hrute \ '*S'uhhike Ura^ droha iohhayanti mukham 
mama" iti mantro vivdha-kdle mangaldcharandrtham pushpa^irmitdyd^ 
iuhhikdydh vara-hadhvoh Hrasy avasthdnam hrute | tayoi eha mantrayor 
loka-prasiddhdrthdnuvdditvdd anadhigatdrtha-^antfitvam ndsti | tdsmdd 
mantra-hhdgo na pramdnam \ 

Aira uchyate \ '^Amyag^^'ddi-mantrdndm artho Tdskena nirukta^ 
granihe *vahodhitah \ taUparichaya-rahitdndm anavahodho na mantrdnd§i 
doiham dvdhati | Ata eva atra hka-nydyam uddharanti ** na esha sthdnor 
aparddho yad enam andho na paiyati \ purushdparddho samhhavati " iti | 
**Adhah svid d8ld" iti mantraS cha na sandeha-prahodJuindya pravjritta^ 
kimtarhi jagat-kdranasya para-vastuno Higamhhiratvaih niichetum eva 
pravjittah | tad-artham eta hi gurthidatra-sampraddya^ahitair durho* 
dhyatvam " adhah svid " ity anayd vacho-hhangyd upanyasyati \ Sa eva 
ahhiprdyali uparitaneshu **ko addhd veda" (Il.Y. x. 129, 6) ity ddi* 
mantreshu apashflkritah \ '' Oshadhy **'ddi mantreshv api chetand^ eva 
tat'tdd-ahhimdni-devatds tena tena ndmnd samhodhyante \ tdi eha devatd^ 
hhagavatd Bddardyanena " ahhimdni-vyapadeias tu " iti sUtre ailtritdk | 
£kasydpi Eudraeya sva-mahimnd Bahasra-mUrtti-evlkdrdd nditi para9* 
paraih vydghdtah \ Jalddi-dravyena kirah-kledanddet hka-aiddhatve *pi 
tad-ahhimdni-devatdnugrahasya aprasiddhatvdt tad-vishayatvena ajndtdr^ 
iha-jndpakatvam \ tato takshana-aadhhdvdd asti mantra 'hhdgasy a pro* 
mdnyam \ 

** But, some will say, there is no such thing as a Yeda ; how, then^ 
can there be a Big-veda, forming a particular part of it ? For what is 
this Yeda? It has no characteristic sign or evidence; and without 
these two conditions, nothing can be proved to exist. For logicians 
hold that ' a thing is established by characteristic signs and by proofl' 
If you answer that ' of the three kinds of proof, perception, inference, 
and scripture, the Yeda is the last, and that this is its sign ;' then the 
objectors rejoin that this is not true, for this sign extends too far, and 
includes also Hanu's and the other Smfitis ; since there exists in them 

** The YfijaMneyi Sanhiti, xtL 63, has, atankhyata tahasrani ye Budrah adhi 
hhumynm j 


also this characteristic of Scripture, viz. that in virtue of common con- 
sent it is a perfect instrument for the discovery of what is invisible.' 
If you proceed, * the Veda is faultless, in consequence of its charac- 
teristic that it has no person {purusha) for its author;'^ they again 
reply, * Kot so ; for as the Yeda likewise was formed by Parame^vara 
(€k)d), it had a person {purusha) for its author.' If you rejoin, * It had 
no person (jmrusha) for its author, for it was not made by any embodied 
living being ; ' f they refuse '^ to admit this] on the ground ihot, accord- 
ing to such Yedic texts as 'Purusha has a thousand heads,' it is clear 
that r^vara (God) also has a body. If you urge that apaurusheyatva 
('the having had no personal author ') means that it was not composed 
by a living being endowed with a body which was the result of works ; 
..the opponent denies this also, inasmuch as the Yedas were created 
by particular living beings — Agni (fire), Vayu (wind), and Aditya (the 
son) ; for from the text ' the Eig-veda sprang from Agni, the Yajur- 
▼eda from Vayu, and the Sama-veda from Surya,' etc., it will be seen 
that I^vara was the maker, by inciting Agni and the others. If you 
next say that the Yeda is a collection of words in the form of Mantras 
and Brahma^as, the objectors rejoin, ' Not so, for it has never yet been 
defined that a Mantra is so and so, and a Brahma^a so and so.' There 
exists, therefore, no characteristic mark of a Yeda. Kor do we see any 
proof that a Yeda exists. If you say that the text, * I peruse, reverend 
mr^ the Eig-veda, the Yajur-veda, the Sama-veda, and the Atharva^a 
as the fourth,' is a proof, the antagonist answers, ' No, for as that text 
is part of the Yeda, the latter would be open to the objection of depending 
npon itself; for no one, be he ever so clever, can mount upon his own 
shoulders.' If you again urge that such texts of the Smfiti as this, 
' It is the Yeda alone which is the source of blessedness to twice-born 
men, and transcendent,' are proofs, the objector rejoins,' ' Not so ; since 
these too must be rejected, as being founded on the same Yeda.' The 

* Or, the meaning of this may be, '' If you urge that, as the Yeda has no personal 
vto, there is — in consequence of this peculiar characteristic— no flaw (in the pro- 
Pwd definition], etc." 

^ I have translated this, as if it there had been (which there is not) a negative 
pvtide iM in the printed text, after the tVt eJ^ety as this seems to me to be necessary 
to the sense. I understand from Prof. MQIIer that the negative particle is found in 
■■eof the MSS. [I am, however, informed by Prof. Goldstiicker that na is often 
MDttsd, though undoitood, after iU cA«l.] 


evidence of the senses and other ordinary sources of knowledge ought 
not even to be doubted .'* And common report in reference to the 
Yeda, though universal, is erroneous, like such phrases as ' the blue 
sky,' etc. Wherefore, as the Veda is destitute of characteristic sign 
and proof, its existence cannot be admitted. Such is the first side of 
the question. 

'* To this we reply : The definition of the Yeda, as a work composed 
of Mantra and Brahmana, is unobjectionable. Hence Apastamba says 
in the Yajnaparibhasha, ' the name of Mantra and Brahmana is Yeda.' 
The nature of these two things will be settled hereafter.'^ The sense 
we attach to the expression ' consisting of sentences which had no per- 
sonal author ' will also be declared further on. Let the proofs which have 
been specified of the existence of the Yeda, viz. the Yeda (itself), the 
Smf iti, and common notoriety, be duly weighed.. Although jars, cloth, 
and other such [dark] objects have no inherent property of making them- 
selves visible, it is no absurdity to speak of the sun, moon, and other 
luminous bodies, as shining by their own light. Just in the same way, 
though it is impossible for men or any other beings to mount on their own 
shoulders, let the Yeda through the keenness of its power be held to have 
the power of proving itself, as it has of proving other things.^ Hence 
traditionists set forth this penetrating force of the Yeda ; thus, * Scrip- 
ture is able to make known the past, the future, the minute, the distant, 
the remote.' Such being the case, the authority of the Smf iti, which 
is based on the Yeda, and that of common notoriety, whioh is based on 
both, is irresistible. Wherefore it stands fast that the Yeda, which is 

^ The drift of this sentenee does not eeem to me clear. From what Immediately 
follows it would rather appear that the evidence of the senses may be doabted* Gvi 
the passage be corrupt ? 

^ See the First Volume of this work, pp. 2 ff. and the Second Yolnme, p. 172. 

^ The tame thing had been said before by S'ankSra Achfiryja (who lived at the 
end of the 8th or beginning of the 9th century, a.d. See Colebrooke*s Misc. Essays, 
i. 332), in his commentary on the Brahma Sutras, it 1, 1 : Vedtu^a hi niraptktham 
tvarthe pramant/tm ravir tpa rupO'Vishaye | purusha-vaehasam tu mulantarapek$ham 
tvarth$ pramanyam vaktfi-smfiii'Vyavahitam eha iti viprakarthah \ " For the Yeda 
has an independent authority in respect of its own sense, as the sun has of manifesting 
forms. The words of men on the other hand, have, as regards their own sense, an 
authority which is dependent upon another source [the Yeda], and which is separated 
[from the authority of the Yeda] by the fact of its author bcinff remembered. Herein 
consists the distinction [between the two kinds of authority]." 


eftaUished by charaeteristio dgiiy and b j proof, cannot be OTertorned by 
^e Chirvakas or any other opponents. 

'' But let it be admitted that there is a thing called a Yeda. Still, 
the opponents say, it does not deserve explanation, being nnsnited for it, 
since it docs not constitate proof. The Yeda, they urge, is no proof, as 
it ia difficult to show that it has any sign of that character. Now, 
fiome define proof as the instrument of perfect apprehension; others 
■ay, it is that which arrives at what was not before ascertained. 
But neither of these definitions can be reasonably applied to the Yeda. 
7or the Yeda consists of Mantra and Brahmana. Of these mantras 
Bome convey no meaning. Thus one is amyak ad U Indra riahtir^ etc. ; 
another is yddfUmin^ etc.; a third is ifinycL iva, etc. The texts 
dpdniu-manyuh,^ etc., and others may be adduced as further examples. 
Kow no meaning whatever is to be perceived through these mantras ; 
and when they do not even convey an idea at all, much less can they 
convey a perfect idea, or be instruments of apprehension. Even if 
the mantra adha^ avid dald upari avid dald, * was it below or above ? ' 
(E.Y. z. 129, 5) convey a meaning, still, like such sayings as ' either a 
post or a man,' it conveys a dubious meaning, and so possesses no au- 
thority. The mantra, ' deliver him, o plant,' has for its subject grass. 
Another, ' do not hurt him, axe,' has for its subject an axe {kahura), 
A third, ' hear, stones,' has for its subject stones. In these cases, grass, 
an axe, and stones, though insensible objects, are addressed in the Yeda 
tia if they were intelligent. Hence these passages have no authority, 
beoanse, like the saying, ' two moons,' their import is absurd. So also 
the two texts, ' there is one Eudra; no second has existed,' and 'the 
thousand Budras who are over the earth,' involving, as they do, a ma- 
toal oontradiction (just as if one were to say, ' I have been silent all 
ay life '), cannot be authoritative. The mantra dpah undantu expresses 
the wetting of the sacrificer's head with water at the time of tonsure ; 
wbile the text ' iubhike^^ etc. (' garland, mount on my head and decorate 
mj fsoe') expresses the placing of a garland formed of flowers on the 
heads tA the bridegroom and bride, by way of blessing, at the time of 
BianiagQ. Now, as these two last texts merely repeat a matter of 

** See Nirokta, v. 12, and vi. 15, and Roth's lUastrations. It is not necessary for 
mf paipose to inquire whether tl^e charge of intelligibility brought against these 
different texts is just or not 


common notoriety, they cannot be said to attain to what was not before 
ascertained. Wherefore the Mantra portion of the Yeda is destitute of 

** To this we reply, the meaning of these texts, * amyaky and the 
others, has been explained by Yaska in the Nirukta.*' The fact that 
th^ are not understood by persons ignorant of that explanation, does 
not prove any defect in the mantras. It is customary to quote here the 
popular maxim, ' it is not the fault of the post that the blind man does 
not see it; the reasonable thing to say is that it is the man's fault*. 
The mantra *adhah wtd,* etc. ('was it above or below?') (E.y.z. 129» 
6) is not intended to convey doubt, but rather to signify the extreme 
profundity of the supreme Essence, the cause of the world. With this 
view the author intimates by this turn of expression the difficulty which 
persons who are not versed in the deep Scriptures have, in compre- 
hending such subjects. The same intention is manifested in the fol- 
lowing mantras ko addhd veda, etc. (E.y. x. 129, 6) ('who knows?' 
etc.) In the texts oshadhe, etc. (' o herb,' etc.), the deities who pre- 
side over these various objects are addressed by these several names. 
These deities are referred to by the venerable Badarayana in the apho- 
rism dbhimdni'Vyapadeiah: As Eudra, though only one, assumes by his 
power a thousand formd, there is no contradiction between the different 
texts which relate to him. And though the moistening, etc., of the 
hoad by water, etc., is a matter of common notoriety, yet as the good- 
will of the deities who preside over these objects is not generally known, 
the texts in question, by having this for their subject, are declaratory 
of what is unknown. Hence the Mantra portion of the Yeda, being 
shown to have a characteristic mark, is authoritative." 

S&ya^a then, in p. 11 of his Preface, proceeds to extend his argu- 
ment to the Brahma^as. These are divisible into two parts, Precepts 
{vidhi), and Explanatory remarks {arthavdda). Precepts again are either 
(a) incitements to perform some act in which a man has not yet engaged 
{apravfitta-pravarttanam^ such as are contained in the ceremonial sec- 
taons {Karma-handa) ; or (b) revelations of something previously unknown 
{ajndta-Jndpanam), such as are found in the portions which treat of sa- 
cred knowledge or the supreme spirit {Brahma-kdn^a). Both these parts 

•* See the Journal of the Royal Aiiatic Society for 1866, pp. 323, 329, 334, and 


are objected to as nnantlioritative. The former is said (1) to eDJoin 
things afterwards declared to be improper ; and (2) to prescribe in some 
texts things which are prohibited in others. Thus in the Aitarcjn, 
Taittirija, and other Brahmanas, many injunctions given in other 
places are controverted in snch phrases as, '' This or that must not be 
regarded ; " " This must not bo done in that way " {tat tad na adrit- 
yam j tai tathd na kdryyam)?^ And again prescriptions are given which 
are mutually contradictory. Another objection is that no result, such 
as the attainment of paradise, is perceived to follow the celebration of a 
jyotishtoraa or other sacrifice ; whilst satisfaction never fails to be ex- 
perienced immediately after eating {jyotishtomadtshv apy anushthand- 
naniaram eva eha ivargHdi-jphalaih na upalahhyate \ fia hi bhojandnan- 
tara^ trtpter anupalamhho'ati |). The answer given to the earlier of 
these objections is that the discrepant injunctions and prohibitions are 
icspectively applicable to people belonging to different S'akhas or Vedic 
schools ; just as things forbidden to a man in one state of life {uirama) 
are permitted to one who is in another. It is thus the difference of per- 
sona which gives rise to the apparent opposition between the precepts 
{tathd jarttilddi-vidhtr attra nindyamdno *pi kvachit idhhdntare hhaved iti 
ehft I hhavatu ndma \ prdmdnyam apt tach-ckhdhhadhydyinam prati hha- 
tishyati \ yaihd grihasthdirame niihiddham apt pardnna-bhojanam dSra* 
mdntareshu prdmdnikaih tad-vat \ anena nydyena sarvattra para^ara^ 
viruddhau vidhi-nishedhau purusha-hhedena vyavasthdpanlyau yathd man- 
treihu pafha-hhedah |). In the same way, it is remarked, the different 
B&khas adopt different readings in the mantras. As regards the objection 
raised to the authoritativeness of the revelations of things hitherto un- 
known, which are made in the Brahma-kan^a, that they are mutually 
eoiitradictory — as when the Aitareyins say, Atmd vat tdam ekah eva ayre 
Wf ''This was in the beginning soul only ; " whilst the Taittirlyakas 
on the other hand affirm, aiad vat idam agre dsU, '' This was in the be- 
Suukiog non-existent ; " — ^the answer is given that it is determined by a 
particular aphorism (which is quoted)^' that in the latter passage the 
^otd uat does not mean absolute vacuity or nothingness, but merely an 

^ Compare the quotation giyan abore, p. 64, from the S'atapaiha BruhmaQa, iv, 

^ Brahma Satra, iL 1, 7, appears to be intended ; bnt the text of it as giTen by 
^fiia doaa not oonespoad with that in the Bibliotheca Indies. 



undeveloped condition (. . . . tti sutre Tatttirlya-gata-vSkyasya asaeh' 
chhahdasya na iunya-paraivaih hintv avyaktuvasthd-paratvam iti ntnil- 
tam 1).^ Saja^ia accordingly concludes (p. 19 of bis Preface) that tlie 
anthority of the whole Veda is proved. 

II. — The second passage which I shall quote is from the Yedarthap 
prakasa of Madhava Acharyya on the Taittiriya Yujur-veda (p. 1 ff. ia 
the Bibliotheca Indica). Madhava was the brother of Sayana,^ and 
flourished in ihe middle of the 1 4th century (Colebrooke's Misc. Ess. 
i. 301) : 

Nanu ho 'yarn vedo ndma he vd asya vishaya-prayojana-Mmhandhildki' 
hdrinah ^atfia)h vd tasya prdmdnyam \ na kkalv etasmin aarvasmtnn aaati 
vedo vydkhydna-yogyo hhavati \ Atra uchyate \ hhta'prdpty-anUhta'paru 
hdrayor alaukikam updyam yo grantho vedayati sa vedahk \ Alaukika-pO' 
dena prat^akshdnumdne vydvartyeU j Anvhhuyamdnasya trak-chandanth 
vanitdder ishfa-prdpti'hetutvam aushadha-aevader anishfa'pariMra-hetut* 
vam cha pratyakshorsiddliam \ Svendnvhhavishyamdnasya purwhuntarO' 
gatasya cha iathdtvam anumdna-yamyam \ ^'JEvam iarhi hhdri'janma'yata' 
sukhddikam anumdna-yamyam^* iti chet \ na | tctd^iieahasya anavagamdt \ 
Na khalu jyotishtomddir ishfa-prdpti-hetuh kalanja-hhakshana-varjanddir 
anishfa-parikdra-hetur ity amum artham veda-vyatirekena anumdna-sahai' 
rendpi idrkika-iiromanir apy asydvagantum iaknoti \ Tasmdd alattkiko' 
pdya-hodhako vedah iti lakshamBya na ativydptam | ata evoktam \ *' Pro- 
tyakshendmimityd vd yas txipdyo na hudhyate \ Etam vindanti vedena 
tasmdd vedasya vedatd *' iti \ m eva updyo vedasya viahayah \ tad-hodha^ 
eva prayojanam \ tad-hodMrthl cha adhikdrt \ tena aaha upakdryyopakd- 
raka-hhdvah samhandhah \ nanu "evam aaii strl-iUdra'Sahitdh sarve vedd* 
dhikdrinah ayur ' ishfam me sydd aniahfam md hhud ' iti dSisha^ sdrvaja- 
nlnatvdt " | maivam \ atri-iudrayoh saty updye hodhdrthitve hetv-antarena 
vedddhikdrasya pratiladdhatvdt \ vpanltasya era adhyayanddhikdram 

^ Compare with ibis the passages .quoted from the S'atapatha and Taittiriya Br&h- 
manas in the First Volume of this work* pp. 19 f., 24 f., 27 f., and from the Taitt. Sanh. 
and Bruh. in pp. 52 and 53 ; and see also the texts referred to and commented upon 
in the Joum of the Roy. As. Soc. for 1864, p. 72, and in tho No. for 1865, pp. 

^ Whether either of these two brothers, who were ministers of state, were the 
actual writers of the works which bear their names, or whether the works were com- 
posed by Pandits patronized by the two statesmen, and called after the names of their 
patronsi is a point which I need not attempt to decide. 


hruvat idstram anupanltayoh 8tri-Sudr at/or vedddhyayanam anuhta-prdp* 
ii'heiur Hi hodhayati \ kaihafk tarhi tayo% tad-updydvayamah \ purdnd" 
dibhir iti hrumah \ ata evoktam | " iM-iudra-dtfjahandhUndtTi trayl na 
inUi-goehard \ Hi Bhdratam dkhydnam munind kfipayd kfitam*' (Bh3g. 
Pur. i. 4, 25) | iti \ tasmdd upanltair eva traivarnikair vedasya aam- 
handhah \ tat-prdrndnyarh tu hodhakatvdt svatah eva Btddham \ paurth 
tkeya-vdkyaih tu hodhakam api sat punuha-yata-hhrdnti'inUlatva'Sam' 
hhdvanayd tat-parihdrdya mula-pramdnam apekshate na tu vedah \ tasya 
mtyatvena vaktri - dosha - iankdnudaydt | . • . . I/anu vedo *pi Kdlidd' 
wddi'Vdkya-vat paurmheyah wa Brahma- kdryyatva-iravandt \ **fichah 
gdmdni jajnire \ ehhandufMi jajnir$ tasmdd yajus tasmdd ajdyata " iti 
hrute^ I ataevaBddardyanah{i. 1, 3) ** idstra-yoniivad** iti sUtrena Brah* 
n*ano veda-kdranatvam avochat i maivam \ iruii'Smritibhydrh nityatvdvO' 
gamdt I ^'vdchd VirUpa niiyayd" (R.V. viii. 64, 6) itiirute^ {^'anddi- 
nidhand nit yd vdy utsfishfd svayamhhuvd " iti smritei cha \ Bddard" 
yano 'pi detatddhikarane sutraydmdsa (i. 3, 29) '' ata eva oha nityatcam " 
Hi I tarhi ** paraspara-virodhah ** iti ehet | na \ nityatvasya vydvahdri- 
hatvdt I sriihfer ^rdhvaih sarkhdrdt pHrvam vyavahdra-kdlas tasmin ut» 
patih-vindiddariandt \ kdldkdsddayo yathd nitydh evam vedo *pi vyavahd' 
nhkdU Kdliddsddi'Vdkya-vai puruska-virachitatvdhhdvdd nityah \ ddi- 
sfis'-^au tu kdldkdiddi'Vad eva Brahmanah sakdSdd vedotpattir dmnd- 
yate \ ato vishaya-hheddd na paraspara-tirodhah \ Brahmano nirdoshat- 
Hna vedasya vaktri-doshdhhdvdt svatas-siddham prdmdnyafh tad-avas- 
^am I tasmdl lakshana-pramdna-sadbhdvdd vishaya-prayofana'Samban" 
ih&dhikdri-sadhhdvdt prdmdnyasya suithatvdch cha vedo vydkhydtavyah 
ma I 

" NoWy some may ask, what is this Veda, or what are its snbject- 
natter, its use, its connection, or the persons who are competent to 
rtudy it? and how is it authoritative ? For, in the absence of all these 
Qosditions, the Yeda does not deserye to be expounded. I reply : the 
hook which makes known {vedayati) the supernatural {lit. non-secular) 
ncans of obtaining desirable objects, and getting rid of undesirable 
<*ject«, is the Veda. By the employment of the word ** supernatural,'* 
[the ordinary means of information, viz.] perception and inference, are 
excladed. By perception it is established that such objects of sense, 
« garlands, sandal-wood, and women are causes of gratification, and 
that the use of medicines and so forth is the means of getting rid 


of what 18 undesirable. And we ascertain by inference that we shall in 
future experience, and that other men now experience, the same results 
(from these same causes). If it be asked whether, then, the happinesSi 
etc., of a future birth be not in the same way ascertainable by inference^ 
I reply that it is not, because we cannot discover its specific character, 
l^ot even the most brilliant ornament of the logical school could, by 
a thousand inferences, without the help of the Yedas, discover the 
truths that the jyotuhfoma and other saciifices are the means of at- 
taining happiness, and that abstinence from intoxicating drugs ^* is the 
means of removing what is undesirable. Thus it is not too wide 
a definition of the Yeda to say that it is that which indicates super- 
natural expedients. Hence, it has been said, ' men discover by the 
Yeda those expedients which cannot be ascertained by perception or 
inference ; and this is the characteristic feature of the Yeda.' These 
expedients, then, form the subject of the Yeda ; [to teach] the know- 
ledge of them is its use; the person who seeks that knowledge is 
the competent student; and the connection of the Yeda with such 
a student is that of a benefactor with the individual who is to be 

'' But, if such be the case, it may be said that all persons whatever, 
including women and S udras, must be competent students of the Yed% 
since the aspiration after good and the deprecation of evil are common 
to the whole of mankind. Sut it is not so. For though the expedient 
exists, and women and S^udras are desirous to know it, they are de- 
barred by another cause from being competent students of the Yeda. 
The scripture {iudra) which declares that those persons only who have 
been invested with the sacrificial cord are competent to read the Yeda, 
intimates thereby that the same study would be a cause of unhappiness 
to women and S^udras [who are not so invested]. How, then, are these 
two classes of persons to discover the means of future happiness ? We 
answer, from the Puranas and other such works. Hence it has been 
said, ' since the triple Yeda may not be heard by women, S^udras, and 
degraded twice-born men, the Mahabharata was, in his benevolence, 

V' Kalaf^tt'hhah9hamm is mentioned in the Commentary on the Bhfif^avata PurSoa, 
z. 83, 28. In his translation of the Eufiumanjali, p. 81, note, Professor Cowell says : 
'* Some hold the Kalaiya to be the flesh of a deer killed by a poisoned arrow— othen 
hemp or bhang,— others a kind of garU& See Baghmuuidana's SkfidaA Utftra.** 


composed by the Muni.' ^ THe Veda, therefore, has only a relation to 
men of the three siiperior classes who have obtained investiture. 

** Then the authority of the Veda is self-evident, from the fact of its 
communicating knowledge. For though the words of men also com- 
municate knowledge, still, as they must be conceived to participate in 
the fallibility of their authors, they require some primary authority to 
remedy that fallibility. But such is not the case with the Yeda ; for 
as that had no beginning, it is impossible to suspect any defect in the 
ntterer. • . . 

"A doubt may, however, be raised whether the Veda is not, like the 
■entences of Kalidasa and others, derived from a personal being,^' as it 
proclaims itself to have been formed by Brahma, according to the text, 
'the Rich and Saman verses, tho metres, sprang from him; from him 
the Yajttsh was produced ; ' ^ in consequence of which Badarayana, in 
the aphorism^ 'since he is the source of the ^astra,' has pronounced 
that Brahma is the cause of the Yeda. But this doubt is groundless ; 
for the eternity of the Yeda has been declared both by itself, in the 
text} * with an eternal voice, o Yirupa,' ^' and by the Smf iti in the 
verse 'an eternal voice, without beginning or end, was uttered by 
the Self-existent.'^ Badarayana, too, in his section on the deities 
(Brahma Sutras, i. 3, 29) has this aphorism ; ' hence also [its] eternity 
[is to be maintained].' If it be objected that these statements of his 
are mutually conflicting, I answer, No. For [in the passages where] 
the word eternity is applied to the Yedas, it is to be understood as 
referring to the period of action [or mundane existence]. This period 
18 that which commences with the creation, and lasts till the destruo* 
tion of the universe, since, during this interval, no worlds are seen to 

*' See (he quotation from the Bhagavata PorS^a, above, p. 42. 

^ This seems to be the only way to translate paurutheya^ a« purwha-cxanxii here 
mean a human being. 

^ R.Y. z. 90, 9, quoted in the First Volume of this work, p. 10 ; and p. 8, above. 

^ Brahma SQtras, L 1, 3, p. 7 of Dr. Ballantyne's Aphorisms of the VedtLnta. 

^ These words are part of Rig-yeda, Tiii. 64, 6 : Tiumai nunam abhidyaw vaehS 
Yirtipa nityaya \ vfishne chodawa sushfuCim \ ^ Send forth praises to this heaven* 
aspiring and prolific Agni, o VirQpa, with an unceasing voice [or hymn]." The word 
mtygya seems to mean nothing more than " continual," though in the text I haTO 
rendered it *' eternal," as the author's reasoning requires. Colebrooke (Misc. Ess. i. 
806), however, translates it by ^ perpetual." I shall again quote and illustrate this 
vene further on. 

^ This Hne^ from the M.Bh. S'intip. 8583, hai already been dtad above^ ia p. 16. 


originate, or to be destroyed. Jast as time and etber (space) are 
etemal,^^ so also is the Yeda eternal, because, during the period of 
mundane existence, it has not been composed by any person, as the 
works of Kalidasa and others have been.^ Nevertheless, the Yeda, like 
time and ccther, is recorded in Scripture to have originated from Brahma 
at the first creation. There is, therefore, no discrepancy between the 
two different sets of passages, as they refer to different points. And 
since Brahma is free from defect, the utterer of the Yeda is consequently 
fees from defect ; and therefore a self-demonstrated authority resides in 
it. Seeing, therefore, that the Yeda possess a characteristic mark, and 
is supported by proof, and that it has a subject, a use, a relation, and 
persons competent for its study, and, moreover, that its authority is 
established^ it follows that it ought to be interpreted." 


Sect. Ylll.'^ArffumenU of the Mlmansahu and Veddntins tn mppari 

of the eternity and authority of tJie Vedae. 

I shall now proceed to adduce some of the reasonings by which the 
authors of the Purva Mlmansa, and Yedanta, aphorisms, and their com- 
mentators, defend the doctrine which, as we have already seen, is held 
by some of the Indian writers, that the Yedas are eternal, as well as 

I. — PUna Iflmdnsd. — I quote the following texts of the Purva Mt- 
mansa which relate to this subject from Dr. BuUantyne's aphorisms of 
the Mlmansa, pp. 8 ff.^ I do not always follow the words of Dr. Bal- 
lantyne's translations, though I have made free use of their substance. 
(See also Colebrookc's Misc. Ess. i. 306, or p. 195 of Williams and 
Norgate's ed.) The commentator introduces the subject in the follow* 
ing way : 

"^ Passages afSrming both the eternity of the lethcr, and its creation, are given in 
the First Volume of this work, pp. 130 and 506. 

^ The same subject is touched on by Suyana, at p. 20 of the introductory portion 
of his commentary on the Kigveda. The pussoge will be quoted at the end of the 
next section.'* 

*•• Since the Ist edition of this Volume was published, the Sanskrit scholar has 
obtained easy accci^s to a more considerable portion of the AlTmansu SQtras with 
the commentary of S'abara Svamin by the appearance of the first, second, and port of 
third, Adhytlyas in the Bibliotheoa ladioa. 


&abiCLrihayor tdpatty-anantaram purushena JcalpxtdhBanketatmaha'Sam' 
handhasya kalpitatmt purusha'halpita-samhandha'jnunapekshitvdt sah' 
ddnya yathd pratyaksha-jnunam iuktikddau aatyatvam vyahhicharati tathd 
puruihdd/tlnatvena iabcU 'pi satyatva-vyahhichdra'Samhhavdt na dharme 
ehodand pramdnam iti purva-pakshe siddhdntam dha | 

"Since, subsequently to the production of words and the things 
signified by them, a connection of a conventional character has been 
established between the two by the will of man, and since language 
is dependent upon a knowledge of this conventional connection de- 
termined by man, [it follows that] as perception is liable to error in 
respect of mother-of-pearl and similar objects [by mistaking them for 
silver, etc.], so words also may be exposed to the risk of conveying unreal 
notions from [their sense] being dependent on human will ; and con- 
sequently that the Vedic precepts [which are expressed in such words, 
possessing a merely conventional and arbitrary meaning] cannot be au- 
thoritative in matters of duty. Such is an objection which may be 
urged, and in reply to which the author of the aphorisms declares the 
established doctrine.'' 

Then follows the fifth aphorism of the first chapter of the first book 
of the Mimansa : Autpattikas tu^*'^ iahdasya^^ arthena aamhandhas^^^ taa- 
yd^^ jndnam^^^ upadeio^^ ^vyaiirekaS cha^^ arthe ' nupalaldhe^^ tat^^^ pramd' 
nam Budardyanasya anapekshalvdt \ which may be paraphrased as fol« 
lows: ^'The connection of a word with its sense is coeval with the 
origin of both. In conseciuence of this connection the words of the 
Veda convey a knowledge of duty, and impart unerring instruction in 
regard to matters imperceptible. Such Yedic injunctions constitute the 
proof of duty alleged by Badarayana, author of the Ycdanta Sulras ; 
for this proof is independent of perception and all other evidence." 

I subjoin most of the remarks of the scholiast as given by Dr. 
Bullantyne, indicating by letters the words of the aphorism to which 
they refer : 

^''^ Autpaitikah \ wdhhdvikah \ nityah iti ydvat \ **Autpattika{on^xisil) 
means natural, eternal in short." 

^ Sahdasya \ nitya-veda-yhataka-padasya ^* aynihotram juhuydt warya- 
idmah** ityddeh \ **S'ahda (word) refers to terms which form part of 
the eternal Yeda, such as, * the man who desires heaven should perform 
the Agnihotra sacrifioe.' " 


<^' Samhandha (connectioii), '' in the nature of power/' «.«. according 
to Dr. Ballantyne, depending on the divine will that such and such 
words should convey such and such meanings. 

<^* Atas tasya \ dhamuuya \ " 'Hence' is to he supplied hefore 'thisi' 
which refers to * duty.' " 

<^' Jndnam \ atra karane lyuf | jnapter ffathdrtJuhfndnasya hiranam \ 
*' In the word indna (knowledge) the affix lyuf has the force of * in* 
strument,' 'an instrument of correct knowledge.' " 

^^ Upadeia^ | ariha-pratipddanam \ '< Instruction, i.e. the establish- 
ment of a fact." 

^ AvyatireJcah \ avydhhichdrl dfUyate atalf, \ ** ' Unerring/ %,$. that 
which is seen not to deviate from the fact." 

^ yanu ** vahnimdn iti Sahda-Sravandnantaram pratyakshena tahni^ 
dfishtvd Sahde pramdtvafh yjrihndii iti loke prasiddhe^ pratyahshddltarO' 
pramana'Sdpekshatvdt iahdasya sa hatham dharme pramdnam ala dha 
*^ anupahldhe " iti \ anupalahdhe pratyakshadi-pramdnair ajndte ^rth$ \ 
** Since it is a matter of notoriety that any one who has heard the words 
* [the mountain is] fiery ' uttered, and afterwards sees the fire with his 
own eyes, is [only] then [thoroughly] convinced of the authority of the 
words, it may be asked how words which are thus dependent [for con- 
firmation on] perception and other proofs, can themselres constitute the 
proof of duty ? In reference to this, the word anupalahdhe (' in regard 
to matters imperceptible') is introduced. It signifies ' matters which 
cannot be known by perception and other such proofs.' " 

^^ Tat I vidhi-ghatita-vuhjam dharme pramdnam Bddardyandchdryasya 
aammatam \ ayam diayah \ *parvato vahnimdn ' iti doehavat-punaJuih 
prayuktam vdhyam artham vyahhicliarati \ atah prumdnya-niichaye praty* 
akshddikam apekehate \ tathd *gnihotram juhoti iti vdkyam kdla-iray$ 
^py arthaih na vyahhicharati \ ata itara-nirapekaham dharme pramdnam \ 
"This, i,e. a [Ycdic] sentence consisting of an injunction, is regarded 
by Bddorayana also as proof of duty. The purport is this. The 
sentence, ' the mountain is fiery,' when uttered by a person defective 
[in his organ of vision], may deviate from the reolity ; it therefore 
requires the evidence of our senses, etc' to aid us in determining its 
sufficiency as proof. Whereas the Vedic sentence regarding the per- 
formance of the Agnihotra sacrifice can never deviate from the truth in 
any time, past, present, or future ; and is therefore a proof of duty, in- 
dependently of any other evidence." 


The commentator then proceeds to observe as follows : PurvthULtre 
Ubd&rthayo9 tamhandho nityah ity uktam \ tach cha iahda-nityatvadhinam 
iti tat iuddhayishur ddau iabddnityatva-vddi'fnatam pUrva-paksham upd^ 
iayati \ '^ In the preceding aphorism it was declared that the connection 
of words and their meanings [or the things signified by them] is eternal. 
J)e8iring now to prove that this [eternity of connection] is dependent 
on the eternity of words [or sound], he begins by setting forth the first 
side of the question, viz. the doctrine of those who maintain that 
sound is not etemaL" 

This doctrine is accordingly declared in the six following aphorisms 
(«fi/rM), which I shall quote and paraphrase, without citing, in the 
original, the accompanying comments. These the reader will find in 
Dr. Ballantyne's work. 

Sutra 6. — Karma eke tatra darSandt \ '* Some; t.^. the followers of 
the Nyaya philosophy, say that sound is a product, because we see that 
it is the result of effort, which it would not be if it were eternal." 

Sutra 7. — Asihdndt \ "That it is not eternal, on account of its 
transitoriness, i,e. because after a moment it ceases to be perceived." 

Sutra S.-r-JSraroti-Sahddt \ '< Because, we employ in reference to it 
the expression ' making,' i.e. we speak of ' making ' a sound." 

Sutra 9. — Sattvdntare yauyapadydt \ ** Because it is perceived by 
difEerent persons at once, and is consequently in immediate contact with 
the organs of sense of those both fEur and near, which it could not be if 
it were one and etemaL" 

Sutra 10. — Prdkriti-vihfityoi eha \ "Because sounds have both an 
original and a modified form ; as eg. in the case of dadhi atra, which 
is changed into dadhy atra, the original letter • being altered into y by 
the rules of permutation. Now, no substance which undergoes a 
change is eternal." 

Sutra 11. — VfiddhU eha Jcartfi-hhumnd^eya \ "Because sound is 
sngmented by the number of those who make it. Consequently the 
opinion of the Mimansakas, who say that sound is merely manifested, 
and not created, by human effort, is wrong, since even a thousand 
manifesters do not increase the object which they manifest, as a jar is 
not made larger by a thousand lamps." 

These objections against the Himansaka theory that sound is mani- 
fested, and not created, by those who utter it, are answered in the 
following Sutras : 


Sutra 12. — Samam tu tatra darianam | ''But, according to both 
scboolsy viz. that 'whicb holds sound to be created, and that whicB 
regards it as merely manifested, the perception of it is alike momen- 
tary. But of these two views, the theory of manifestation is shown, in 
the next aphorism to be the correct one." 

Sutra 13. — Satah param adarianam vishaydndgamdt \ "The non* 
perception at any particular time, of sound, which, in reality, perpe- 
tually exists, arises from the fact that the utterer of sound has not come 
into contact with his object, i.e. sound. Sound is eternal, because we 
recognise the letter k, for instance, to be the same sound which we have 
always heard, and because it is the simplest method of accounting for 
the phenomenon to suppose that it is the same. The still atmosphere 
which interferes with the perception of sound, is removed by the con- 
lunctions and disjunctions of air issuing from a speaker's mouth, and 
thus sound (which always exists, though unperceived) becomes per- 
ceptible.^ This is the reply to the objection of its ' transitoriness ' 
(Sutra 7).'' 
An answer to Sutra 8 is given in 

Sutra 14. — Prayogasya param \ "The word * making' soands, 
merely means employing or uttering them." 
The objection made in Sutra 9 is answered in » 
Sutra 15. — Aditya-vad yaugapadyam \ "One sound is simultane- 
ously heard by different persons, just as one sun is seen by them at one 
and the same time. Sound, like the sun, is a vast, and not a minute 
object, and thus may be perceptible by different persons, though remote 
from one another." 

An answer to Sutra 10 is contained in 

Satra 16. — Varnantaram avikdrah \ "The letter y, which is sub- 
stituted for % in the instance referred to under Sutru 10, is not a modi- 
fication of t, but a distinct letter. Consequently sound is not modified." 
The 1 1th Sutra is answered in 
SiJLtra 17. — Udda-vfiddhthpard "I " It is an increase of * noise,' not 

^ " Sound 18 anolMCiTed, tbongh existent, if it- reach not the object (vibrations of 
air emitted from the mouth of the speaker proceed and manifest sound by their 
appulse to air at rest in the space bounded by the hollow of the ear ; for wunt of such 
appulse, sound, though existent, is unapprehended).'* — Colebrooke, i. 306. 

^ The test at given in the Bibliotheca Indica haa madthfffiddhi'para. 


of sonndi that is occasioned by a multitude of speakers. The word 'noise * 
refers to the * conjunctions and disjunctions of the air ' (mentioned under 
Sutra 13) which enter simultaneously into the hearer's ear from dif- 
ferent quarters ; and it is of these that an increase takes place." 

The next following Sutras state the reasons which support the Ml* 
mansaka view : 

Sutra 18. — Niiyas tu sydd darianasya pardrthatv&t \ "Sound roust 
be eternal, because its utterance is fitted to convey a meaning to other 
persons. If it were not eternal [or abiding], it would not continue 
till the hearer had learned its sense, and thus he would not learn the 
sense, because the cause had ceased to exist." 

Sutra 19. — Sarvatra yaugapady&t \ ** Sound is eternal, because it is 
in every case correctly and uniformly recognized by many persons 
nmultaneously ; and it is inconceivable that they should all at once fall 
into a mistake/' 

When the word go (cow) has been repeated ten times, the hearers 
will say that the word go has been ten times pronounced^ not that ten 
words having the sound of go have been uttered ; and this fact also is 
adduced as a proof of the eternity of sound in 

Sutra 20. — Sankhydhhdvat \ " Because each sound is not numerically 
different from itself repeated." 

Saira 21. — Anapekshatv&t \ "Sound is eternal, because we have no 
ground for anticipating its destruction." 

" But it may be urged that sound is a modification cf air, since it 
arises from its conjunctions (see Sutra 17), and because fhe S'iksha (or 
Yedanga treating of pronunciation) says that 'air arrives at the con« 
dition of sound ; ' and as it is thus produced from air, it cannot be 
eternal." A reply to this difficulty is given in 

Sutra 22. — Prakhy&bhdvach cha yogyasya j " Sound is not a modi- 
fication of air, because, if it were, the organ of hearing would have no 
appropriate object which it could perceive. No modification of air 
(held by the Naiyayikas to be tangible) could be perceived by the 
organ of hearing, which deals only with intangible sound." 

Sutra 23. — Linga-darsandeh cha \ " And the eternity of sound is 
established by the argument discoverable in the Yedio text, ' with an 
eternal voice, o Viriipa.' (See above, p. 69.) Now, though this sentence 
had another object in view, it, nevertheless, declares the eternity of 
language, and hence sound is eternal." 


" But though words, as well as fhe connection of word and sense, be 
eternal, it may be objected — as in the following aphorism — ^that a com* 
mand conveyed in the form of a sentence is no proof of duty." 

Sutra 24. — Ulpatlau vd rachanal^ ayur arthoit/a a-tan^imitiatvdi | 
'' Though there be a natural connection between words and their mean* 
ings, the connection between sentences and their meanings is a facti- 
tious one, established by human will, from these meanings (of the 
sentences) not arising out of the meanings of the words. The connec- 
tion of sentences with their meanings is not (like the connection of 
words with their meanings) one derived from inherent power (see 
Sutra 5, remark ^^\ above, p. 72), but one devised by men ; how, then, 
can this connection afford a sufficient authority for duty ? " 

An answer to this is given in 

Sutra 25. — Tad-hhutdnaih kriydrthena BamCtmn&yo ^rthasya tanrnimU^ 
iatvut I '' The various terms which occur in every Yedic precept are 
accompanied by a verb ; and hence a perception (such as we had not 
before) of the sense of a sentence is derived from a collection of words 
containing a verb. A precept is not comprehended unless the individual 
words which make it up are understood ; and the comprehension of the 
meaning of a sentence is nothing else than the comprehension of the 
exact mutual relation of the meanings arising out of each word." 

Sutra 26. — Loke 9anniyamat prayoya-sannikarsha^ »ydt \ ^'As in 
secular language the application of words is known, so also in the 
Ycda they convey an understood sense, which has been handed down 
by tradition." 

The author now proceeds in the next following Sutras to state and 
to obviate certain objections raised to his dogmas of the eternity and 
authority of the Yedas. 

Sutra 27. — Ved&ihi eha eh tannikarsham purushdkhyd^ \ ^' Some (the 
followers 6f the Nyaya) declare the Yedas to be of recent origin, i.e, not 
eternal, because the names of men are applied to certain parts of them, 
as the Kathaka and Kauthuma." 

This Sutra, with some of those which follow, is quoted in Saya^a's 
commentary on the E.Y. vol. i. pp. 19 and 20. His explanation of the 
present Sutra is as follows : 

Tathd Eayhuvamiddaya^ tddnlntands tathd vedd^ apt \ na iu v^dft 
anddaya^ | ata^ &va veda-kartfiipma punuhd^ dkhydyamU | Vaiydiikam 


BMraki^Vdhnlhyalh Rdm&yanam ity atra yathd Bhdratddi-kartfitrma 
Vydiddayah dkhydyanU tathd Kafhakdm Kauthumarh Taittiriyakam ity 
$vaih tat'tad^eda-idhhd'karttfiivena Eafhadlndm dkhyutatvdt paurush* 
$yd^ I JVanu nitydndm eva wddndm vpddhydya^at sampraddya-prO' 
vartiakaivena Kdfhakddi ' sdmdkhyd tydd ity dSankya yukty ' antaraih 
iiUrayati \ . . . , kd tarhi Kdthakddy -dkhydyikdydJ^ gatir ity dSankya 
iompraddyihpravarttandt 9d iyam upapadyate \ 

** Some say, that as the EaghuTam^a, etc., are modern^ so also are 
the Yedas, and that the Yedas are not eternal. Accordingly, certain 
men are named as the authors of the Yedas. Just as in the case of the 
Mahabharata, which is called Yaijasika (composed by Yyasa), and the 
BamayaQa, which is called Yalmlklya (composed by Yalmiki), Yyasa 
and Yalmlki are indicated as the authors of these poems ; so, too, Katha, 
Kuthumi, and Titliri are shown to be the authors of those particular 
Bakhas of the Yedas which bear their names, viz. the Kathaka, Eau- 
thnma, and Taittirfya ; and consequently those parts of the Yedas are 
of human composition. Aitor suggesting that the Yedas, though eternal, 
have received the name of Eafhaka, etc., because Kafha and others, as 
teachers, handed them down ; he adduces another objection in the next 

The explanation here indicated is "accepted a little farther on, in the 
remarks on one of the following Sutras : '' What, then, is the fact in 
reference to the appellations Kathaka, etc. ? It is proved to have arisen 
from the circumstance that Eatha, etc., handed down the Yedas." I 
proceed to 

Siktra 28. — Anitya-darSandch eha \ ''It is also objected that the 
Yedas cannot be eternal, because we observe that persons, who are not 
eternal, but subject to birth and death, are mentioned in them. Thus 
it is said in the Yeda * Babara FravahaQi desired,' ' Eusuruvinda Aud- 
d§laki desired.' Now, as the sentences of the Yeda, in which they are 
mentioned, could not have existed before these persons were bom, it is 
dear that these sentences had a beginning, and being thus non-eternal, 
they are proved to be of human composition " (< Bahara^ Prdvahanir 
akdmayata ' ' JSTuwrwnndaJ^ Audddlakir akdmayata ' ityddi {vdkydndrh ?) 
vedeihu dariandt teshdmjanandt prdg imdni vdkyuni ndMnn iti idditvdd 
mmtyaivam paurush$yatva^ eha tiddham). 

Theie objeotiona are answered in the following aphorisms % 


Sutra 29. — Uktam tu Sahda-pitrvafvam \ " But the priority— eternity 
—of sound has been declared, and, by consequencei the eternity of th6 

Sutra ZO.^^Alhya pravachandt | '* The names, derived from those 
of particular men, attached to certain parts of the Yedas, were given on 
account of their studying these paiticular parts. Thus the portion i-ead 
by Zafha was called Kuthaka, etc." 

Sutra 31. — Faraniu iruti'Sdmdnya-mutram \ "And names occnrring 
in the Yeda, which appear to be those of men, are appellations common 
to other beings besides men." 

'* Thus the words Bahara Prdvahani are not the names of a man, bat 
have another meaning. For the particle pra denotes ' pre-eminence,' 
ffahana means ' the motion of sound,' and the letter t represents the 
agent ; consequently the word prdvahani signifies that ' which moves 
BwifUy>' and is applied to the wind, which is eternal. Bahara again is 
a word imitating the sound of the wind. Thus there is not even a sem- 
blance of error in the assertion that the Yeda is eternal " ( Yadyapi Ba- 
lara^ Pr&vahanir ity asti parantu irutih prdvahany ddi-iahdah tdmSn" 
yam \ any&rthatydpi vdchakam \ talhd hi \ "pra " tty asya utkanhdi' 
raya^ \ **vahanah*' iahdasya gatih \ i-kdrah karttd j tathd chautkrUhtdh 
gaty-dirayo vdyu-parah \ sa cha anddih \ Baharalf. Hi vdyu-iahddnukara- 
nam \ Hi na anupapatti-gandho *pi |). 

Before proceeding to the 82nd Sutra, I shall quote some further 
illustrations of the 31st, which are to be found in certain passages of 
the Introduction to Sayuna's Commentary on the Hig-veda, where he 
is explaining another section of the Mimansa Sutras (L2|39ff.}. 
The passages are as follows (p. 7) : 

Anitya'%afhyogad mantrdnarlhakyam \ *^ kith te kpinvanti Kikafeshv '' 
iti mantre Elkafo ndmajanapadaJ^ dmndtah | Tathd Naichaidkha^ ndma 
nagaram Pramagando ndma rdjd ity ete 'rthdJ^ anitydh dmndtd^ \ Tathd 
eha sati prdk Pramaganddd na ayam mantro hhnta-purvah iti gamyate | 
And in p. 10: Tad apy uktam Pramagandddy - anitydriha- Ba^tyogdd 
mantrasya andditvam na sydd iti tatrottaram sUtrayati \ " Uktas ehd" 
nitya-saihyogah " t^t | prathama-pddasya antimddhikarane so *yam anitya^ 
tamyoga-doshah uktah parihritah \ Tathd hi \ tatra pHrva-pakshe Vedd» 
nam paunuheyatvam vaktum Kdfhakafh Kdldpakam ity-ddi-punuho' 
tamha$uthdlhidhdnaM hiiukfiiya "anHya-dariandeh eha^* Hi hstv-antaraik 



iHtritam \ "Baharah prdvdhanir akdmayata" ity anity&n&m Baharddindm 
arihdnum dariandt tatak purvam asattvdi paurwheyo vedah iti tasym 
fUtaram tUtritam "param tu Sruti'Sdmanya-rndtram " iti \ tasya ayam 
urthah I yat Ku(hakddi'8amdkhydnam tat pravachana-nimittam \ yat tu 
param Baharddy-anitya-darianam tat iahda'Sdmanya-rndtram na tu tatra 
Baharukhya^ kaichit pumsho vivakshitah \ kintu '* hahara " iti iahdafh 
kurvan vdyur ahhidhlyate \ sa cha prdvdkani^ \ prakarshefia vahana' 
Sllah I Evam anyatrdpy ikhanlyam \ 

** It is objected that the mantras are nseless, because they are con- 
nected with temporal objects. Thus in the text, * what are thy cows 
doing among the Kikafas ? '^ a country called Kikata is mentioned, as 
well as a city named Naicha^akha, and a king called Pramaganda, all 
of them non-eternal objects. Such being the case, it is clear that this 
text did not exist before Pramagandu.'* The answer to this is given in 
p. 10 : To the further objection that the mantras cannot be eternal* 
because such temporal objects as Pr£|maganda, etc., are referred to in 
them, an answer is given in the following Sutra : * The connection 
with non-eternal objects has been already explained.' In the last 
section of the first chapter, this very objection of the hymns being con- 
nected with non-etemul things has been stated and obviated (see above, 
SQtras 28-31). For in the statement of objections, after it has first 
been suggested as a proof of the human origin of the Vedas, that they 
bear names, Eatliaka, Kalgpaka, etc., denoting their relation to men, a 
farther difficulty is stated in a Sutra, viz., that ' it is noticed that non- 
eternal objects are mentioned in the Vedas ; ' as, for example, where it 
is said that ' Babara Pravahani desired.' Now, as it specifies non- 
eternal objects of this kind, the Yeda, which could not have existed 
before those objects, must be of human composition. The answer to 
ibis is given in the aphorism, ' any further names are to be understood 
as common to other things.' The meaning is this : the names Eafhaka, 
etc., are given to the Vedas because they are expounded by Ka^hu, (to. ; 
and the further difficulty arising from the names of Babara and other 
objects supposed to be non-eternal, is removed by such names being 
common to other objects [which are eternal in their nature]. Ko 
persons called Babara, etc., are intended by those names, but the wind, 
which makes the sound babara, is so designated. And pravahani refers 

** See the First Yolume of this work, p. 342, and the Second Yolame, p. 3^2^ 


to the same object, as it means that which carries swiftly. The same 
method of explanation is to be applied in other similar cases." 

I proceed to the d2nd Sutra. It is asked how the Yeda can consti- 
tnte proof of duty when it contains such incoherent nonsense as the 
following: *' An old ox, in blanket and slippers, is standing at the door 
and singing benedictions. A Brahman female, desirous of offspring, 
asks, ' Pray, o king, what is the meaning of intercourse on the day of 
the new moon?' or the following: ^the cows celebrated this sacrifice'" 
{Nanu ^^Jaradgavo kamhala'padukdhhydih dudri sthito gdyati mangO' 
Idni^ I tarn Irdhmanl pfiehhati puttra-hdrnd rdjann amdydih labhanaiya 
ko^rthah** \ iti \ **gdvo vai etat sattram dsata " ity-ddlndm Mamhaddhth 
praldpdndm vede sattvdt katharh »a dharme pramdnam)* A reply is 
contained in. 

Sutra 32. — JSTfite vd viniyogah sydt karmana^ samhandhdi \ '* The 
passages to which objection is taken may be applicable to the duty to 
be performed, from the relation in which they stand to the ceremony " 
(as eulogistic of it). 

As a different reading and interpretation of this Sutra are given by 
Saya^a in his commentary, p. 20, 1 shall quote it, and tho remarks 
with which he introduces and follows it : 

I^anu vede kvachid evaih irUyate '' vanaspaiayah satram deata $arpd^ 
iatram d$ata '* iti \ tatra vanaspatlndm achetanatvdt sarpdndfh ehetanaive 
^pi vidyd-rahttatvdd na tad-anushthdnaih eamhhavati \ Ato ^*Jaradgavo 
gdyati madrakuni^^ ityddy-unmattO'hdla'Vdkya'eadriiatvdt kenaehit kfito 
vedal^ ity diankya uttaram sutrayati \ *^ Kfite oka aviniyogaJ^ sydt kar^ 
manah samalvdt" \ Tadi jyotiehtornddi-vdhyam kenaehit puruehena kri* 
yeta taddnitn kfite tasmin vdkye tvarga-eddhanatve jyotiehtomasya vini^ 
yoga^ na sydt \ sddhya-sddhana-hhdvasya purushna jndtum aiakyatvdt \ 
irUyate tu viniyoga^ \ **jyoti8htomena warga-kdmo yajeta " iti \ na eha 
etat unmatta-vdkya-sadriiam laukika-vidhi'Vdkya'Vad hhdvya^karaneti^ 
kartavyaid-rupaie tribhir aihiair upetdydJ^ hhdvandyd^ avagamdt | &£# 
hi ** hrdhmandn hhojayed " iti vidhau kirn ke)ia katham ity dkdnkehdydA 

^ Tn bis commentary on the following aphorism 6'abara Svamin giTes only a part 
of this qnotation, consisting of the words Jaradgavo gayaii mattakani, " An old ox 
sings senselesa words ; " and adds the remark : kathcih noma Jaradgavo gaytt, ''How 
now, can an old ox sing ? " We muit not therefore with the late I^. Ballantjae take 
i«r§i§0i9a for a proper name. 


tfiptim uddUya odanena dravyena iaka'Supadi-pariveshana-prakdrena iti 
yathd uchyaU jyotUhtoma-vidhav apt wargam uddtiya somena dravyena 
dtkahaniyddy-angopakara'prakarena ity ukte katham unmatia ' vakya- 
sadfiiam hhaved iti \ vanaspaty'ddi'Satra-vUkyam api na tat-sadriSam 
iasya satra-karmano jyotishfomudind samaivdt \ yai-paro hi iahdah aa 
ktbddrihah iti nydya-vidah dhuh \ jyotishiornddi-vukyasya vidhdyakatvdd 
anushfJtdne tatparyyam \ vanaspaty - ddi- satra-vdkyasya arthavddatvdd 
praiamndydtn tdtparyam \ sd cha avidyamdnendpi kartiuih Sakyate \ ache- 
tandh avidvdmso *pi sairam antuhfhitavanta^ kimpunai chetand^ vidvdmso 
hrdhmandJ^ iti aatra-stutih \ 

'' But it will be objected that the Yeda contains such sentences as 
this : ' trees and serpents sat down at a sacrifice.' Now, since trees 
are insensible, and serpents, though possessing sensibility, are destitute 
of knowledge, it is inconceivable that either the one or the other should 
celebrate such a ceremony. Hence, from its resembling the silly talk 
of madmen and children, as where it says, * An old oz sings songs (fit 
only for the Madras ?)' (see the Second Volume of this work, pp. 48 1 ff.), 
the Yeda must have been composed by some man. The answer to this 
doubt is contained in the following Sutra (which I can only render by 
a paraphrase) : ' If prescribed by mere human authority, no rite can 
have any efficacy ; but such ceremonies as the jyotishtoma rest on the 
authority of the Yeda ; and narrative texts such as that regarding the 
trees and serpents have the same intention as precepts, i,e, to recom- 
mend sacrifice.' If the sentence enjoining the jyotishtoma sacrifice had 
been composed by any man then, as the sentence was so composed, 
fhe sacrifice so enjoined would not have been applicable as a means of 
attaimng paradise ; for no man could know either the end, or the means 
of accomplishing it. But the application in question is prescribed in 
the Yeda by the words ' let him, who seeks paradise, sacrifice with the 
jyotishtoma.' Kow this injunction does not resemble the talk of a 
madman, since we recognize in it, as in injunctions of a secular kind, 
^ contemplation of the three characteristics of the action to be per- 
ked, viz. its end, means, and mode. For, as when a question is put 


^ regard to the object for which, the instrument through which, and 
tlie manner in which the precept, ' to feed Brahmans,' is to be fulfilled, 
^ tte told that the object is to be their satisfaction, the instrumental 
lobstanoe boiled rice, and the manner, that it is to be served up with 


yegetnblcs and condiments ; — in the same way, in tiie Yedic injancti<m 
regarding the jyotishtoma, we are told that paradise is the object, that 
soma is the iDstrumental substance, and that the application of the 
introductoiy and other portions of the ritual is the manner. And when 
this is so, how can this precept be compared to the talk of a madman ? 
Kor doics the sentence regarding trees, etc., celebrating a sacrifice, 
admit of such a comparison, since the sacrifice in question is similar 
to the jyotishtoma and other such rites. For logicians say that the 
meaning of a word is the sense which it is intended to intimate. The 
purport of the sentence regarding the jyotishtoma, which is of a pre- 
ceptive character, is to command performance. The object of the sen- 
tence regarding trees, etc., attending at a sacrifice, which is of a nana* 
tire character, is eulogy; and this onn be ofiered even by a thing 
which has no real existence. The sacrifice is eulogized by saying that 
it was celebrated even by insensible trees and ignorant serpents : how 
much more, then, would it bo celebrated by Brahmans possessed both 
of sensation and knowledge ! '' 

The following passage from the Nyaya-mala-vistara, a treatise con- 
taining a summary of the doctrines of the Purva-mimansa of Jaiminij 
by Madhava Acharyya, the brother of Sayana Ach?ryya (see above, 
p. 6G) repeats some of the same reasonings contradicting the idea that 
the Yeda had any personal author (i. 1, 25, 26) : 

Paurusheyaih na va veda-vdhyam syut paurusheyatd \ Kiufhakddi^ 
aamukhyunud vdkyatvuch chanya-vukya-vat \ Samukhyu ^ dhyapakatvena 
tukyaivam tu pardhatam \ Tatkarir'amipalamhhena syut tato ^paurushs* 
yaiu I K&thakam KauUiumam Taittiriyakam ityudi Bamukhyd iat-tad* 
veda-vishayd loke dfishtu \ taddhita - pratyayai cha tma proktam ity 
asminn arthe varttate \ tathd sati Vydsena proktam Vaiydsikam Bhura* 
tarn ity-dddv iva paurtuheyatvam pratiyate \ kincha \ vimatam veda-vdh* 
yam paurusheyam \ vdkyatvdt \ Kdliddsddi'Vdkya-vad iti prdpte hrttma^ | 
adhyayana-sampraddya-pravarltakatvena aamdkhyd upapadyaU \ Kdlidd* 
sddi-grantkeshu tat-sargdvasdne karltdra^ upalahhyante \ tathd vedasydpi 
paxirusheyaive tat-karltd upalahhyeta na eha upalahhyate \ ato vdkyatca* 
hetuh pratikula'tarka'pardhatah \ tasmdd apaurusheyo vedah \ tathd 9ati 
purusha-huddhi-kfitasya aprdmdnyasya andiankanlyatvdd vidhi'Vdkyoiya 
dharme prdmdnyam iusthitam \ ^ 

** I havo extracted thiB passage firom Pro! Goldit'dckor'i text of the NySja-m&lA' 


"[Versee] 'Is the word of the Veda derived from a personal author 
or not? It must (soine urge) be so derived, since (1) it bears the 
names of Kathaka, etc., and (2) has the chnracters of a sentence, like 
other sentences, l^o (we reply) ; for (1) the names arose from parti- 
cular persons being teachers of the Vedas, and (2) the objection that 
the Yedio precepts have the charaeters of common sentences is refuted 
bj other considerations. The Veda can have no personal author, since 
it has never been perceived to have had a maker.' [Comment] It is 
objected (1) that the names E§thaka, Kauthuma, Taittirlyaka, etc., are 
applied in common usage to the difTereqt Yedas ; and the taddhita affix 
by which these appellations are formed, denotes * uttered by ' [Eatha, 
Kuthumiy and Tittiri] (comp. Panini, iv. 3, 101). Such being the 
case, it is clear that these parts of the Yedas are derived from a per- 
•onal author, like the Mahabharata, which is styled Yuiyasika, because 
it was uttered by Yyasa, etc. And further (2), the sentences of the 
Yeda, being subject to different interpretations, must have had a per- 
sonal author, because they have the properties of a sentence, like the 
sentences of Kalidasa, etc. To this we reply (1), the name applied to 
any Yeda originates in the fact that the sage whose name it bears, was 
an agent in transmitting the stady of that Yeda. But (2) in the books 
of Kalidasa and others, the authors are discoverable [from the notices] 
at the end of each section. Now if the Yeda also were the composition 
of a personal author, the composer of it would, in like manner, be dis- 
coverable ; but such is not the case. Hence, the objection that the 
Yeda partakes of the nature of common sentences is refuted by opposing 
considerations. Consequently thj Yeda is not the work of a personal 
author. And such being the case, as we cannot suspect in it any falli- 
bility occasioned by the defects of human reason, the preceptive texts 
of the Yeda are demonstrated to be authoritative in questions of duty." 

II. — Vedurtha-prakusa, The verses just quoted are repeated in the 
Yed&rtha-praka^ of Madhava on the Tuittirlya Sanhita (p. 26), with 
a various reading at the beginning of the third line, viz. <' samdhhjdnain 
fravaehandt " instead of ** samakhya * dhyapakaivena.^* The comment 
by which the verses are explained in the same work, is as follows : 

Volmiklyaii Vaiydsikiyam ityddi-tamdkhydndd Hdrndyana-Bharatd- 

vntara; and I amiodcbted to the same emineat scholar for some assistance in my 
ttamlstioD of it 


dika0i yathd paurasheyaih tatha JTufhakam Kauthumaih Taittxriyam tiy^ 
ddusarndkhydndd veda^ paurusheya^ \ kincha vedthvakyam paurwheyaih 
vdkyatvat Kdliddsddi-vdkya^ad iti chet \ maivam \ Mmpraddya-prarrtt' 
tyd Bamdkhyopapatteh \ Vakyatva-hetus tv anupalahdhi-viruddha-kaldtyo' 
ydpadishfah \ Yathd Vydsa- Fdlmlki'prabhfitayas tad-grantha-nirmand' 
vasare kaiichid upalahdhdh anyaxr apy aviekhinna - sampraddyena upa^ 
lahhyanU \ na tathd veda-karttd purushah kaichid upalabdhah | praU 
yuta vedasya nityaivam inUi'Smfitihhydm pHrvam udahjritam \ Para- 
tndttnd tu vedn-karttd *pi na laukika-purushah \ tasmdt karttri-doshd' 
hhdvdd nasty aprdrndnya-Sankd^l 

^'It may be said (1) that as the Eamayana, the Mahabharata, and 
other such books, are regarded as the works of personal authors from 
the epithets Yalmlkiya (composed by Yahniki), Yaiyasiklya (composed 
by Yyasa), etc., which they bear, so too the Yeda must have had a 
similar origin, since it is called by the appellations of Eathaka, Eau- 
thuma, Taittirlya, etc. ; and further (2), that the sentences of the Yeda 
must have had this origin, because they possess the properties of a 
common sentence, like those of Kalidasa and others. But these ob- 
jections are unfounded, for (1) the appellations of those parts of the 
Yeda are derived from the sages who were agents in transmitting the 
study of them ; and (2) the objection about the Yeda having the pro- 
perties of a common sentence is opposed to the fact that no author 
was ever perceived, and so proceeds upon an erroneous generalization.* 
Eor though Yyasa and Yalmlki, etc., when employed in the composition 
of their respective works, were perceived by some persons to be so en- 

^ This phrase thus translated {kalatyaynpadishta) is a technical term in the 
Nyfiya philosophy, denoting one of the hetv-abhasatf or '*mere semblances of reasons," 
and is thus defined in the Nyaya-siitras, i. 49, Kalatyayapadishiah kalatltah, which 
Dr. Ballantyne (Aphorisms of the Nyaya, p. 42] thus explains : ** That [semblance of 
a reason] is mis-timed, which is adduced when the time is not [that when it might 
have availed]. [For example, suppose one argues that] fire does not contain heat, 
because it is factitious, [his argument is mis-timed if we have already ascertained by 
the superior OTidence of the senses that fire does contain heat].*' It does not, however, 
appear, how the essential validity of an argument can depend at all on the time when 
it is adduced, as is justly observed by Professor Goldstiicker, who has favoured me 
with his opinion on the sense of the phrase. After consulting the commentary of 
Yatsyayana in loco, he thinks the aphorism (which is not very distinctly explained 
by the commentators) must denote the erroneous transference of a conclusion deduced 
firom the phenomena happening at one *' time," m. belonging to one class of cases, 
to another claas which does not exhibit, or only apparently exhibits, the same pheno- 
mena ; in shorty a vicious generalization. 


gaged, and are known by others also [in after ages] to be the authorsi 
from the existence of an unbroken tradition to that effect ; — no human 
author of the Veda has ever been perceived. On the contrary, we 
have formerly shown that the eternity of the Veda is declared both by 
itself and by the Sm^iti. And even if the Supreme Spirit be the maker 
of it, still he is not a mundane person ; and consequently, as no defect 
exists in the maker, there is no reason to suspect fallibility in his work." 

No notice has been taken by these commentators of an objection 
which might have been raised to the validity of this reasoning, viz. that 
the hymns of the Bich and other Yedas are all set down in the Anu- 
kramaQls, or indices to those works, as being uttered by particular 
lishis ; the rishis being, in fact, there defined as those whose words the 
hynms were — yasya vakyam sa rishil^.^ (See Colebrooke's Misc. Ess. 
i. 26, or p. 12 of Williams and Norgate's ed.) Though, however, this 
objection has not been alluded to in any of the preceding passages, an 
answer has been provided to it in the well-known assertion of the 
orthodox Indian writers that the rishis did not compose, but only saw 
and afterwards repeated the hymns and other parts of the Yedas, which 
had in reality pre-existed from eternity. 

Thus, in the Yedartha-prakasa on the Taittirlya Sanhita, p. 11, it is 
Bud: Atindriydrtha'drashtdral^ fishayal^ \ Teshdm veda'drashtfitvarh 
imaryate \ Tug&nte 'ntarhitdn *^ Veddn aetihdsdn mahanhayah \ Lehhire 
tapasd pUrvam anujndtdl^ wayamhhuvd \ (Mahabharata, Siantiparvan, 
verse 7660. See above, p. 49.) ''The rishis were seers of things 
beyond the reach of the bodily senses. The fact of their seeing the 
Yedas is recorded in the Smriti: 'The great rishis, empowered by 
Svayambhu, formerly obtained, through devotion, the Yedas and the 
Itihasas which had disappeared at the end of the [preceding] Yuga.' " 

8o, too, Manu (as already quoted, Yol. I. p. 394) says, in similar, 
although more general language: Prajapatir idam i&strafh tapasaivd' 
tfijid prabhu^ \ Tathaiva veddn jrithayoi tapasd pratipedire \ "Praja- 
pati created this Sastra (the Institutes of Manu) by austere-fervour 
(<0{nm) ; and by the same means the rishis obtained the Yedas." 

*> Some panages from the Nirukta on thiB subject will be quoted in a later part of 
tiui volume. 

•^ The text of the Biblioth. Ind. reads tarhi tan, I have followed the M. fih., 
whidi evidently gives the true reading. 


The following extract from the acconnt of the Purva-mlman8& philo- 
sophy, given in the Sarva-dar^ana-sangraha of Madhava Acharyya 
(Bibliotheca Indica, pp. 127 ff,), contains a fuller summary of the con- 
troversy hotwecn the Mimansakas and the Nuiyayikas respecting the 
grounds on which the authority of the Yeda should be regarded as 
resting : 

S^dd etat I vedasya katham apaurutheyatvam ahhidhlyaU \ tat-praii- 
pudaka-pramandhhdvdt katham inant/eihdh apaurtuheyul^ vedd^ \ mmpra^ 
dCydvicJichhede saty asmaryyamdna-karUfikatvad dtma-vad Hi \ tad etad 
mandam vihshandsiddheh \ paurusJieya-veda-vadibhih pralaye iampra^ 
ddya • vichchhedasya kakshlJcarandt \ kincha kirn idam a8maryyamun&' 
karttrikatvaih ndma \ aprailyamdna - karltfikaivam aamarana - goeharO' 
karttrikatvarn vd \ na prathama^ kalpal^ Farameharasya kartiu^ pro* 
miter ahhyupagamdt \ na dvitiyo vikalpdsaliatvdt \ tathd hi | kirn ekena 
asmaranam ahhipreyate sarvair vd \ na ddya^ \ ** yo dharma-iilo j'iia^ 
mdna-roshah " ttyddinhu muktakoktishu vyahhichdrdt \ na dvitlya^ \ ior^ 
vdsmaranasya asarvajna-durjndnaU'dt \ 

Paurusheyatve pramana-samhhavdch cha veda-vdkydni paurusheydfii \ 
vdkyaivut \ Kdliddsddi'vakya-vat \ veda-vdkydni dpta-pranitdni \ prO' 
mdnatve aati vdhyatvdd Manv-ddi-vakya-vad iti I 

Nanu I '' Vedanyudhyayanam sarvam gurv-aiihyayana-pHrvakam \ vedd* 
dhyayana-sdrndnydd adhund ^dhyayauaih yathd '' | ity anumdnam prali 
addhanari pragalhhate iti chet \ tad api na pramdna-kofim praveshfum 
ishfe I '' Bhdratddhyayanam sarvam gurv-adhyayana-purvakam \ Bhdra* 
tddhyayanatvena sdmpratddhyayanaih yathd " iti dbhaea-samdHa-yoga^ 
kahematvdt \ nanu taira Vydsah karttd iti emaryyate *^ko hy auyahk 
JPundarikdkahdd Mahulkdrata-krid lliavet^^ ity-dddo iti chet \ tad 
asOram | '* ficha^ edmdni jajnire \ chhanddmei jajnire taeindd yajus tat* 
mud ajdyata^* iti purusha-sukte vedasya sa'karirikatd'pratipddandt | 

Khicha anityalf, iahdah edmdnyavaitve eati asmad-ddi-vdhyendriyo' 
grdhyatvdd ghafa-vat | nanv idam anumdnam sa evdyam ga-kdra^ ity 
pratyalhijnd'pramdna-pratihatam iti chet \ tad ati phalgu ** luna-punar" 
jata-ke^a-dalita-kund **'dddp iva pratyabhijndyd^ Bdnidnya-viehayatcena 
hddhakatvdhhavdt \ 

Nanv ahrirasya Parameivarasya tdh-ddi'StMndlhavena varnocJiclid* 
randsamhhavdt katham tal-pranitatvam vedmya ayud iti chet \ na tad 
hhadram ivabhuvato ^iariraeydpi Uuya hhakUknugrahurthoA tUa^igraho' 


^rahana ' samhhav&t \ tatmdd vedasya apaurush$yatva'Vdcho yukttr na 
yuhta Hi chet \ 

Tatra samddhdnam dbhidhlyate \ Kim idam paurusheyatvam stsddhayi- 
thiiam \ purwlidd utpannatva-rndtram \ yathd asmad-ddibhir altar ahar 
uchchdryyamdnasya vedasya \ pramdndnt arena artham upalahhya tat' 
prakdsandya raehitatoam vd \ yathd asmad-ddibhir iva nihadhyamdnasya 
prahandJiasya | prathame na vipratipattil^ \ eharame kirn anumdna-baldt 
tat'Sddhanam dgama-baldd vd \ na ddyal^ \ Mdlatl-mddhavddi-vdkyeshu 
Mavyahhehdratvdt \ atha pramdnatve sati iti vUishyate iti chet j fad apt 
na vipaichito manasi vaiiadyam dpadyate \ pramundntardgochardrtha- 
prattpddakam hi vdkyarh Veda-vdkyam \ tat pramdndntara-gochardrtho' 
pratipddakam iti sddhyamdne ** mama mdtd handhyd ** iti vad vydghdtd' 
pdtdt I kineha Paramejvarasya lild-vigraha-parigrahubhyupagame^py 
ailndriydrtha-darianam na sanjdgha(tti deia'kdla-svabhdva-viprakrish-' 
tdriha-grahanopdydbhdvdt \ na cha tach-chahhur-ddikam eva tddfik' 
pratUi-janaua-kshamam iti mantavyam \ dfishtdnusdrenaiva kalpandyd^ 
dirayanlyatvdt \ tad uktatn GurubJa'^ sarvajna-nirdkarana-veldydm 
** yairdpy atiiayo dfishfah sa svdrlhdnatilanghandt I dilra'8ukshtnddi~ 
dri*htau sydd na rdpe irotra-vfittitd " iti \ atah eva na dgama-baldt tat' 
sudhanam \ 

" Tena proktam " iti Pdniny-anuidsane jdgraty api Kdthaka-Kdldpa' 
Taittirlyam ityddi-samdkhyd adhyayana-eamprafldya-pravarttaka-visha' 
yatvena upapadyate \ tad- vad atrdpi saippraddya-pravaritaka-vishaya' 
ivenupy upapadyate \ na cha anumdna-baldt iabdasya anityatva-siddhih \ 
pratyabhijnd-virodhdt | . . . . 

iViunv id4im pratyabhijndnam gatvddi-jdti-vishayam na gddi-vyakti" 
vuhayam tdsdih prati-purtuham bhedopalambhdd \ anyaihd **Somasarmd 
^dJilte*^ iti vibhdgo na sydd Hi chet { tad api iobhdiii na bibhartti gddi- 
vyakti'hhede pramdndbhdvena gaivddijdti-vishaya'kalpandydin pramdnd* 
hJiavdt I Yathd gatvam aJdnataJ^ ekam eva bhinna-deia'parimdna-sam' 
gthdua-vyakty-upadhdna-vaidd hhinna-deiam iva alpam iva mahad iva 
dirgham iva vdmanam iva prathate tathd ga vyaktim aJdnataJ^ ekd *pi 
vyanjaka-bheddt tat-tad- dharmdnubandhinl pratibhdsate \ etena virud- 
dha-dharmddhydsdd bheda - pratibhdsah iti pratyuktam \ tatra kirn 
tvdhhdviko viruddha-dharmddhydso bheda-sudhakaivena abhimatah prd- 
tliiko vd I prathame asiddhih \ aparathd evdhhavika-bheddbhyupagame 
daia ga-kdrdn udachdrayai Chaitra iti prattipatti^ sydd na tu dalth 


kfitvo ga^kdrah iti \ doitlye tu na avdhhUvika-hheia-siddhih \ na hi 
parop&dhi'lhedena svdhhdvikam aikyaih vihanyate \ md hhud nahhaso *pi 
kumhhddt/'tipddhi'hheddt svdhhdviko hhedah | . . . . taduktam dchury' 
yail^ I 'prayojanam tu yajjdies tad varndd eva labhyate \ vyakti-ldbhya^ 
tu nddehhya^ iti gatvddi-dhlr vrithd^* iti \ tathd cha ^^ pratyabhijnd 
yadd Sahde jdgartti niravagrahd | anityaivdnumdndni saiva sarvdni hd- 
dhate " | . . r . tatai cha vedasya apaurusheyatayd nirasta'Samasta'iankd' 
kalankdnkuratvena svatah siddham dharme prdmdnyam iti susthitam \ 

''Be it 80. But how [the Naiyayikas may ask] is the Ycda alleged 
to be underived from any personal author ? How can you regard the 
Yedas as being thus underived, when there is no evidence by which 
this character can be substantiated ? The argument urged by you Ml- 
mansakas is, that while there is an unbroken traditiou, still no author 
of the Yeda is remembered, in the same way as [no'ne is remembered] 
in the case of the soul (or self). But this argument is very weak, be- 
cause the asserted characteristics [unbrokenness of tradition, etc.] are not 
proved ; since those who maintain the personal origin [i.e. origin from 
a person] of the Yeda, object that the tradition [regarding the Yeda] 
was interrupted at the dissolution of the universe {pralaya),^ And 
further : what is meant by the assertion that no author of the Yeda is 
remembered ? Is it (1) that no author is believed ? or (2) that no author 
is the object of recollection ? The first alterDalive cannot be accepted, 
since it is acknowledged [by us] that God {ParameSvara) is proved to 
be the author. Nor can the second alternative be admitted, as it cannot 
stand the test of the following dilemma, viz. Is it meant (a) that no 
author of the Yeda is recollected by some one person, or {b) by any 
person whatever? The former supposition breaks down, since it fails 
when tried by such detached stanzas as this, ' he who is religious, and 
has overcome pride and anger,' etc." And the latter supposition is in- 
admissible, since it would be impossible for any person who was not 
omniscient to know that no author of the Yeda was recollected by any 
person whatever* 

^ This objection occurs in a passage of the Kuaumar^'ai: , which I shall quote 
further on. 

*s I do not know from what work this verse is quoted, or what is its sequel. To 
prove anything in point, it must apparently go on to assert that such a saint as is here 
described remembers the author of the Veda, or at least has sucli superhuman fiical- 
ties as would enable him to discover the author. 


•' And moreover, [the Naiyayikas proceed], the sentences of the Veda 
tnnst have originated with a personal author, as proof eidsts that they 
had snch an origin, since they have the character of sentences, like 
those of Kalidasa and other writers. The sentences of the Yeda have 
been composed by competent persons, since, while they possess an- 
tbority, they have, at the some time, the character of sentences, like 
those of Manu and other sages. 

** But [ask the Mimansakas] may it not be assumed that, ' All study 
of the Veda was preceded by an earlier study of it by the pupil's pre- 
ceptor, since the study of the Veda must always have had one common 
character, which was the same in former times as now;"* and that 
this inference has force to prove [that the Veda had no author or was 
eternal] ? Such reasoning [the Naiyayikas answer] is of no force as 
proof, [for it might be urged, with an equal show of reason, that] ' All 
study of the Mahabharata was preceded by an earlier study of it by the 
pupil's preceptor, since the study of the Mahabharata, from the mere 
fact of its being such, [must have had the same character in former 
times] as it has now;' and the advantage of such an argument is 
simply illusory. But the [Mimansakas will ask whether there is not a 
difference between these two cases of the Veda and the Mahabharata, 
since] the Smriti declares that [Vishnu incarnate as] Vyasa was the 
author of the latter, — according to such texts as this, 'Who else than 
Pun^arlkaksha (the lotus-eyed Vishnu) could be the maker of the 
Mahabharata?' (see above, p. 39), — [whilst nothing of this sort is 
recorded in any S>astra in regard to the Veda]. This argument, how- 
ever, is powerless, since it is proved by these words of the Purusha- 
sukta, ' From him sprang the |tich and Saman verses and the metres, 
and from him the Yajiish verses,' (above, p. 3) that the Veda had a 

« Farther [proceed the Naiyayikas] we must suppose that sound 
[on the eternity of which the eternity and uncreatedness of the Veda 
depend] is not eternal, since, while it has the properties belonging to a 

** The purport of this verse is, that as everj generation of students of the Veda 
mnat have been preceded by an earlier generation of teachers, and as there is no reason 
to asBOiDe any variation in this process by supposing that there ever had been any 
student who taoght himself; we have thus a regrtutu ad infinitumf and must of 
neeemty eonclude that the Vedas had no author, but were eternal* 


genuB, it can, like a jar, be perceived by the external organs of beings 
such as ourselves. But [rejoin the Mimansakas], is not this inference 
of yours refuted by the proof arising from the fact that wo recognise 
the letter G [for example] as the same we have heard before ? This 
argument [replies the Naijaylka] is extremely weak, for the recogni- 
tion in question having reference to a community of species, — as in 
the case of such words as ' hairs cut and grown again, or of full- blown 
jasmine,' etc., — has no force to refute my assertion [that letters are 
not eternal]. 

** But [asks the Mlmansaka] how can the Yeda have been uttered 
by the incorporeal Puramc^vara (God), who has no palate or other 
organs of speech, and therefore cannot be conceived to have pronounced 
the letters [of which it is composed] ? This objection [answers the 
J^ttiyayiku] is not happy, because, though Puraroeivara b by nature 
incorporeal, he can yet, by way of sport, assume a body, in order to 
shew kindness to his devoted worshippers. Consequently, the argu- 
ments in favour of the doctrine that the Yeda had no personal author 
are inconclusive. 

'* I shall now [pays the Mlmansaka] clear up all these difficulties. 
TVTiat is meant by this paurusheyatva (* derivation from a personal 
author') which it is souglit to provo ? Is it (1) mere procession {uU 
pannaiva) from a person {purusha), like the procession of the Yeda 
from persons such as ourselves, when we daily utter it ? or (2) is it the 
arrangement— with a view to its manifestation — of knowledge acquired 
by other modes of proof, in the sense in which persons like ourselves 
compose a treatise ? If the first meaning be intended, there will be no 
dispute. If the second sense be meant, I ask whether the Yeda is proved 
[to be authoritative] in virtue (a) of its being founded on inference, or 
(J) of its being founded on supernatural information {agama-laldt) ? The 
former alternative (a) [i.^. that the Yeda derives its authority from 
bcin^ founded on infei'enco] cannot be correct, since this theory breaks 
down, if it be applied to the sentences of the Malali Madhava or any 
other eecular poem [which may contain inferences destitute of autho- 
rity]. If, on tho other hand, you say {h\ that the contents of the 
Yeda are distinguished from those of other books by having authority, 
this explanation also will fail to satisfy a philosopher. For the word 
of the Yeda is [deEnod to be] a word which proves things that are not 


proTable by any other eridcnce. Now if it could be established that 
this Yedic word did nothing more than prove things that ore provablo 
by other evidenco, wo should bo involved in the same sort of contra- 
diction as if a man were to say that his mother was a bun*cn woman. 
And even if we conceded that Purumeivura might in sport assume a 
body, it would not be conceivable that [in that case] he should perceive 
thin^ beyond the reach of the senses, from the want of any means of 
apprehending objects removed from him in place, in time, and in noture. 
Nor is it to be thought that his eyes and other senses idone would have 
the power of producing such knowledge, since men can only attain to 
conceptions corresponding with what they have perceived. This is 
18 what has been said by the Guru (Prabhakara) when he refutes [this 
supposition of J an omniscient author : * Whenever any object is pcr« 
cc'ived [by the organ of sight] in its most perfect exercise, such per- 
ception can only have reference to the vision of something very distant 
or very minute, since no organ can go beyond its own proper objects, 
as e.g. the ear can never become cognizant of form.' Hence the au« 
thority of the Yeda does not arise in virtue of any supernatural in- 
formation [acquired by the Deity in a corporeal shape]. 

" Without any contravention'* of the rule of Panini (iv. 8, 101 ; see 
above, p. 83) that the grammatical affix with which the words Hathaka, 
Kaldpa, and Taittiriya are formed, imparts to those derivatives the sense 
of ' uttered by ' Eatha, Ealapa, etc., it is established that the names first 
mentioned have reference [not to those parts of the Veda being composed 
by the sages in question, but] to the fact that these sages instituted the 
practice of studying those parts of the Yeda. Here also these nppolla- 
lions ought to be understood in the same manner, as referring to the fuct 
of those sagos being the institutors of the study of the Veda ; and we are 
not to think that the eternity of sound [or of the words of the Ved:i] is 
disproved by the force of any inference [to be drawn from those name^], 
since this would be at variance with the recognition [of letters as the 
aamo we knew before] (see above, llimansa Sutras, i. 19 f., p. 75). • • • • 

"But [the Naiyayikas will ask] does not the recognition [of G and 
other letters as the same we knew before] refer to them as belonging 
to the [same] species, and not as being the [same] individual letters, 
ainco, in fact, they are perceived to be different [as uttei*cd by] each 

** Literally ** ilthough the rals of FMnini be awake.** 


person, — foT otherwise it would be impossible for ns to make any dis- 
tinction [between different readers, as when we say], ' Soma^arman is 
reading ? ' This objection, however, shines as little as its predecessors, 
and has been answered in this way, viz. that as there is no proof of any 
distinction of individuality between G's, etc., there is no evidence that 
we ought to suppose any such thing as a species of G's, etc. [t,e, of G's 
and other letters each constituting a species]. Just ns to the man who 
is ignorant that G's constitute a species, [that letter], though one 
only, becomes, through distinction of place, magnitude, form, indi- 
viduality, and position, variously modified as distinct in place, as 
small, as great, as long, or as short, in the same way, to the man who 
is ignorant of an individuality of G's, [t,e. of G's being numerically 
different from each other], this letter, though only one, appears, from 
the distinction existing between the different persons who utter it, to be 
connected with their respective peculiarities ; and as contrary characters 
are in this way erroneously ascribed [to the letter G], there is a falla- 
cious appearance of distinctness [between different G's]. But does this 
ascription of contrary characters which is thus regarded as creating a 
difference [between G's] result from (1) the nature of the thing, or (2) 
from mere appearance ? There is no proof of the first alternative, as 
otherwise an inherent difference being admitted between different G's, 
it would be established that Chaitra had uttered ten (different] G's, 
and not [the same] G ten times. But on the second supposition, there 
is no proof of any inherent distinction [between G's] ; for inherent 
oneness (or identity) is not destroyed by a difference of extrinsic dis- 
guises [or characteristics]. We must not conceive, from the merely 
apparent distinctness [occasioned by the separation of its parts] by 
jars, etc., that there is any inherent distinctness in the atmosphere 
itself. ' • . . It has been said by the Acharjya ' The object which 
the Naiyayikas seek, by supposing a species, is in fact gained from 
the letter itself; and the object at which they aim by supposing an 
individuality in letters, is attained from audible sounds {Le. the se- 
parate utterances of the different letters), so that the hypothesis of 
species, etc., is useless.' And he thus reaches the conclusion that, 
' since, in respect of sounds (letters), recognition has so irresistible a 
power, [literally, wakes, unrestrained], it alone repels all inferences 
against the eternity [of sound, or the Yeda]." After some further 


argamentation the Mlmansaka arriyes at the conclusion that '' as every 
imputation of doubt which has germinated has been set aside by the 
nnderived character of the Yeda, its authority in matters of duty is 
shewn to be self-evident." 

I shall not attempt to carry further my translation of this abstruse 
discussion, as the remainder of it contains much which I should find 
great difficulty in comprehending.** 

[Although not directly connected with the subject in hand, the fol- 
lowing passage from S^ankara's commentary on the Brahma Sutras, iii. 
2, 40,*^ will throw some further light on the doctrines of the Mlmansa. 
In the two preceding Sutras, as explained by S^ankara, it had been 
asserted, both on grounds of reason and on the authority of the Veda, 
that God is the author of rewards. In the 40th S^utra a different doc? 
trine is ascribed to Jaimini : 

Dharma0i Jaimtnir atah eva \ JaiminU tv dchdryyo dkarmam phaUuya 
ddtdram manyate \ ata eva hetoh iruter upapatteS cha \ irHyate tdvad 
ayam artha^ '* svarya-kdmo yqfeta " ity warn ddithu v&lcyeshu \ tafra cha 
vidhuiruter vuhaya-hhdvopayamdd ydga^ Bvargasya utpddakah iti gam- 
yaU I anyaihd hy ananuihthdtjriko ydgah dpadyeta tatra asya upadeiasya 
vaiyarthyafk sydt \ nanv anukshana-vindiinaJ^ karmanah phalaih na upth 
padyade iti pa/rityakto ^yam pakshah \ na esha dashah iruti-prdrndnydt \ 
irutii ehet pramdnarh yathd 'yam karma-phala-Bamhandhah irutah upa- 
padyaU tathd kalpayitavya^ \ na cha anutpudya kimapy apUrvam karma 
vinaSyat kdldntaritam phalaih datum iaknoti ity ata^ karmano vd sUkshfnd 
hdehid uttardvasthd phalasya vd pQrvdvastM apHrvarh ndma asti iti tark" 
yate \ upapadyate cha ayam arthah uktena prakdrena \ Iharas tu phttlarh 
daddti ity anupapannam aviehitrasya kdranasya vichitra-kdryydnupapat- 
ieJ^ vaishamya-nairghfinya'prasangdd antuhthdna-vaiyarthydpattei cha \ 
UUmdd dharmdd eva phalam iti \ 

** * Jaimini says that for this reason virtue [is the giver of reward].' 
The Acharyya Jaimini regards virtue [i.e. the performance of the pre- 
scribed rites and duties] as the bestower of reward. * For this reason,' 

** In fact I haye left out some pages of the translation which I had given in the 
first edition, as well as the corresponding portion of the text I am indebted to the 
kindness of Professor GoldstUcker for Tarions suggestions towards the improyement 
of my translation. But two of the passages on which he had fayoured me with his 
opinion are, to my own apprehension, so obscure, that I haye omitted them* 

•V It is partly quoted in Prof. Banerjea's work on Hindu Philosophy. 


and because it is proved by the Veda. This is the purport of the Vedio 
text, 'Let the man who seeks paradise, sacrifice,' and others of the 
same kind. As from this Vedic injunction we must infer the existence 
of an object [to be sought after] it is concluded that sacrifice has the 
effect of producing heavenly bliss ; for otherwise we should be inTolved 
in the absurdity of a sacrifice without a performer [since no one would 
care to sacrifice without an object], and thus the injunction would be- 
come fruitless. But may it not be said that it is not conceivable that 
any fruit should result from a ceremony which perishes every moment, 
60 that this view must be abandoned ? No, this defect does not attach 
to oiir Mimansaka statement, since the Veda is authoritative. If the 
Veda be authority, this connection of the reward with the ceremony 
must be supposed to exist just as is proved by the Veda. But as a 
ceremony which perishes without generating any unseen virtue, can- 
not produce a reward at a distant time, it must be concluded that there 
is either a certain subtile ulterior form of the ceremony, or a certain 
subtile anterior form of the reward, which is called * unseen virtue.* 
And tliis result is established in the manner before mentioned. But it 
it is not proved that God bestows rewards, because it is inconceivable 
that a uniforvL Cause [such as He is] should produce various effects, 
and because the performance of ceremonies would be useless, owing to 
the partiality and unmerci fulness which would attach [to the supposed 
arbiter of men's deserts]. Hence it is from virtue alone that reward 

, How far this passage may be sufficient to prove the atheism of the 
Mimansa, I will not attempt to say. Before we could decide on such 
a question, the other Sutras of that school which refer to this question 
(if there bo any such) would have to be consulted. 

Piofessor Banerjca also quotes the following text from the popular 
work, the Vidvan-modu-tarangini, in which the Mimansakas are dis- 
tinctly charged with atheism : 

Devo na kaichid bhmanasya karttd Iharttd na harttd *pi eha kaichid 
aste I karmanurupuni hibhdiuhhdni prdpnott sarvo hi janah phaldni \ 
vedasyd karttd na cha kaichid d*te nitydl^ hi idbddh raehand hi nityd \ 
prdmdnyam asmin wata^ eva nddham anddi-siddheh paratah kathaih tat \ 

'' There is no God, maker of the world ; nor has it any sustainer or 
destroyer; for every man obtains a recompence in conformity with his 


works. Neither is there any maker of the Yeda, for its words are 
eternal, and their arrangement is eternal. Its authoritativencss is self- 
demonstrated, for since it has heen estahlished from eternity, how can 
it be dependent npon anything bnt itself? " 

I learn from Professor Baneijea that the Mlm&nsaka conunentator 
]Prabh§kara and his school treat the Furva Mlmansd as an athebtio 
system, while Kumarila makes it out to be theistic. In fact the latter 
author makes the following complaint at the commencement of his 
Tarttika, verse 10 : Prdyenaiva hi Mtmdihia loke lokdyatlkfitd \ tarn 
dstika-pathe karitum ayam yatnah kfito mayd \ *' For in practice the 
Ulmansa has been for the most part converted into a Lokayata** 
(atheistic) system ; but I have made this effort to bring it into a theistic 
path." See also the lines which are quoted from the Padma Puraija by 
Yijndna Bhikshu, commentator on the Sankhya aphorisms, in a passage 
which I shall adduce further on.] 

It appears from a passage in Putanjali's Mahabhashya, that that great 
grammarian was of opinion that, although the sense of the Veda is 
eternal, the order of the words has not continued uniform ; and that it 
is from this order having been variously fixed by Kufha, Kalapa, and 
other sages, that different portions of the Indian scriptures are called 
by their names. 

The following passages from the Mahabhashya, and from the Com- 
mentaries of Kuiyya^a and Nagojibhatta thereon, are extracted from 
the fuller quotations given by Professor Goldstiicker in pp. 147 f. of 
the Preface to his Manava-kalpa-sutra. 

Patanjali : Kanu cha uhtafk ^*na hi chhandditm hriyante niiydni chhan^ 
ddnm** iti \ yadyapy artho nttyah \ yd tv asau varnunupHrvi id anityd 
tad'hheddch cha etad hhavati Kuthakafh Kdldpakam Maudakam Paippald* 
dakam ityddi . . . . | Kaiyyata : ^^ Nilyuni^^ iti \ karttur asmarandt 
Uahum iti hhdval^ \ *'yd tv asdv " iti \ tnahupralayddishu varndnupUrvU 
vtndie punar utpadya rishayah Mmskdrdtisaydd vedurtham smfilvd iabda* 
rachandh vidadluiti ity arthah \ ^Had-hheddd^* iti \ dnupHrvl-hheddd ity 
arthah \ tatai cha Kathddayo veddnupurvydh karttdra^ eva ityddi | 
Kagojibhatta : Arhiena vedasya nityaivam svikritya amiena anityatcam 
dha "yadyapy arthah** iti \ anena vedatvam sahdurthohhaya-vritti-dhvO' 
nitvam | nanu ** dhdtd yathd pHrvam akalpayad** ityddi-iruti-halena 
^ See Colebrooke'f Misc. Ess. i. 402 ff., or p. 269 ff. of Williams and Noigate's ed. 


dnupHrvl apt sd era iti navya'purva-mlmdmsd'Siddhdntdt sd nttyd iti 
ayuktam ata dha " mahupralai/ddishv '' Hi \ dnupurvyds tat-tat-kshatuh 
ghafitatvena anityatvam iti hhdva^ iti kechit \ tan na \ ** yadyapy ariho 
nityahL " ityddi-vdhja-iesha-virodhat \ arthasydpi jyotishfomdder anttyaU 
vdt I pravdhdvichchhedena nityatvam tu uhhayor api tasmdd tnanvantara- 
hhedena dnupiirvJ hhinnd eva ^* prati-manvantaram chaishd irutir anyd 
vidhlyate^* ity ukter iiy anye \ pare <m | ** artho nityay* ity atra krita^ 
katva-virodhy-anityatvasya eva ahhyupagamah pHrva-pahshind tddriia- 
nityatvasya eva chhandassu ukteh \ evarh cha artha-iahdena atra Uvarah \ 
mukhyatayd tasya eva sarva-veda-tdtparyya-vishayatvdt \ *'vedaii cha 
sarvair aham eva vedyah " iti Gltokter ity dhuh | varndnupUrrydh anit- 
yatve mdnam dha *^ tad-hheddch cJia " iti \ anityatva-vydpya-hhedena tat- 
siddhih I hhedo *tra ndndtvam \ livare tu na ndndtvam \ hhede mdnam 
vyavahdram dlia \ ^' Kdfhaka " ityddi \ arthaikye *py dnupUrvi-hheddd 
eva Kdthaka-kdldpakddi-vyavahdrah iti hhdvah \ atra dnupUrvl anityd 
ity ukteh paddni tdny eva iti dhvanitvam \ tad dha '' tatai cha Kafha- 
dayah " ityddi \ 

As Professor Goldstiicker has only given (in p. 146 of his Preface) a 
translation of the above extract from Patanjali, and has left the pas- 
sages from Kaiyya^a and Nagojibhatt& untranslated, I shall give his 
version of the first, and my own rendering of the two last. 

Fatanjali: ''Is it not said, however, that 'the Yedas are not made, 
but that they are permanent (t.^. eternal)?' (Quite so); yet though 
their sense is permanent, the order of their letters has not always re- 
mained the same ; and it is through the difference in this latter respect 
that we may speak of the versions of the Kaphas, Kalapas, Mudakas, 
Pippaladakas, and so on." Kaiyyafa on Fatanjali: "♦Eternal;' by 
this word he means that they are so, because no maker of them is 
remembered. By the words, ' the order of their letters/ etc., it is 
meant that, the order of the letters being destroyed in the great 
dissolutions of the universe, etc., the rishis, when they are again 
created, recollecting, through their eminent science, the sense of the 
Veda, arrange the order of the words. By the phrase, * through the 
difference of this,' is meant the difference of order. Consequently, 
Xatha and the other sages [to whom allusion was made] are the authors 
of the order of the Veda." Ndgojihhatta on Fatanjali and KaiyyafU : 
^' Admitting in part the eternity of the Veda, he, Patanjali, declares in 


the words, ' though the sense is eternal/ etc., that it (the Ycda) is also 
in part not eternal. By this clause it is implied that the character of the 
Veda as such is constituted both by the words and by the scnse.^ But is 
not the order also eternal, since it is a settled doctrine of the modem 
Mlmansakas, on the strength of such Yedic texts as this, ' the creator 
made them as before,' etc., that the order also is the very same ? No ; 
this is incorrect, and in consequence, he (Kaiyyata) says, ' in the great 
dissolutions,' etc. Some say the meaning of this is, that the order is not 
eternal, inasmuch as it is formed in particuLir moments. But this is 
wrong, because it is opposed to the conclusion of the sentence, ' though 
their sense is eternal,' etc., and because the objects signified also, such 
as the jyotishfoma sacrifice, are not eternal. Others say that both the 
sense and the order of the words are eternal [or permanent], owing to 
the continuity of the tradition ; and that, consequently, it is in difierent 
xnanvantaras that the order of the words is difierent, acc9rdiDg to the 
text, ' in every manvantara this ^ruti (Yeda) is made different.' Others 
again think that in the words, ' the sense is eternal,' etc., an admis- 
sion is made by an objector of an eternity opposed to the idea of 
production, since it is only such a [qualified] eternity that is men- 
tioned in the Yeda; and that thus the word 'sense,' or 'object' 
(arthah), here refers to livara, because he is the principal object which 
is had in view in the whole of the Yeda, according to the words of the 
Bhagavad-glta (xv. 15), 'It is I whom all the Yedas seek to know.' 
He next states the proof of the assertion that the order of the letters is 
sot eternal, in the words, ' through the difference of this/ etc. The 
difference in the order is proved by the difference in the things included 
under the category of non- eternity. Difference here means variety. But 
in Isvara (God), there is no variety. He declares current usage to bo 
the proof of difference, in the words ' Kafhaka,' etc., which mean that, 
though the sense is the same, we use the distinctions of Eafhaka, Kala- 
paka, etc., in consequence of the difference of arrangement. Here by 
saying that the order is not eternal, it is implied that the words are the 
same. And this is what is asserted in the words [of Eaiyyafa], ' con- 
sequently Kafha and the other sages,' " etc. 

^ I am indebted to Professor Golds! ucker for a correction of my former rendering 
of this sentence, aud of several otliers in this passage of Nugojibhatta. 



AtVr quoting these passages at greater length than I have gjven 
^'«tt« l^rx>tV»or Goldstucker goes on to remark in his note : " I haye 
quoted the l\Ul gloss of the three principal commentators, on this im- 
|K>rt«Qt Sutra [of Fanini] and its Yarttikas, hecause it is of considerable 

interest in many respects We see Kaiyyafa and Nagojibhatta 

writhing under the difficulty of reconciling the eternity of the Yeda 
with the diiferences of its various versions, which, nevertheless, main- 
tuiu an etiual claim to infallibility. Patahjali makes rather short work 
K\f this much vexed question ; and unless it be allowed here to render 
hi« expression varna (which means 'letter'), 'word,* it is barely pos- 
»iUo even to understand how ho can save consistently the eternity or 
permanence of the * sense ' of the Yeda. That the modem Mimansists 
maintain not only the 'eternity of the sense,' but also the * permanence 
of the text,' which is tantamount to the exclusive right of one single 
version, we learn, amongst others, from NagojibhaUa* But as such a 
doctrine has its obvious dangers, it is not shared in by the old Miman- 
sists, nor by Nagoji, as he tells us himself. He and Kaiyyafa inform 
us therefore that, amongst other theories, there is one, according* to 
which the order of the letters (or rather words) in the Yaidik texts got 
lost in the several Pralayas or destructions of the worlds ; and since 
iJttoh manvantara had its own revelation, which differed only in the 
oxpression, not in the sense of, the Yaidik texts, the various versions 
known to these commentators represent these successive revelations, 
which were ' remembered,' through tlieir ' excessive accomplishments,' 
by the rtishis, who in this manner produced, or rather reproduced, the 
tt«xts current in their time, under the name of the versions of the 
Kaphas, Kaldpas, and so on. In this way each version had an equal 
olaim to sanctity. There is a very interesting discussion on the same 
subject by Kumarila, in his Mlmansa-varttika (i. 3, 10)." 

III. The Veddnta, — I proceed to adduce the reasonings by which Bada- 
rftyana, the reputed author of the Brahma, S^arlraka, or Yedanta Sutras, 
as expounded by S^ankara Acharyya in his S'drlraka'tnlmdm^-hhushi/a^ 
or commentary on those Sutras, defends the eternity and authority of 
tho Yeda. His views, as we shall see, are not by any means identical 
with those of Jaimini and his school. After discussing the question 
whether any persons but men of the three highest tribes are qualified 
Ibr divine knowledge, the author of the Sutras comes to the condiision 


tliat S^udras, or persons of the fourth tribe, aid incompetent, while 
beings raperior to man, the gods, are competent ^^ (Coiebrooke's Misc. 
Ess. i. 348, or p. 223 of Williams and Norgate's ed.) In Sutra, i. 3, 
26, the author determines that the gods haye a desire for final emanci- 
|(>ation, owing to the transitoriness of their glory, and a capacity for 
attaining it, because they possess the qualities of corporeality, etc. ; 
and that there is no obstacle which prevents their acquiring divine 
knowledge. A difficulty, however, having been raised that the gods 
cannot be corporeal, because, if they were so, it is necessary to conceive 
that they would be corporeally present (as priests actually are) at the 
ceremonial of sacrifice, in which they are the objects of worship, — a 
supposition which would not consist with the usual course of such cere- 
monies, at which the gods are not seen to be corporeally present, and 
woulcl, in fact, involve an impossibility, since Indra, for example, being 
but one, could not be corporeally present at numerous sacrifices at 
once; — this difficulty is solved (under Sutra i. 8, 27) in two ways, 
either by supposing (1) that the gods assume different forms, and 
are present at many sacrifices at once, although invisible to mortals ; or 
by considering (2) that, as a sacrifice is offered to (and not, by) a deity, 
many persons may present their oblations to that deity at once, just as 
one Brahman may be saluted by many different persons at the same 
time. It is, therefore, concluded that the corporeal nature of the gods 
is not inconsistent with the practice of sacrifice. Having settled these 
points, Sknkara comes to Sutra 1. 3, 28 : 

'^S'ahde iti chet \ na \ atah prahhavat \ pratyakshdnumdndhhydm** \ 
Ma ndma vigrahavattve dev&dlndm ahhyupagamyam&ne harmani kaS- 
chid virodhah prasanji \ iahde tu virodhah prasajyeta \ katham \ Aut- 
patiikam hi iabdasya arthena tamhandltam diritya ** anapekahatvdd*^ 
iti vedoiya prdmdnyafh sthdpitam \ Iddnlm tu vigrahavati devatd ^hhyu" 
payamyamdnd yadyapy niivaryya-yoydd yugapad aneka-karnuhsamhan-' 
dhini havlnuhi hhunjita tathdpi vtgraha-yogdd (Ufnad-ddi-vaj janafuhma- 
ranavatl sd iti nityasya iabdasya anityena arthena nitya-tamhandhe pro- 
hyamdne yad vaidike iahde prdmdnyafh athitam taaya virodhaJ^ sydd iti 
chei I na ay am apy aati virodhah \ katmdd " atah prahhavdt** \ Atah eva 

100 Por g diflciusioii of the different question wbetbcr the gods can practise the cere- 
SDonies prescribed in the Vedas, sec the First Volume of this work, p. 365, note. 


hi vaidikat Sahddd devadikam jagat prdbhavati \ Nanu *'janmdd% my a 
yatah " (Brahma Sutras i. 1,2) iti brahma-prahhavatvam jagato 'vadhd- 
ritaih katham iha iahda-prahhavatvam uchyate \ Apicha yadi ndma vai- 
dikat iahddd asya prahhavo ^hhyupagatah katJiam etdvatu virodhah iahde 
parihfitah \ ydvaid Vasavo Rudrdh Aditydl^ Viivedevdh Marutah ity ete 
^rthuh anitycth eva utpattimattvdt \ Tad-anityatve cha tad-vdchakdnam 
vaidikdndih Vasv-ddi-sahdundm anityatvajii kenavdryyate \ Prasiddliaih hi 
loke Devadattasya putre uf panne Tajnadattah iti tasya ndma kriyate iti \ 
Tasmdd virodhah eva iahde iti chet \ na | Gavadi-ialddrtha-sambandha- 
nityaiva-darSandt \ Na hi gavddi-vyakt'indm utpattimattve tad-dkritindm 
apy utpattimattvam sydd dravya-guna-karmandm hivyaktayah eva utpad- 
yante na dkritayah \ Akritibhii cha iabddndm samhandho na vyaktibhih \ 
vyaktindm dnantydt samhandha-grahandnupapatteh \ Vyaktishu utpadya- 
tndndsv apy dkritlndm nityatvdd na gavddi-Sahdeshu kaichid viradho* drii- 
yate \ Tathd devddi-vyakti-prahhavdhhyupaganie 'pi dkriti-nityatvdd na 
kaicMd Tasv-ddi-iahdeshu virodhah iti drashfavyam \ Akfiti-viieshas tude- 
vddlndm mantrdrihavddddibhyo vigrahavattvddy-avagamdd avagantavyah \ 
Sthdna-viieeha-samhandha-nimittdS cha Indrddi ' iahddh sendpafyddi- 
iabda-vat \ Tatai cJia yo yas tat tat sthdnam adhitishfhati ea ea Indrddi- 
iahdair ahhidhlyate iti na dosho hhavati \ Na clia idmi iahda-pralhavat- 
ram Brahma -prahhavatva-vad updddna-kdranatvdhhiprdyena uchyate \ 
katham tarhi sthiti'Vdchakdtmand nitye iahde nitydrtha-eamhandhini 
iahda-vyavdhdra-yogydrtha-vyakti-nishpattir ^* ataht prahhavah^' ity uch- 
yate I katham punar avagamyate Sabddt prahhavati jagad iti \ '*pratya- 
kehdnumdndhhydm " | Pratyakshaih irutih \ prdmdnyam prati anape- ' 
kehatvdt \ anumdnaifi smfitii^ \ prdmdnyam prati sdpekshatvdt \ Te hi 
iahda-pUrtdm srishtim darsayatahk \ " Ete " iti vai prajdpatir devdn 
asjrijata ^'asrigram" iti manushydn ^'indavafi" itipifrlms ^Hirahpati- 
tram^' iti grahdn ^'diavah*' iti stoiram '^vihdni^' iti iastram "ahhi 
eauhhagd " ity anydh prajdh iti irutil^ \ Tathd 'nyatrdpi ** sa manasd 
vdcham mithunam eamahhavad'* (Slatapatlia Brahmana z. 6, 5, 4, and 
Bfihadaranyaka Upanishad, p. 50) ityddind tatra tatra iahda-purviha 
Bfishtih irdvyate \ Smfitir api^* anddi-nidhatid nityd vdg utsfishfd srayam- 
hhuvd I ddau vedamayl divyd yatah sarvdh pravrittayah " ity utsargo *py 
ayam vdchah aampraddya-pravartiandtmako drashfavyah anddi-nidhand- 
ydh anyddfisasya utsargaeya asamhJiavdt \ Tathd ^^ndma rupam cha bhu^ 
tdnuih karmandm cha pravarltanam \ Veda-iahdebhya evddau nirmame ia 


maheharah*^ %ti\ "sarvesMm cKasandmunikarmanichaprithakpfithak \ 
Veda-iahdebhya evddau prithak samsthdS cha nirmame " iti cha \ Apieha 
ehiklrshitam artham anutishthan tasya vachakaih iahdam purvam sntfitvH 
paichdt tarn artham anutishthati iti Barveihdfh nah pratyakaham etat \ 
Tatha prajdpater api sraahtuh sfishieh purva^ vaidikdh idbddh manan 
prddurhahhuvuh paschdt tad-anuyatdn arthdn Bosarjja iti gamy ate \ Tathd 
cha irutil^ " sa bhur iti vydharan hhUmim asrijata *' "* ity-evam-ddikd 
hhur-ddi-iahdehhyah eva manaai prddurhhutehhyo hhHr^ddi-lokdn prudur^ 
hhutdn sjrishtdn darSayati \ kim-utmakam punah iahdam dbhipretya idam 
iabda^ahhavatvam uehyate \ sphofam ity dha | . . . . Ta&mdd nitydt 
iahddt sphota-rupdd abhidhdyakdt kriyd-kdraka-phdla-lakshanaih jayad 
abhidheya-hhutam prabhavatlti | . . . . Tatai cha nityebhyah iabd&bhyo 
devddi'Vyaktlndm prabhavah ity aviruddham | 

Sutra L 3, 29. **Ata eva cha nityatvam '' | tvatantrasya karttuh sma- 
randd eva hi »thite vedasya nityatve detddi-vyakti-prabhavabhyupagamena 
tasya tirodham dsankya " atah prabhavdd^* iti parihritya iddnlm tad eva 
veda-nityatvam sthitam dradhayati '' ata eva cha nityatvam " iti \ atah 
wa cha niyatdkfiter devdder jagato veda-iabda-prabhavatvdd eva veda- 
iahda^ityatvam api pratyetavyam \ Tathd cha mantra-varnah " yajnena 
vdchah padaxHyam dyan idm anvavindann riahishu pravishfdm " iti tthi- 
idm eva vdcham anuvinndm dariayati \ Vedavydsak cha evam eva smarati 
(Mahabharata, Yanap. 7660) | **yugdnte *ntarhitdn veddn eetihdadn ma- 
harehayah \ lebhire tapaed pHrvam anujndtdh svayamhhuvd ** iti \ 

** Sutra i. 3, 28 : ' But it is said that there will be a contradiction in 
respect of sound (or the word) ; but this is not so, because the gods are 
produced from it, as is proved by intuition and inference.' 

'' Be it so, that though the corporeality of the gods, etc., be admitted, 
no contradiction will arise in respect of the ceremonial. Still [it will 
be said that] a contradiction will arise in regard to the word. How ? 
[In this way.] By founding upon the inherent connection of a word 
-with the thing signified, the authority of the Veda had been established 
by the aphorism ' anapeksltatvdtf' etc. (Mimansa Sutras L 2, 21 ; see 
aboTe, p. 75.) But now, while it has been admitted that the deities are 
corporeal, it will follow that (though from their possession of divine 
power they can at one and the same time partake of the oblations 

^01 Compare S'atapatha Bruhmana, xi. 1, 6, 3. 


offered at niiineroiis sacrifices), they will still, owing to their corpo- 
reality, be subject, like ourselves, to birth and death ; and hence, the 
eternal connection of the eternal word with an object which is non- 
eternal being lost, a contradiction will arise in regard to the authority 
proved to belong to the word of the Yeda ; [for thus the word, not 
having any eternal connection with non-eternal things, could not be au- 
thoritative]. But neither has this supposed contradiction any existence. 
How ? ' Because they are produced from it.' Hence the world of gods, 
etc., is produced from the Yedic word. But according to the aphorism 
(Brahma Sutras i. 1, 2) ' from him comes the production, etc., of all this,' 
it is established that the world has been produced from Brahma. How, 
then, is it said here that it is produced from the word ? And, moreover, 
if it be allowed that the world is produced from the Yedic word, how is 
the contradiction in regard to the word thereby removed, inasmuch as all 
the following classes of objects, viz. the YasuS| Eudras, Adityas, YiS- 
vedevas, Maruts, are non-eternal, because produced; and when they 
are non-eternal, what is there to bar the non-eternity of the Yedic 
words Yasu, etc., by which they are designated ? For it is a common 
saying, ' It is only when a son is bom to Devadatta, that that son 
receives the nrme of Yajnadatta,' [i.e. no child receives a name before 
it exists]. Hence a contradiction does arise in regard to [the eternity 
of] the word. To this objection we reply with a negative ; for in the 
case of such words as cow we discover an eternal connection between 
the word and the thing. For although individual cows, etc., come 
into existence, the species to which they belong does not begin to exist, 
as it is individual substances, qualities, and acts, which begin to exist, 
and not their species. Kow it is with species that words are connected, 
and not with individuals, for as the latter are infinite, such a connection 
would ih their case be impossible. Thus as species are eternal (though 
individuals begin to exist) no contradiction is discoverable in the case 
of such words as cow, etc. In the same way it is to be remarked that 
though we allow that the individual gods, etc., have commenced to 
exist, there is no contradiction [to the eternity of the Yedic word] in 
the [existence of the] words Yasu, etc. [which denote those individual 
gods], since the species to which they belong are eternal. And the 
fact that the godd, etc., belong to particular species may be learned 
from this, that we discover their corporeality and other attributes in 


the hymns and arthavadas (illustratiYe remarks in the Yedas), etc. The 
words Indra, etc., are derived from connection with some particular posty 
like the words 'commander of an army' (tendpati), etc. Hence, who- 
soever occupies any particular post, is designated by the words Indra, 
and 80 forth ; [and therefore Indra and the other gods belong to the 
species of occupants of particular posts]. Thus there is no difficulty. 
And this derivation from the word is not, like production from Brah- 
ma, meant in the sense of evolution from a material cause. But 
how, since language is eternal and connected with eternal objects, is 
it declared in the phrase 'produced from it' that the production of 
individual things, corresponding to the ordinary sense of words, is 
effected by a thing (sound or language), the very nature of which it 
is to denote continuance [and not such change as is involved in the idea 
of production ?] ^ How, again, is it known that the world is pro- 
duced from the word ? The answer is, [it is known] * from intuition 
and inference.' * Intuition ' means the Veda, because it is independent 
of any (other authority). ' Inference ' means the smriti, because it is 
dependent on another authority (the Yeda). These two demonstrate 
that the creation was preceded by the word. Thus the Veda says, ' at 
(or with) the word eU (these) Prajapati created the gods ; at asrigram 
(they were poured out) he created men ; at indavah (drops of soma) he 
created the pitps ; at tirah pavitram (through the filter) he created the 
libations ; at aiavah (swift) he created hymns ; at vihdni (all) he created 
praise ; and at the words ahht saubhagd (for the sake of blessings) he 
created other creatures.' ^ And in another place it is said ' with his 

*w This sentence is rather ohecnro. 

"» According to Govinda Ananda's Gloss this passage is derived from a Chhandoga 
Bruhmana. It contains a mystical exposition of the words from Rig-Tcda, ix. 62, 1 
(=Suma-yeda, ii. 180) which are imbedded in it, yiz. ete atrigram indavaa tirah 
pavitram aiavah \ viavani abhi taubhaga \ ** These hurrying drops of soma h&Te been 
poured through the filter, to procure all blessings." (Sec Bcnfey's translation.) It was 
by the help of Dr. Pertsch's alphabetical list of the initial words of the verses of the 
Big-veda (in Weber's Indischc Studien, vol. iii.) that I discovered the verse in ques- 
tion in the Eig-veda. Govinda Ananda gives us a specimen of his powers as Yedic 
exegete in the following remarks on this passage : Ity ilan-manira-sthaih padaih 
wtfitva Brahma devadln aarijata \ tattra ^^ete" iti padam aarvanamatvad devanaih 
amarakam aarig rudhiram tat pradhane dehe ramante iti *' aarigrah '* manmhyal^ \ 
chandra-athanam pitrinam indu-aabdah amarakah itgadi \ " Brahma created the gods, 
etc., in conformity with the recollections suggested by the various words in this verse. 
The word $U (' these *) as a pronoun suggested the gods. The beings who disport 


mind he entered into conjugal connection with Yach (speech).' {S. P. 
Br. X. 6, 5, 4, Bf ih. Ar. Up. p. 50.) By these and other such texts 
the Yeda in various places declares that creation was preceded by the 
word. And when the Sm^iti says, 'In the beginning a celestial 
Toice, etemal, without beginning or end, co-essential with the Yedas, 
was uttered by Svayambhu, from which all activities [proceeded]* 
(see above, p. 16), the expression 'utterance of a voice* is to be re- 
garded as employed in the sense of the origination of a tradition^ 
since it is inconceivable that a voice which was ' without beginning or 
end,' could be uttered in the same sense as other sounds. Again, we 
have this other text, ' In the beginning Mahesvara created from the 
words of the Yeda the names and forms of creatures, and the origina- 
tion of actions ; ' and again, ' He created in the beginning the several 
names, functions, and conditions of all creatures from the words of the 
Yeda.' (See above, pp. 16 and 6.) And it is a matter of common ob- 
servation to us all, that when any one is occupied with any end which 
he wishes to accomplish, he first calls to mind the word which expresses 
it, and then proceeds to effect his purpose. So, too, in the case of Pra- 
japati the creator, we conclude that before the creation the words of the 
Yeda were manifested in his mind, and that afterwards he created the 
objects which resulted from them. Thus the Yedic text which says, 
'uttering hhuh, he created the earth {hhumi), etc ,' intimates that the 
different worlds, earth, and the rest, were manifested, i.e. created from 
the words Ihuh^ etc., manifested in his mind. Of what sort, now, was 
this word which is intended, when it is said that the world was pro- 
duced from the word ? It was sphofa (disclosure or expression), we 
are told." 

I shall not quote the long discussion on which S^ankara here enters, 
regarding this term. (See Colebrooke's Misc. Ess. i. 305 ff. ; Ballan- 
tyne's Christianity contrasted with Hindu Philosophy, pp. 192 ff. ; the 
same author's translation of the commencement of the Mahabhashya, 
p. 10; and Professor Miiller's article on the last-named work in the 
Journal of the German Or. Soc. vii. 170). S'ankara states his conclusion 

themtelyes in bodies of which blood {asf^k) is a predominant element, were atrigrah^ 
' men.' The word indu (which means both the soma plant and the moon) suggested 
the fathers who dwell in the moon," etc., etc The sense of atf^igram, as given aboTo 
in the text, is " were poured out." Govinda Ananda, no doubt, understood it correctly, 
though he considered it necessary to draw a mysticul sen^ out of it. 


to be that ''from the eternal word, in the form of sphofaf which expresses 
[[all things], the object signified by it, viz. the world, under the three 
characters of action, causer, and the results of action, is produced," and 
finishes his remarks on this Sutra (L 3, 28) by observing: '' Consequently 
there is no contradiction in saying that the individual gods, etc., are de- 
rived from eternal words." He then proceeds to Sutra i. 3, 29 : '' 'Hence 
results the eternity of the Vedas.' " On this he observes, " The eternity 
of the Yeda had been established by the fact of its being described in 
the Smf iti as the work of a Self-dependent Maker. But a doubt had 
been suggested that this eternity is inconsistent with the admission that 
individual gods, etc., have commenced to exist. This doubt, however, 
having been set aside by the preceding aphorism, ' Since they are pro- 
duced from it,' he now confirms the eternity of the Yeda (which had 
been already proved) by the words of the Sutra before us, which mean 
that as a result of this very fact that the world, consisting of gods and 
other beings belonging to fixed species, was produced from the words of 
the Yedas, the eternity of these Yedic words themselves also must be 
believed. Accordingly, the words of the hymn, * by sacrifice they fol- 
lowed the path of Yach, and found her entered into the rishis ' (R. Y. 
X. 71, 3 ; see the First Yolume of this work p. 254, and Yolume Second, 
p. 220) prove that Ydch already existed when she was discovered. And 
in the very same way Yedavyasa records that, ' formerly the great rishis, 
empowered by Svayambhu, obtained through devotion the Yedas and 
Itihasas, which had disappeared at the end of the preceding yuga.' " 

Saya^a refers to the Sutra just quoted (i. 3, 29), as well as to another 
of the Yedanta aphorisms (i. 1, 3) in p. 20 of the introduction to his 
Commentary on the Eig-veda in these words : 

ITanu Ihagavatd Badaruyanena Vedasya Brdhma'kdryyatvafh sUtrttam | 
^* idstrchyonitvdd^* iti \ figvedddi-idstra-kdranatvad Brahma Barvc^nam 
Hi iHtrdrthah \ hddham | na etdvatd paunisheyatvam hhamti \ manushya- 
nirmitatvdhhdvdt \ idfi^am apaurusheyatvam ahhipretya vyavahdra-daid" 
ydm dJtdiddi-vad nityatvam Bddardyanenaiva devatddhikarane BUtritam \ 
^* ata eeacha nityatvam " iti \ 

" But it is objected that the venerable Badar&yana has declared in 
the aphorism ' since he is the source of the ^tra (Brahma Sutras i. l, 
3), that the Yeda is derived from Brahma ; the meaning of the aphorism 
being, that since Brahma is the cause of the Eig-veda and other S^astras, 



he is omniscient. This is trae; but it famishes no proof of the 
human origin of the Yeda, since it was not formed by a man. Badara* 
yana had in yiew snch a superhuman origin of the Veda, when in the 
[other] aphorism ' hence also [its] eternity is to be maintained/ (which 
is contained in the section on the deities), he declared it to be, like 
the aether, etc., eternal, during the period of mundane existence." '^ 

The remarks of S^ankara on the Brahma Sutra (i. 1, 3) above referred 
to, begin as follows : 

Mahatah j^g-vedadel^ i&straiya aneha^idyd'BtMnopahrifnhitoiya prttr 
dipthvat Borvdriha'dyotinoB sarvqfna-kalpasya yonih haranam Brahma \ na 
hi Idfiiasya Sdstrasya figvedddi-ldhhanasya sarvajtuhyundnvitoBya boT" 
vajndd anyatah Bamhhavo Uti | Tad yad viBtardrthaih idBtrafk yatmdt 
puruBha-viieBhut Bamhhavati yaihd vydJcaranddi Pdniny-dder jneyaika- 
deidrtham api Ba tato *py adhikatara^ijndnah iti proBtddhafh lok$ \ ktmm 
vaktavyam aneka'idkhd-hheda'hhinnoBya deva-tiryan-tnanuBhyO'Varnd-' 
Sramddi-pravihhuya'hstor fig-vedddy-dkhyoBya Barva-jndndkaroBya apra^ 
yatnena eva llld'ttydyena puruBha-niivdBa^ad yoBmdd mahato hhuidd 
yoneh Bamhhavah {'* OBya mahato hhntaBya nihoBttam etad yad riy-vedaii " 
ity-ddeh iruteB) ioBya mahato hhHtaBya niratiiayarh Barvafnatvam Borva- 
iahtitvaih eha iti \ 

'' Brahma is the source of the great S^astra, consisting of the Big-yeda, 
etc., augmented by numerous branches of science, which, like a lamp, 
illuminates all subjects, and approaches to omniscience. !Now such a 
S'astra, distinguished as the Big-Tcda, etc., possessed of the qualities of 
an omniscient being, could not have originated from any other than an 
omniscient being. When an extensive treatise on any subject is pro- 
duced by any individual, as the works on Grammar, etc., were by 
Fanini and othdls, — even although the treatise in question have for its 
subject only a single department of what is to be known, — it is a 

'<** See the quotation from the Vcdartha-praku^a, at the top of p. 70, above. The 
sther {akaaa) is uncreated according to the Vaiscshikas (Kanuda'a Sutras, ii. 1, 28, 
with S ankara M lira's commentary, and S'ankara Achuryya on Vcdanta SOtra, ii. 3, 3 : 
Jiahp akaiaaya utpattih aambhavayituih sakya irlmat-Ktmabhug-abhiprayanusarithu 
fwatsu I '* The production of the sther cannot be conceived as possible, so long as 
those who follow Kanuda's view retain their vitality"). The Vcdanta SQtras, ii. 3, 
l-7t on the other hand, assert its production by Brahma, in conformity with the text 
of the Taittiriyakas which affirms this : Taamad vai eUumad atmanaJ^ aiaiah mm- 
hkutai^ I " From that Soul the sthcr was produced." 


matter of notoriety that the author is possessed of still greater know- 
ledge than is contained in his work.^^ What then need we say of the 
transcendent omniscience and omnipotence of that great Being from 
whom issued without effort, as an amusement, like a man's breathing 
(according to the Yedic text ' the Eig-veda is the breathing of that 
g;reat Being '), that mine of universal knowledge called the Big-veda, 
etc., which is divided into many ^akhas, and which gave rise to the 
classes of gods, beasts, and men, with their castes and orders ? " i°> 

It is dear from the aphorism last quoted that there is a distinc- 
tion between the doctrine of the Purva Mlmansa, and the XJttara 
Mimansa, or Yedanta, regarding the origin of the Veda, in so far as the 
former is silent on the subject of its derivation from Brahma, which the 
latter asserts. It is also to be observed that Sayana understands the 
eternity of the Veda as laid down in the Brahma Sutras in a qualified 
sense (as limited to the duration of the mundane period) and not as an 
absolute eternity. 

I may remark that in their treatment of the Yedic passages which 
they cite, the practice of Badarayana, the author of the Brahma Sutras, 
and of his commentator, SSankara Acharyya, corresponds to their theory 
of the infallibility of the sacred text. The doctrines inculcated in 
the Sutras, and expounded and vindicated by the commentator, pro- 
fess to be based on the Yeda ; and numerous texts are cited in their 
support. Such passages as coincide with the theories maintained in 
the Sutras are understood in their proper or literal {mukhi/a) sense ; 

^^ Dr. Ballantyne (Aphorisms of the Vedfinta, p. 8) renders the last words thus : 
. . . . ^ that man, eyen in consideration of that^ is inferred to he exceedingly knowing." 
Qorinda Ananda's note, howcTer, confirms the rendering I have giyen. Part of it is 
as follows : Tad yaeh ehhastram yatmad aptat tambhavaii sa tatah iastrad adhihhar^ 
iha-jnanah itiprasiddham | ** It is well known that the competent author from whom 
any treatise proceeds has a knowledge of more than that treatise (contains).** The 
idea here is somewhat similar to that in the second of Bishop Butler's Sermons 
** Upon the love of God " : '* Effects themselveSf if we knew them thoroughly, would 
give xm hut imperfect notions of wisdom and power ; much less of his Being in whom 
tiiey reside." ....'* This is no more than saying that the Creator is superior to the 
works of his hands.** 

>^ An altematiye explanation of the aphorism is given hy the commentator, 
aeoording to which it would mean : " The hody of Scripture, consisting of the Rig- 
Teda, etc, is the source, the cause, the proof, wherehy we ascertain exactly the nature 
of this Brahma " {athava yathokiam figvedadi-iattram yonih karajium pramanam 
csya Brahma^ yaihavat warupadkigame). 


whilst other texts which appear to be at variance with the Yedantic dog> 
mas, and to favour those of the other philosophical schools, are explained 
as being merely figurative {gauna or hhuktd) ; or other interpretations are 
given. See, for example, the Brahma sutras, i. 1, 6 ; ii. 4, 2 f., etc., with 
BUnkara's comments. The supposition of any real inconsistency between 
the different statements of the sacred volume is never for a moment 
entertained.'^ As, however, the different authors of the Vedic hymns, 
of the Brahman as, and even of the Upanishads, gave free expression to 
their own vague and unsystematic ideas and speculations on the origin 
of all things, and the relation of the Deity to the universe, and re- 
cognized no fixed standard of orthodox doctrine to which they were 
bound to conform, — it was inevitable that they should propound a 
great variety of opinions which were mutually irreconcilable. But as, 
in later times, the Vedas came to be regarded as supernatural and in- 
fallible books, it was necessary that those systematic theolo^ans who 
sought to deduce from their contents any consiBtent theory of being and 
of creation, should attempt to shew that the discrepancies between the 
different texts were only apparent. 

Sect. IX. — Arguments of the followers of the Nyaya^ Vai^eshika, and 
Sfinkhya Systems in support of the authority of the VedaSf hut 
against the eternity of sound, 

I. The Nydya, — ^The eternity of sound is, as we have already dis- 
covered from the allusions of the Mimansaka commentator, (above p. 73), 
denied by the followers of the Nyaya school. The consideration of this 
subject is begun in the following way in the l^yaya aphorisms of Go- 
tama, as explained by YiiSvanatha Bhattacharya in the Nyaya-sutra- 
Vfitti, ii. 81 : 

^^ See S'ankara on tlie Br. SQtras, iii. 31 (p. 844 of Bibl. Indica), 'where he Bays, 
yadipunar ekaamin Brahmani bahuni vijhandni vedantantareahupratipipadatfithUani 
ieaham ikam abhrantam bhraniani itarani ity anaivaaa-prasango vedante»hu taamdd na 
idvat prativedantam Brahma-vifnana'hhedaJi aaankitum iakyate \ " If, again, in the 
different VedSntas (ue. Upanishads) a yariety of conceptions regarding the one Brahma 
be sought to be established, one of these (conceptions) will be correct, and the others 
erroneous, and thus the objection of being untrustworthy will attach to the Upani- 
shads. It must not, ther^ore, be suspected that there is in each of the Upaoiahada 
a different conception of Brahma." 


Vedoiya prdmdnyam aptthprdmdnyat siddlmm \ na cha idam yujyate 
redasya niiyaivdd ity diankdydm varndndm anityatvdt katham tat-mmU' 
ddya-rikpaiya vedasya nityatvam ity dSayena iahddnttyatva-prakaranam 
drabhaU \ tatra siddhdnia-sUtram \ "Adimattvdd aindriyahatvdt hrita^ 
katvdd upachdrdch cha" | 81. Sahdo ^nityah ityddih \ ddimaitvdt Baled-- 
ranakaivdt \ nanu na sakdranakatvam kanfha-tdlv-ddy -abhiyhutdder 
vyanjakatvendpy lipapaiter atah dha aindriyakatvdd iti Bdmdnyavattve 
sati vahir-indriya-janya-laukikika-pratyahsJuMnahayatvad ity arthah \ 
. , . . Aprayojakatvam diankya dha hritaketi \ kritake yfiafddau yailid 
upaehdro jndnam tathaiva kdryyatva'prahdraka-pratyaksha-vishayatvdd 
ity arthah \ tathd cha kdryatvena andhdryya-Bdrvalaukika'pratyahha- 
haldd unity atvam era stddhati I 

" It has been proved (in the 68th Sutra, see below) that ' the authority 
of the Veda follows from the authority of the competent person who made 
it.' But it may be objected that this is not a proper ground on which 
to base the authority of the Yeda, since it is eternal. With the view 
of proTing, in opposition to this, that since letters are not eternal, the 
Ycda, which is a collection of letters, cannot be so either, the author of 
the Sutras commences the section on the non-eternity of sound. The 
Sutra laying down the established doctrine, is as follows : ' Sound can- 
not be eternal, as (1) it had an origin, as (2) it is cognizable by sense, 
and (3) it is spoken of as factitious.' Sound is non-eternal, etc., because 
(1) it had a beginning, i,e. because it had a cause. But it may be said 
that it had no cause, as, agreeably to the doctrine of the Mimansakas 
(see above, p. 74), the action of the throat and palate in pronunciation 
may merely occasion a manifestation of sound [without creating it]. In 
reply to this it is said (2) that sound is cognizable by sense, i.e. that 
though it belongs to a genus, it is an object of ordinary perception 
through an external sense." [A different explanation given by other 
interpreters is next quoted, which I omit.] ..." Then surmising that 
the preceding definition may be regarded as not to the point, the 
author adds the words ' since it is spoken of as factitious,' i.e. as jars 
and other such objects are spoken of as — are known to be — products, so, 
too, sound is distinguishable by sense as being in the nature of a pro- 
duct. And in consequence of this incontrovertible and universal per- 
ception of its being produced, it is proved that it cannot be eternal." 
[Two other explanations of this last clause of the Sutra are then added.] 


Leaving the reader to study the details of the discussion in Dr. Bal- 
lantyne's aphorisms of the Kyaya (Part Second, pp. 77 ff.), I will pass 
over most of the Sutras, and merely quote the principal conolusionB of 
the !Nyaya aphorist. In Sutra 86 he says in opposition to the 18th 
Sutra of the Mlmansa (above, p. 74) : 

86. ^^Prag uchchdran&d anupalamhhdd dvaranady - anupakihdey* | 
8'ahdo yadi nityah sydd uchcharanat prQg apy upalahhyeta ^otra^aaimi- 
karsha-sattvdt \ na cha atra pratibandhakam asti ity aha dvaransti ava* 
randdeh pratibandhakasya anupalahdhyd ahhdva-nirnaydi | deSdfUara- 
gamanafh tu iahda9ya amUrttatvdd na iamhhdvyaie \ atlndriydnanta- 
pratibandhakatva-Jcalpandm apekshya ialddnityatva-kalpand eva laykt" 
yasl iti hhdvah \ 

** * Sound is not eternal, because it is not perceived before it is 
nttered, and because we do not perceive anything which should- inter- 
cept it.' If sound were eternal, it would be perceived even before it was 
uttered, from its being in contact with the ear. [Sound, as Dr. Ballan- 
tyne explains, is * admitted to be a quality of the all-pervading SBther.'] 
And in the next words the aphorist says that there is no obstacle to its 
being so heard, since the non-existence of any hindrance, such as an 
intercepting medium, is ascertained by our ^ot perceiving anything of 
that sort. And it is not conceivable that sound should have gone to 
another place [and for that reason be inaudible], since it has no defined 
form. The supposition that sound is non-eternal, is simpler than the 
supposition that there are an infinity of imperceptible obstacles to its 

The 89th and 90th Sutras, with part of the comments on them, are 
as follows : 

89. ^'AsparSatvdt" \ iabdo nityah \ aspariatvddyagana-^ad iti hhdvah \ 
90. **Na karmdnityatvdt " asparivatvafh na iahda-^ityatva-iddhak^ kar- 
mani vyahhichdrdt | 

89. ** It may be said that sound is eternal, from its being, like the 
sky, intangible. 90. But this is no proof, for the intangibility of sound 
does not establish its eternity, since these two qualities do not always 
go together ; for intangibility, though predicable, e.g. of action, fails to 
prove its eternity." 

The 100th and following Sutras are as follows : 

100. ^^Findia-kdrandnupalabdhey* \ 101. ^'AiracafUhkdrandnupalab* 


dheh tataia-h'avana'prasangay* | Yadi/ apratyakshSd ahhdva-siddhis 
tadd ^iravana-karanasya apratyakBkatvud airavanam na %y&d iti saiatO' 
iravaiuhprasangah iti hhdvah \ 102. ** Upalahhyamdne cha anupalahdher 
asattvad anapadsiah*^ j AnumdfMind upalabhyamdne vind^a-idrans 
anupalahdher ahhdvdt tvadlyo hetur anapadesah asddhahah aaiddhatvdt \ 
janya'hhdvatvena vind&a-kalpanam iti hhdvah \ 

''It is said (100) that ' sound must be eternal, because we perceive 
no cause why it should cease.' The answer is (101), first, ' that if the 
non-existence of any such cause of cessation were established by the 
mere fact of its not being perceived, such non-pcrccption would occasion 
our hearing continually, which is an absurdity.' And (102), secondly, 
' since such non-perception is not a fact, inasmuch as [a cause of the 
cessation of sound] is perceived, this argument falls to the ground.' 
Since a cause for the cessation of sound is discovered by inference, etc., 
and thus the non-perception of any cause is seen to be untrue, this 
argument of yours proves nothing, because its correctness is not estab- 
lished. The purport is that we suppose, from sound being produced, 
that it must also be liable to perish." • 

Sutras 106-122 are occupied with a consideration of the question 
(above treated, pp. 73, 74, in Sutras 10 and 16 of the Mimansa) whether 
letters can change or not. The conclusion at which Ootama arrives is, 
that the substance of letters cannot undergo any alteration, though they 
may be said to change when they are modified in quality by being 
lengthened, shortened, etc. 

In a preceding part of the Second Book (Sutras 57-68) Gotama treats 
of the Veda, and repels certain charges which are alleged against its 
authority. I shall quote most of these aphorisms, and cite the com- 
mentary more fidly than Dr. Ballantyne has done. (See Ballantyne's 
Nyaya Aphorisms, Part ii. pp. 66 ff.) 

S*ahdasya drishtQdrishfdrthakaivena dvaividhyam uktafk iatra cha 
adfishfdrthaka-hhdasya vedasya prdmunyam parJkshitum purva-paksha' 
fati I 57. '^Tad-aprdmdnyatn anriia'Vydghdta-punaruktO'doshehhyah " | 
Tcuya drishfdrthaka-vyatirikta'sahdasya vedasya aprdmdnyam \ kutah \ 
anritatvddi'doshat \ tatra cha putreshfi-kdryddau kvachit phaldnutpatti- 
dariandd anfitatvam \ vydghdtah pnrvupara-virodhah \ yathd *'tidite 
juhoti anudite juhoti samay ddhy white juhoti \ Sydvo Uya dhutim ahhyava* 
harati ya udite juhoti iavalo ^sya dhutim ahhyavaharati yo ^nudite juhoti 


iydva-iavaluv ast/a dhutim dbhyavaharato yah samayadhyushite juhoti " 
atra eha uditddi-vukyunam ninddnumitdnishta-sudhanatd'hodhaka-vdJcyth' 
virodhah \ paunaruktydd aprdmdnyam | Tathd " trih prathamdm anvdha \ 
trir uttamdm anvdha" \ ity atra uitamatvasyaprathamatva'paryavoidndt 
trih kathanena cha paunartiktyam \ eteshdm aprdmdnye tad-drishtdntena 
tad^eha-karttrihatvena tad-eJca-jatlyatvena vd sarva-veddprdmdnyam sddha- 
nlyam iti hhdvah \ siddhdnta-sutram \ 58. '*Na karma-karttri-addhana- 
vaigunydt " | Nd veddprdmdnyam karma-karUfi-sddhana'Vaiymydt pha- 
Idhhdvopapatteh \ karmanah kriydydh vaigunyam ayaihdvidhitvddi \ karU 
tur vaigunyam avidvaitvddi \ sddhanasya havir-dder vaigunyam dprokihi- 
tatvddi I Yathokta-karmanah phaldhhdve hy anritatvam \ na cha evam 
asti %H hhdvah \ vydghdtam pariharati \ 59. '' Ahhyupetya kdla-hheds 
dosha-vaehandV^ \ na vydghdtah iti seshah \ Agny-ddhdna-kdle uditO' 
homddikam ahhyupetya svlkfitya anudita-homddi-karane pvLrvokta-doiha-' 
kathandd na vydghdtah ity arthah \ paunaruktyam pariharati \ 60. 
**Anuvddopapattei cha " | chah punar-arthe \ anuvddopapatte^ punar na 
paunaruktyam \ nishprayojanatve hi paunaruktyam doshah \ ukta-BthaU 
tc anuvddasya upapatteh prayojanmya samhhavdt \ ekddaSa-sdmidhenlndm 
prathamottamayos trir ahhidhdne hi panchadaiatvam samhhavati \ tathd- 
cha panchadaiatvaih Sriiyate \ *^Imam aham hhrdtfiryam panchadaidva- 
rem vdg-vajrena cha hddhe yo ^smdn dreshfi yat7i cha vayatn dvishmah " 
iti I Anuvddasya sdrthakatvam loka-prasiddham iti dha \ 61. '^Vdkya- 
vihhdgasya cha artha-grahandt^* \ Vdkya-vihhdgasya \ anuvddatvena 
vihhakta ' vdkyasya artha - grahandt prayqfana - svikdrdt \ iishfair iti 
Seshah \ iiahtdh hi vidhdyakdnuvddakddi'hhedena vdkydm vihhajya anu- 
vddakasydpi aaprayojanatvam manyante \ Vede ^py evam iti hhdvah | . . . 
Evam aprdnidnya-sadhakam nirasya prdmdnyam sddhayati \ 68. " Man- 
trdyurveda-vach cha tat-prdmunyam dpta-prdmdnydt** \ Aptasya reda- 
karttuh prdmdnydd yathdrihopadeiakatvdd ved^sya tad-uktatvam arthul 
lahdham \ tena hetund vedasya prdmdnyam anumeyam | tatra drish^dnt(tm 
dha mantrdyurveda-vad iti \ mantro visMdi-ndsakah \ dyurveda-hhdgai 
cha veda-stltah eva \ tatra samvdd^na prdmdnya-grahdt tad-drishfdntena 
vedatvdvachhedena prdmdnyam anumeyam \ dptam grihltam prdmdnyaffi 
yatra sa vedaa tddrisena vedatvena prdmdnyam anumeyam iti kechit | 

'* It had been declared (Nyaya Sutras, i. 8) that verbal evidence is of 
two kinds, (1) that of which the subject-matter is seen, and (2) that of 
which the subject-matter is unseen. With the view, now, of testing 


the anthority of that verbal evidence which refers to unseen things, 
Tiz. the Veda, Gotama states the first side of the question. Sutra 57. 
' The Veda has no authority, since it has the defects of falsehood, self- 
contradiction, and tautology.' That verbal evidence, which is distinct 
from such as relates to visible objects, i.e. the Veda, has no authority. 
^Why ? Because it has the defects of falsehood, etc. Of these defects, 
that of ' falsehood ' is established by the fact that we sometimes observe 
that no fruit results from performing the sacrifice for a son, or the like. 
'Self-contradiction' is a discrepancy between a former and a later 
declaration. Thus the Veda says, ' he sacrifices when the sun is risen ; 
he sacrifices when the sun is not yet risen ; he sacrifices ' [I cannot ex- 
plain the next words]. ' A tawny [dog ?] carries away the oblation of 
him who sacrifices after the sun has risen ; a brindled [dog ?] carries 
off the oblation of him who sacrifices before the sun has risen ; and 
both of these two carry off the oblation of him who sacrifices.' .... 
I^'ow here there is a contradiction between the words which enjoin 
sacrifices, and the words which intimate by censure that those sacrifices 
will occasion disastrous results. Again, the Veda has no authority, 
owing to its 'tautology,' as where it is said, 'he repeats the first 
thrice, he repeats the last thrice.' For as the lastncss ultimately coin- 
cides with [?] the firstness, and as there is a triple repetition of the 
words, this sentence is tautological. Now since these particular sen* 
tences have no authority, the entire Veda will be proved by these 
specimens to stand in the same predicament, since all its other parts 
have the same author, or are of the same character, as these portions." 

Here follows the Sutra which conveys the established doctrine. ''58. 
' The Yeda is not Mae ; it is owing to some fault in the ceremonial, or 
the performer, or the instrument he employs, that any sacrifice is not 
followed by the promised results.' Faults in the ceremonial are such 
as its not being according to rule. Faults in the performer are such as 
ignorance. Faults in the instrument, i.e, in the clarified butter, etc., 
are such as its not being duly sprinkled, etc. For falsehood might be 
charged on the Yeda, if no fruit resulted from a sacrifice when duly 
performed as prescribed ; but such failure never occurs." 

Gotama next repels the charge of self-contradiction in the Yedas. 
** 59. ' There is no self-contradiction, for the fault is only imputed in 
the sacrifioe should be performed at a different time from that 



at first intended.' The fault imputed to these sacrifices in the text in 
question would [only] be imputed if, after agreeing, at the time of 
placing the sacrificial fire, to perform the sacrifice after sunrise, one 
were to change it to a sacrifice before sunrise ; there is, therefore, no 
self-contradiction in the passage referred to." 

Ho next rebuts the charge of tautology. ''60. * The Yeda is not tau- 
tological because repetition may be proper.' The particle cha means 
' again.' ' Again, since repetition may be proper, there is no tautology.' 
For repetition is only a fault when it is useless. But in the passage 
referred to, since repetition is proper, its utility is apparent. For when 
the first and the last of the eleven samidhenis (forms of prayer used on 
throwing fuel into the fire) are each repeated thrice, the whole number 
of verses will be made up to fifteen.'^ Accordingly, this number of 
fifteen is mentioned in these words of the Yeda, ' I smite this enemy 
who hates us, and whom we hate, with the last of the fifteen verses, 
and with the thunderbolt of my words.' " 

He next observes that the advantage of repetition is commonly re- 
cognised. ''61. ' And the Yeda is not tautological, because the utility 
of this division of discourse is admitted,' i.e, because the necessity for 
such a division of language, that is, of a description of language charac- 
terized as reiterative, is acknowledged, viz. by the learned. For by 
dividing language into the difierent classes of injunctive, reiterative^ 
etc., learned men recognise the uses of the reiterative also. And thia 
applies to the Yeda." 

The author of the aphorisms then proceeds to state and to define (in 
Sutras 62-67) the difierent sorts of discourse employed in the Yeda, 
and to defend the propriety of reiteration. " Having thus refuted the 
arguments which aim at showing that the Yeda is of no authority, he 
goes on to prove its authority. 68. ' The authority of the Yeda, like 
that of the formulas, and the Ayur-veda (treatise on medicine) follows 
from the authority of the competent [persons from whom thoy pro- 
ceeded].' Since tho competent maker of th6Tcda possesses authority, 
$,0, inculcates truth, it results from the force of the terms that the Yeda 
was uttered by a person of this character; and by this reasoning the au- 

i<^ If there are in all clcrcn formuliui, and two of these are each repeated thrieo, we 
hare (2 x 3 «) six to add to tho nine (which remain of the original elovcu), making 
(6 -f 9 b) fiOccn. See MUUer't Ano. Saii£>^ Lit pp. 89 and 393. 


thority of the Veda is to be inferred, fie illustrates this by the case of 
the formulas and the Ayur-veda. By formulas {mantra) are meant the 
sentences which neutralize poison, etc., and the section containing the 
Ayur-veda forms part of the Veda. Now as the authority of these two 
classes of writings is admitted by general consent, the authority of 
eyerything which possesses the characteristics of the Veda must bo 
inferred from this example. Some, however, explain the aphorism 
thus : a Veda is that in which authority is found or recognised. From 
such vedicity (or possession of the character of a Veda) the authority 
of any work is to be inferred." 

I add the greater part of the more detailed and distinct exposition 
of this aphorism given by the commentator Yatsyayana (Bibliotheca 
Indica, p. 91) : >« 

JSjim punar dyurv^dasya prdmdnyam \ yad dyurvedena upadiSyats 
idafh kritvd tshfam adhigacJtchhaii idam varjjayitvd ^nishfam jahdti 
ia9ya antuhfhlyamdnasya tathd - hhdvah satydrthatd - ^viparyyayah \ 
mantra ' padunuih cha visha - bhUtuSani ^ pratishedhdrihdndm prayoge 
^rthasya tathd-hhdvah etat prdmdnyam \ kim-kriiam etat \ dpta-prd' 
mdnya-kfitam \ him punar dpidndm prdmdnyam \ sdhahat-krita-dhar' 
matd hhnta-dayd yatM-hhutdrtha-chikhydpayishd iti \ dptuh khalu sdk- 
ihdt'krita-dharmanah idam hdtavyam ayam asya hdni-hetur idam asya 
adhigantavyam ayam asya adhigamana-hetur iti hhatdny anukampante \ 
teshdih khalu vai prdna-bhritdm svayam anavahudhyamdndndm na anyad 
upadeidd avahodha-kdranam asti \ na cha anavahodhe sarnihd varjjanam vu \ 
na €d akfitvd nasti-hhdvah \ nd *py asya anyah upakdrako *py asti \ hanta 
tayam ehhyo yathd-darsanam yathd-hhutam upadiidmah^ \ te itne Srutvd 
pratipadyamdndh heyafh hdsyanty adhigantavyam eva adhigamishyanti 
iti I etam dptopad^iah etena tri-vidJiena dpta-prdmdnyena parigrihito 
^nushthlyamdno Wthasya sddhako hhavati \ evam dptopadesah pramdnam 
$tam dptdh pramdnam \ dfishfdrthena dpiopadeiena dyurvedena adrish' 
fdrtho veda-hhdgo ^numdtavyah pramdnam iti \ dpta-prdmdnyasya hetoh 
sam&natvdd iti \ asya apicha eka-deh *^ grdma-kdmo yajeta^* ity evam-ddi- 
dfishf&rthas tena anumdtavyam iti \ loke cha hhuydn upadeidirayo vya- 
vaharah \ laukikasya apy ttpadeshfur upadesfavydrtha-jndnena pardnuji- 
ghrikshayd yathd-hhutdrtha-chikhydpayishayd cha prdmdnyam \ tat-pari- 

*^ A small portion of thiB comment, borrowed from Professor Baneijea's Dialogues 
on Hindii philosophy, was giyen in the 1st edition of this toI. p. 210. 


grah&d dptcpadeiah pramdnam Hi \ drashtfi'pra/caktTi'Sdm&nyaeh cha 
anumdnam ye eva aptdh veddrthdndm drashfdrah pravaktdrai cha U eva 
dyurveda'prabhfitlndm \ ity dyurveda-prdmdnya-vad veda-prdmdnyam 
anumdtavyam it* \ nityatvdd veda-vdkhydndm pramdnatve tat-prdrndn- 
yam dpta^dmdnydd ity ayuktam \ iahdatya vdchakatvdd artluhprati* 
pattau pramdmtvam na nityatvdt \ nityatve hi sarvasya sarvenavachandeh 
chhahddrtha-vyavasthd ^nupapattih \ na anityatve vdchakatvam iti ehet | 
na I laukikeshv adar&andt \ te *pi nitydh iti cltdt \ na \ andptopadeidd 
artluM>isafhvddo \vpapannah^ | . . . . Manvantara-ytiydntareshu eha atJ' 
tdndgateshu sampraddydhhydsa-prayoydvichhedo veddndm nityatvam dpta- 
prdmdnydch cha prdmdnyam | laukikeshu iahdeshu cha etat samdnam \ 

'* On what tbeii does the authority of the Ayar-veda depend ? The 
Ayur-veda instructs us that to do so and so, is the means of attaining 

' what is desirahle, and to avoid so and so is the means of escaping what 
is undesirahle : and the fact of such action having heen followed hy the 
promised result coincides with the supposition that the book declares 
what is true. So, too, the authority of the formulsB for neutralizing 
poison, repelling demons, and arresting lightning, is shewn by their 
application fulfilling its object. How is this result obtained? By 
the authoritativeness of competent persons. But what is meant by the 
authoritativeness of competent persons ? It means their intuitive per- 
ception of duty, their benevolence to all creatures, and their desire to 
declare the truth of things. Competent persons are those who have an 
intuitive perception of duty ; and they shew their benevolence to all 
creatures by pointing out that so and so is to be avoided, and that sucli 
and such are the means of avoiding it, and that so and so is to be 
attained, and that such and such are the means of attaining it. ' For 
these creatures,' they reflect, ' being themselves unaware of such things, 
have no other means of learning them except such instruction ; and 
in the absence of information they can make no effort either to attain 
or avoid anything; whilst without such action their welfare is not 
secured ; and there is no one else who can help in this case : come let 
us instruct them according to the intuition we possess, and in con- 
formity with the reality ; and they hearing, and comprehending, will 
avoid what should be avoided, and obtain what should be obtained.* 
Thus the instruction afforded by competent persons according to this 

' threefold character of their authoritativeness [viz. (1) intuition, (2) 


beneyolence, and (3) desire to teach], being received, and acted upon, 
effects the object desired. And so the instruction given by competent 
persons is authority, and these competent persons are authorities. 
From the Ayur-veda, which conveys instruction given by competent 
persons in reference to objects perceptible by the senses, it is to be 
inferred that that part also of the Veda which is concerned with im- 
perceptible objects ^^° is authoritative, since the cause, the authori- 
tativeness of competent persons, is the same in both cases; and the 
same inference is to be drawn from the fact that a portion of the 
injunctions of the last mentioned part of the Yeda also have reference 
to perceptible objects, as in the case of the procept, * Let the man who 
desires landed property sacrifice,' etc., etc. In common life, too, men 
usually rely upon instruction. And the authority of an ordinary in- 
Btmctor depends (1) upon his knowledge of the matter to be taught, 
(2) upon his disposition to shew kindness to others, and (3) upon his 
desire to declare the truth. From its being accepted, the instruction 
imparted by competent j[>ersons constitutes proof. And from the fact that 
the seers and declarers are the same in both cases, viz. that the com- 
petent seers and declarers of the contents of the (rest of the) Veda are 
the very same as those of the Ayur-veda, etc., we must infer that the 
authoritativeness of the former is like that of the latter. But on the 
hypothesiB that the authority of the Yedic injunctions is derived from 
their eternity, it will be improper to say that it arises frx)m the autho- 
ritativeness of competent persons, since the authority of words as ex- 
ponents of meanings springs fi*om their declarative character, and not 
from their eternity. For on the supposition of the eternity of words, 
every (word) would express every (thing), which would be contrary to 
the fixity of their signification. If it be objected that unless words are 
eternal, they cannot be declarative, we deny this, as it is not witnessed 
in the case of secular words. If it be urged again that secular words 
aleo are eternal, we must again demur, since the discrepancy of purport 
arising from the injunctions of incompetent persons would be at variance 
with this." After some further argumentation Yatsy&yana concludes : 
** The eternity of the Yedas [really] consists in the unbroken continuity 
of their tradition, study, and application, both in the Manvantaras and 

i>o Compare the commentator's remarks introductory to the Nyftyt aphoriBm u. 67, 
quoted abore, p. 113. 


Yugas which are past, and those which are to come ; whilst their au- 
thority arises from the authoritatiyeness of the competent persons (who 
nttered them). And this is common to them with secular words." 

The phrase sdkahat-krita'dharmdnah, ''possessing an intoitive per- 
ception of duty," which is employed by Vatsyayana in the preceding 
extract as a definition of apt ah, ''competent persons/' is one which had 
previously been applied by YaskacNirukta, i. 20) to describe the character 
of the rishis : Sakshat-krita-dhanndnah riahayo hahhUvuh \ te ^varehhjfo 
^ Bdhshat-hrita-dharmabhyah upadesena mantrdn samprdduh \ upadeidya 
gldyanto ^vare hilma-grahamya imam grantham 8amdmndstshur rtdam 
eha veddngdni cha \ " The rishis, who had an intuitive perception of 
duty, handed down the hymns by (oral) instruction to men of later 
ages, who had not that intuitive perception. These, declining in their 
power of giving instruction, compiled this work (the Nirukta), the 
Veda, and the Yedangas, in order to facilitate the comprehension of 

The Vatieshika. — Among the aphorisms of this system also there are 
some which, in opposition to the Mimansakas, assert, 1st, that the Yedas 
are the product of an intelligent mind ; and 2nd (if the interpretation 
of the commentator is to be received) that they have been uttered by 

The second aphorism of the first section of the first book is as followa : 

Yato ^hhyudaya-nisireyasa-Biddhih sa dharmah \ 

"Righteousness is that through which happiness and future per- 
fection »" are attained." 

After explaining this the commentator proceeds to introduce the next 
aphorism by the following remarks : 

Nanu nivritli'laksliano dharmas tattva-jndna-dvdrd niiireyasa-hetur ity 

1^1 Of the aphoiisms, which t am about to quote, the first has been translated bj 
Dr. Ballantyne (who published a small portion of these Sutras with an English version 
in 1851) ; and it, as well as the others, is briefly commented upon by the Ker. Pro£ 
Bancrjea, in his Dialogues on Hindu Philosophy, pp. 474 ff., and Ftcf. p. ix., note. 
See my article in the Journal of ibe Royal Asiatic Society, No. xz. for 1862, entitled 
** Does the Vaieeshika philosophy acknowledge a Deity or not ? " from which the 
translations now given have been transferred with but little alteration and a few ad- 
ditions. And compare Dr. Boer's German translation of the Yaiseshika aphorisms in 
the Journal of the German Oriental Society for 1867, pp. 809 ff. 

lu The Commentator e^lains abhyudaya tiA^tattva-jnanam, '*a knowledge of the 
reality," and niisreyasa as atyantiki duhkha-nwriUi^ **the complete oessation of 


atira Srutih pramdnam \ iruter eva prdmUnye vayam mpratipadydmahe 
** anrita-vydyhata-punarukta-doshehhyah^' | . • • . na eha dmndyn-prO' 
tipddakam kinchid aati nityatve viprattipattau \ nitya-nirdoshatvam ap% 
iandigdham \ paurusheyatve tu hhranuhpramdd<Mnprat%patii'karandpd' 
tavddi'iamhhdvanayd dptoktatvam apt sandigdham eva iti na niiireyasaih 
na vd taitra taitva-jnanatn dvdra^ na vd dharmah iti sarvam etad dku" 
lam I atah dha ^^ tad-vachandd dmndyasya prdmdnyam^^ \ *'tai*' ity 
anupakrdrUam api prasiddhi-siddhatayd livaram pardmriiati \ yathd 
** tad-aprdmdnyam anrita-vydghdia-punarukta-doshehhyah** iti Gauta- 
mlya-sHtre taeh-chhabdena anupakrdnto ^pi vedah pardmriiyate \ tathi 
eha tad^aehandt tena Jharena pranayandd dmndydtya vedasya prdmdn- 
yam \ yadvd *'tad^* iti sannihitafh dharmam eva pardmriiati \ tathd eha 
dharmasya ** vaehandt*' praiipddandd *^ dmndyasya** wdasya prdmdn- 
ffam I yad hi vdkyam prdmdnikam artham pratipddayati tat pramdnam 
eva yatah ity arthah \ Uvaras tad-dpiatva^i eha sddhayishyate | 

« Bat may it not be objected hero that it is the Veda which proves 
that righteonsness, in the form of abstinence from action, is, by means 
of the knowledge of absolute truth, the cause of future perfection ; but 
that we dispute the authority of the Veda because it is chargeable 
with the faults of falsehood, contradiction, and tautology^" . . . • 
And further, there is nothing to prove the authority of the Veda, for 
its eternity is disputed, its eternal faultlcssness is doubted, and if it 
have a personal author, the fact of this person being a competent utterer 
is questioned, since there is an apprehension of error, inadvertence, 
contradiction, and want of skill in composition attaching to him Thus 
there is neither any such thing as future perfection, nor is either a 
knowledge of absolute truth the instrument thereof, or righteousness. 
Thus everything is perplexed." 

In answer to all this the author of the aphorism says : 

'^Tho authority of the sacred record arises from its being fttered 
by Him." 

" Here," says the commentator, " the word tad (His) refers to ISvara 
(GK)d) ; as, though no mention of Him has yet been introduced. He is 
proved by common notoriety to be meant ; just as in the aphorism of 
Qautama : * Its want of authority is shown by the faults of falsehood, 

^^ Here the same illastratioxiB are given as in the commentary on the Nyuya 
aphorunns, quoted above, pp. 113 ff. 


contradiction, and tautology,' the Yeda, though not preyioosly intro- 
duced, is intended by the word tad,^^* And so [the meaning of the 
aphorism is that] the authority of the sacred record, i»e. the Yeda, is 
proved by its being spoken by Him, composed by Him, by livara. Or, 
tad (its) "* may denote dharma (duty) which immediately precedes ; 
and then [the sense will be that] the authority of the sacred record, 
i.e. the Yeda, arises from its declaring, i.e. establishing, duty, for the 
te^t which establishes any authoritative matter must be itself an au- 
thority. The proof of Isvara and his competence will be hereafter 
stated." The commentator then goes on to answer the charges of Mse- 
hood, contradiction, and tautology alleged against the Yeda. 

The next aphorism which I shall quote (vi. 1, 1) is thus introduced 
by the commentator : 

Buddhi-purvd, vakya-Jcritir vede \ sarMara-mUh'kdranayar dharmddhar* 
tnayoh parikshd shash(hddhyaydrthah \ dharmddharmau cha ^^ evarga- 
kdmo yajeta^^ *'na kalanjam bhakshayed" ityddi'vidhi-niehedha-hdla' 
kalpanlyau vidhi'nishedha-vdkyayoh prdmdnye sati eydtdm | tcA-prdman- 
yaih cha vaktur yathdrtha-^dkydrtha-jndtuhlakshanO'yuna-piirvakatvdd 
upapadyate \ svatah prdtndnyagya nishedhdt \ atah prathamam veda-prd- 
tndnya-prayojaka'yuna-sddhanam upakramaie \ ^^vdkya-kfitir** vdkya- 
rachand \ sd buddhi-pHrvd vakfri'yathdrtha'Vdkydrtha'jndna'pUrvd \ 
vdkya-rachandtvdt \ ^^nadl-tire pancha phaldni eanti^^ ity aemad-ddi* 
tdkya-raehand-vat \ *^ vede " iti tdkya-eamuddye ity arthah \ tattra sam%n- 
ddyindm vdkydndm kfitih pakahah \ na cha asmad'ddi'httddhi'pilrvaka' 

lu por the sake of the reader who does not know Sanskrit, it may be mentioned 
that iad being in the crude, or uninflected form, may denote any of the three genders, 
and may be rendered either * his/ * hers,' or * its.' I may obserre that the altematiTe 
explanation which the commentator gives of the Aphorism, i. I, 3, viz. that the au- 
thority of the Veda arises from its being declarative of duty, is a much less probable 
one than the other, that its authority is derived from its being the utterance of God; 
for it does not clearly appear how the subject of a book can establish its authority ; 
and, in fact, the commentator, when he states this interpretation, is obliged, in order 
to give it the least appearance of plausibility, to assume the authoritative cliaracter of 
the precepts in the Veda, and from this assumption to infer the authority of the book 
which delivers them. I may also observe that Jayanarayana Tarkapanchunana, the 
author of the Gloss on S'ankara Misra's Commentary, takes no notice of this alter- 
native interpretation ; and that in his comment on the same aphorism when repeated 
tt the dose of the work (j.. 2, 9) S'ankara Misra himself does not put it forward a 
■econd time. Dr. Boer (Joum. Germ. Or. 8oc. for 1867, p. 310) argues in favour of 
Hie former of the two interpretations as the true one 



tvena anyathd-siddhih \ ^^ svargorkdmo yajeta^^ ityaddv ishta-iddhanO' 
idy&h kdryyatdyafi vd (umad-ddi-huddhy'agocharatvdt \ tena svatantra- 
^rutha-purvakatvaih vede stddhyati \ vedatvam cha iahda-tad-upajlvi- 
pramdndtirihta -pramdna -janya -pramtty - avishaydrthakatve tati iabda- 
ianya-vdhydrtha-jnandjanya-pramdnchiahdatvam \ 

*' An examination of righteousness and unrighteousness, which are 
the original causes of the worid,"' forms the subject of the 6th section. 
Now, righteousness and unrighteousness are to be constituted by virtue 
of such injunctions and prohibitions as these : * The man who desires 
paradise should sacrifice/ * Let no one eat garlic,' etc., provided these 
injunctions and prohibitions be authoritative. And this authoritative- 
ness depends upon the fact of the utterer [of these injunctions or pro- 
hibitions] possessing the quality of understanding the correct meaning 
of sentences, for the supposition of inherent authoritativeness is un- 
tenable. The author, therefore, first of all enters upon the proof of 
that quality which gives rise to the authoritativeness of the Veda. 

"Aphorism vi. 1. 1. — 'There is in the Veda a construction of sen- 
tences which is produced (Jit. preceded) by intelligence.' " 

"The 'construction of sentences,' the com{>osition of sentences, 'is 
prodwced by intelligence,' i.e, by a knowledge of the correct meaning 
of sentences on the part of the utterer [of them] ; [and this is proved] 
by the fact of these sentences possessing an arrangement like the 
arrangement of such sentences as ' There are five fruits on the river 
side,' composed by such persons as ourselves. ' In the Veda,' i.e, in 
the collection of sentences (so called). Here the construction of the 
sentences composing the collection is the subject of the proposition 
which is asserted. And this construction must not be ascribed to a 
wrong cause by assuming that it was the work of a [limited] intelli- 
gence such as ours. [Because it was not a limited intelligence which 
produced these sentences]. For it is not an object of apprehension to 
the understandings of persons like ourselves that such injunctions as, 
'He who desires paradise should sacrifice,' are the instruments of 
obtaining what we desire, or that they are obligatory in themselves. 
Hence in the case of the Veda the agency of a self-dependent person is 

^^ This, I sappofle, meaiiB thi^t the existence of the world in its present or deyelop^d 
Ibnn, is necessary in order to fiinush the means of rewarding righteousness and 
punishing unrighteousness. 


fVy uktam \ harttri-sfnarandhhavad na evam iti chet \ na \ Jcarttfi-smara' 
nasya purvam eva sddhitatvdt \ taUpranitatvaih cha sva-tantra'purusha" 
pranitatvdd eva siddham \ na tv asmad-ddlndtJi sahasra-idkha-veda-pra- 
nayane wdtantryam aamhhavati ity uktatvdt \ kincha pramdydh gum- 
janyatvena vaidika-pramdydh api guna-janyatvam dvaSyakam \ tattra cha 
gitno vaktri-yathdrtha-vdlcydrtha-jndnam eva vdchyah \ tatkd eha tdd- 
jriiah eva vede vaktd yah svargdpurvddi - vishayaka - tdhzhdthdravdn \ 
tddriiai cha na Isvardd anyah iti 8ush(hu \ 

''Now all this will be so, provided the Veda is authorltatiTe : bat 
this condiwion is the very one which is difficult to attain ; for you do 
not hold, like the Mimansakas, that the authority of the Veda arises 
from its eternal faultlessncss ; since you admit that it has a personal 
author, and error, inadvertence, and a desire to deceive are incident to 
such a person. It is with a view to this objection that the writer says 
in his aphorism, ' In the absence of what is seen,' i.e. in the absence of 
those personal faults which are seen in other persons like oursclves,^^ 
Buch as error, inadvertence, and a desire to deceive : for the Supreme 
Person who is inferred from the creation of the world, or the author- 
ship of the Veda, can only exist in a state of freedom from fault ; and, 
consequently, neither want of meaning, nor contradiction of meaning, 
nor uselessness of meaning, can be predicated of his words. Incorrect- 
nesses in words are to be apprehended as the results of error, inad- 
Tertence, or unskilfulness in composition, arising from some defect in 
the elements, the senses, or the mind. But none of these things is to 
be imagined in the word of Isvara (the Lord). And this has been 
expressed in the following verse : ' A speaker may utter falsehood, 
from being possessed by affection, ignorance, and the like ; but these 
[defects] do not exist in God ; how then can ho speak what is other- 
wise [than true] ? ' 

** But may not the fact that the Veda is composed by God be dis- 
puted ? In consequence of this, the author says (in the next aphorism): 

X. 2, 9. * The authority of the Vedic record arises from its being ut- 
tered by Him.' 

^" A different interpretation is given by the commentator to this phrase dfiahia' 
bkave^ in an earlier aphorism in which it occurs, viz. vi. 2, 1. He there understands 
it to mean that where there is no visible motive for a prescribed action, an invisible 
one most be presumed {yaitra dfUh^am prayojatiam noptUabhyaU tattra adfith{am 
prayofanaih kalpantyam). 


** Thus at ibe end of bis treatise [tbe writer lays it down that] the 
authority of the Veda is derived from its being His word, viz. from its 
being spoken, %,e, composed by Him, i.e, by livara. As thus : The 
Yedas are derived from a person, because they are formed of seotences. 
This has been proved. And persons like ourselves cannot be conceived 
as the utterers of these Yedas, which are distinguished by having 
thousands of S'akhas (recensions), becauso their objects are such as lie 
beyond the reach of the senses; and persons like us have no intuition 
into anything beyond the reach of the senses. Further, the Yedas [are 
not only derived from a personal author, but they] have been uttered 
by a competent author {apta\ because they have been embraced by 
great men. Whatever has not been uttered by a competent person is 
not embraced by great men : but this (book) is embraced by great men : 
therefore it has been uttered by a competent person. Now, composition 
by a self-dependent person is utterance by a competent person ; and the 
reception (of the Yeda) by great men is the observance of its contents 
by persons who are adherents of all the different philosophical schools : 
and (the infallibility of the Yeda is defended by that which) has been 
already said, viz. that any occasional failure in the results (of cere- 
monies prescribed in the Yeda) is owing to some defect in the rite, or 
in the performer, or in the instruments employed [and not to any falli- 
bility in the Yeda]. 

'' If it be objected to this reasoning, that no author (of the Yeda) is 
^ recollected, we rejoin, that this is not true, because it has been formerly 
proved that the author is. remembered. And that it was composed by 
Him is proved by the simple fact of its being composed by a self- 
dependent person; and because it has been said that the self-depend- 
ence [or unassisted ability] of people like us in the composition of the 
Yeda, consisting, as it does, of a thousand S^akhas, is inconceivable. 
And since authority (in a writing in general) springs frt>m a quality [in 
its author], it necessarily follows that the authority of the Yeda also 
springs from a quality. And there the quality in question must be 
declared to be the speaker's knowledge of the correct meaning of sen- 
tences. And thus (we have shewn that) there is such an utterer of 
the Yeda, who possesses an intuitive knowledge of paradise, and of 
the yet unseen consequences of actions, etc., and such an utterer is no 
other than I^vara. Thus all is satisfactory." 


The ultimate proofs, then, of the binding anthority of the Yeda are, 
according to the commentator, Ist, its extent and subject-matter, and 
2ndl7, its tmanimous reception by great men, adherents of all the 
different orthodox systems. Of course these arguments have no vali- 
dity except for those who see something supernatural in the Veda, and 
on the assumption that the great men who embraced it were infallible ; 
and therefore as against the Bauddhas and other heretics who saw 
nothing miraculous in the Yedas, and consequently regarded all their 
adherents as in error, they were utterly worthless. But possibly it 
was not the object of the commentator (for the greater part of the argu- 
mentation is his, not that of the author of the Aphorisms) to state the 
ultimate reasons on which the authority of the Yedas would have to be 
vindicated against heretics, but merely to explain the proper grounds 
on which the orthodox schools who already acknowledged that au- 
tiiority ought to regard it as resting ; i.e. not, as the Mimansakas held 
their eternal faultlessness, but the fact of their being uttered by an intel- 
ligoit and omniscient author ; whose authorship, again, was proved by 
the contents of the Yedas having reference to unseen and future matters 
of which only an omniscient Being could have any knowledge ; while 
the fact of these revelations in regard to unseen things having actually 
proceeded from such a Being, and being therefore true, was guaranteed 
by the unanimous authority of the wisest men among the faithful. 

As it is a matter of some interest to know what is the nature of 
inspiration, or supernatural knowledge, as conceived by the Yai^eshikas, 
1 shall quote some passages bearing on this subject from the aphorisms, 
or from their expoiuder, Shnkara Mi^ra. In his remarks on Aphorism 
Tiii. 1, 2 (p. 357), the commentator states that opinion (jndnd) is of 
two kinds, true {vidya) and false {avidya) ; and that the former {vidyu) 
\m of two descriptions, arising from perception, inference, recollection, 
and the infallible intuition '' peculiar to rishis '' {Tach cha jnunam 
dvividhaih vidyu cha avidyd cha \ vidyd chaturvidhd pratyahha-laingika- 
smrtty-drtha-lakshand). Perception or intuition, again, is of different 
kinds or degrees (Aphorism ix. 1, 11-15, pp. 385 ff.). Aphorism ix. 
1, 11 (p. 386), is as follows: 

Tad evam hhdvdhhdva-vishayakam laukika-pratyaksham nirupya yogu 
pratyakthafh nirUpayitum praharandntaram drahhate \ ix. 1, 11. **At^ 
many diwuHnanaso^ M^yoya-viieshdd dttna-pratyahham " | jnunam ut- 


padyate iti ieshah \ dvivt'dhas tdvad yoginah samdhitdntahkarandh ye 
"yul'tdh^^ ity ahhidhlyanU asamdhtidnfakkarandi cha ye *'viyitktdh^* 
ity dbhidhlyanie \ tattra yukidh sdkshdtJcartavye vastuny ddarena tnano 
nidhdya nididhydsanavaniah \ teshdm dtmani svdtmani pardtmani eha 
jndnam utpadyate \ ** dtma-pratyakBham " iti \ dtmd sdkilidikdra-viihayo 
yattra jndne tat tathd \ yadyapy asmad-ddlndm apt kaduchid dtma- 
jndnam asti tathdpy avidyd-tiraskfitaivat tad asat-kalpam ity uktam \ 
'^dtma-manasos sannikarsha-viiesMd^^ iti yoga-ja-dharmdnuyrahah dtma- 
manasoh sannikarsha-riseshas tastndd ity arthah \ 

** Having thus defined ordinary perception which has for its objects 
existence and non-existence, the author, with the view of determining 
the character of the intuition of yogins, says : * From a particular con- 
centration of both the soul and the mind ^^^ on the soul, arises the per- 
ception (or intuition) of soul.' On this the commentator remarks : 
* There are two kinds of yogins (intent, or contemplative, persons), (1) 
those whose inner sense is fixed samdhitdnfahkarandh), who are called 
{yuktdh) united {i.e. with the object of contemplation), and (2) those 
whose inner sense is no longer fixed, and who are called disunited {viyuk- 
tdh).'^^^ Of these the first class, who are called * united,' fix their minds 
with reverence on the thing which is to be the object of intuition, and 
contemplate it intently. In this way knowledge arises in their souls 
regarding their own souls, and the souls of others. ' Intuition of soul,' 
that is, a knowledge in which soul is the perceptible object of intuition. 
Now, although persons like ourselves have sometimes a knowledge of 
soul, yet from this knowledge being affected by ignorance, it has been 
said to be like what is unreal. ' From a particular concentration of the 
soul and the mind ;' that is, from a particular conjunction of the soul 
and the mind which is effected by means of the virtue derived from 
yoga." See also Aphorism xv. p. 390. 

At the conclusion of his remarks (Bibl. Ind. p. 408) on the third sort 
of true knowledge (referred to in p. 357, Bibl. Ind.), viz. recollection, 
the commentator remarks that the author of the aphorisms does not 
make any separate mention of the fourth kind of know lege, viz. in- 
fallible intuition : 

1^^ The " mind " {manaa) is regarded by the Indian philosophers as distinct firom 
the soul, and as being merely an internal organ. 

119 This class is the more perfect of the two,* as appears from the gloss of Jayana- 
rSyasa : ayam apt viiiahfa'yogavattvttd viyuktaJ^ ity uehyaU. 


ix. 2y 6 Arsham jndnam sutra-kfitd prithan na lahhitam \ 

yogi-pratyakshantarhhavitam \ padartha-pradeidkhyB tu prakarane tad 
uktam I tad yatha \ " cLmnaya-vidhatrlndm riahindm atitdndgata-varttO' 
muneshv attndriydrtheshv artheshu dharmadishu yranthopanibaddkeshu vd 
lingady-anapekshad dtma-matiasoh samyogdd dharma-viSeshdch clia prd~ 
tihham jndnafh yad utpadyate tad drsham iti \ tach cha kaddcMl lauhi' 
kandm apt hhavati yathd kanyakd vadati " ivo me hhrdtd gantd iti hfi' 
dayam me kathayati " iti | 

" Ilishis' {drsha) knowledge," he says, " is not separately defined 
by tlie author of the aphorisms, but is included in the intuition of 
yogins,^^ But the following statement has been made (in reference to 
it) in the section on the categories : ' Eishis' {drsha) knowledge is 
that which, owing to a conjunction of the soul and the mind, inde- 
pendent of inference, etc., and owing to a particular species of virtue, 
illuniinates those rishis who have composed the record of the Ycdas 
{iimnaya-vidhdtrlndm), in reference to such matters, whether past, 
future, or present, as are beyond the reach of the senses, or in refer- 
ence to matters of duty, etc., recorded in books,' etc. And this sort of 
knowledge is also sometimes manifested by ordinary persons, as when a 
girl says, * my heart tells me that my brother will go to-morrow.' " 
See also Aphorism ix. 2, 13 (Bibl. Ind. pp. 414, 415). 

The Tarka-sangraha, another Yai^eshika work, also affirms the divine 
authorship of the Veda in these words : "* Vdkyam dvividhatn laukikaih 
vaidikafh cha \ vaidikam Iharoktatvdt sarvam eva pramdnam laukikam tu 
Gptoktam pramdnam any ad apramdnam \ '* Sentences are of two kinds, 
Yedic and secular. Yedic sentences, from being uttered by I^vara, are 
all proof [or authoritative]. Of secular sentences, those only which 
are uttered by competent persons {dpta) are proof; the rest are not 

In this text, the authority of the Yeda is founded on its being uttered 
by livara; and this characteristic is regarded as limited to the Yeda. 

wo It bod been already noticed by Professor Max Miillcr in the Journal of the 
Gcrmnn Oriental Society, rii. p. 311, that ** the YaiBcsliikas, like Enpila, include the 
intuition of enlightened rishis under the head otpratyalsha (intuition), and thussepa- 
inte it decidedly from nitihya, * tradition.'" Ho also quotes the commentator's 
remark about a simlUr intuition being discoTcrablo among ordinary persons, which ho 
thinks is not <* witliont a certain irony.*' 

1*^ See Dr. Calhiutyuo-s ud. with Iliadl and Engli&h Veraious, p. 40 of the Sanskrit. 


On the other hand, such secular works as proceed from competent 
persons {dpta) are also declared to possess authority. Here, therefore, 
a distinction is drawn between the authority of the Yeda and that of 
all other writings, however authoritative, inasmuch as the former was 
uttered by I^vara, while the latter have only been uttered by some 
competent person {dptd). But in the Nyaya aphorism, ii. 68, quoted 
and commented upon above (p. 114), the authority of the Yeda itself is 
made to rest on the authority of the wise, or competent persons {dpta)^ 
from whom it proceeded.*** In this aphorism, therefore, either the word 
" apta ** must mean " IiSvara," or we must suppose a difference of view 
between the author of the aphorism on the one hand, and the writers 
of the Yai^eshika aphorisms and the Tarka-sangraha on the other. 
We shall see from the next extract that the Kusumanjali coincides 
with the latter. 

I quote from the work just named (of which Udayana Acharya is the 
author), and its commentary,"' some statements of the doctrine main- 
tained by the author regarding the origin and authority of the Yeda. 
Mr. Colebrooke (Misc. Ess. i. 263, or p. 166 of Williams andNorgate's ed.) 
speaks of this treatise as being accompanied by a commentary of Nara- 
yana Tirtha ; but the one which is printed in the Calcutta edition, as 
well as in Professor Cowell's, is by Haridasa Bhat^acharya. The object 
of the work is to prove the existence of a personal god (livara), in 
opposition to various other antagonistic theories. 

I. Kusumanjali, 2nd Stavaka, at the commencement : Anyatha *pi 
paraloka-sddhandnushfhdna-samhhavddttidvitiya'Vipratipattih \ Anyathd 
Ikaram vind ^p% paraloha-sddhanO'ydgddy-aniMhthdnafn samhhavati ydgd- 
deh svarya-sddhanatvasya veda-gamyatvdt \ nitya-nirdoahatayd eha veda- 
»ya prdmdnyam \ mahdjana-parigrahdch cha prdmdnyasya grdhah iti 
veda-kdranatayd na Isvara-siddhih \ yogardhi'Sampudita-sdrvajnya-Kapi^ 

'^ The following words are put by the author of the Vishnu Purana ^ ch. 18 ; 
WilBon, Tol. iii. p. 212) into the mouth of tho deludcr who promulgated the Bauddhm 
and other heresies : Na hy apta-vadah nabhtuo nipatanti mahamrah | yuktimad 
vaehanam grahyam maya 'nyais eha bhavad^idhaih \ " Words of the competent do 
not, great Asuras, fall from the sky. It is only words supported hy reasons that 
should be admitted by me and others like yourselves." 

"» This book was published at the Sanskrit Press, Calcutta, in the S'aka year, 1769. 
A new edition was published by Professor Cowell in 1864, accompanied by an English 
translation. I have availed myself of this excellent yersion to correct a good many 
mistakes in my own. 


Iddi'purvdkah eva vd vedo *stv ity atra aha \ ^^ pramayuh paraiantratvdt 
targa'pralaya-mmhhavdt \ tad-anyasminn avmdsdd na vidhdntara-sam' 
hhavah^^ \ S'dbdl praynd vaktri'yatMrtha'vakydrtha'dhi'riipa'guna-janya 
iti gunddhdratayd Isvara-siddhih \ nanu sakartrike 'stu yathdrtha^dk' 
ydrtha-dhir gunah \ akartrike cha vede nirdoshatuam eva prdrndnya-pra- 
yojakam astu mahdjana-parigrahena cha prdmdnya-grahah ity ata aha \ 
^^iarga-pralaya-samhhavdd^^ iti \ pralayottaram purva'Vcda-ndsdd uttara- 
vedasya katltam prdmdnyam mahdjana-parigraliasydpi tadu abhdvdt \ 
iahdasya anityatvam utpanjio ga-kdrah iti praiiti'Siddham \ pravdhdvich- 
chhedthrupa-nityatvam api pralaya-samhhavdd ndsti iti hhdvah \ Eapild- 
dayah evfl targddau purva'8argdhhyasta'yoga-ja7iya - dharmdnubhavdt 
rnkshat-krita-mkaldrthdh karttdrah satiiu \ ity ata dha \ '* tadanyas- 
minn" iti \ viiva-nirmdna'Samarthdh animddi-Sakti-sampanndh yadi 
tarvajnds tadd Idghavdd eka eva tddriiah svlkriyatdm \ sa eva hhagavdn 
Isvarah \ anitydsarva-vishayaka-Jnauavati cha visvdsah eva ndsti \ iti 
vaidika-vyavahdra-vilopah \ iti fia vidhdntara-samlhavah Isvardnangl- 
hartri-naye iti ieshah \ 

" The second objection is that [there is no proof of an Isvara], since 
the means of attaining paradise can be practised independently of any 
BQch Being. That is to say, the celebration of sacrifices, etc., which 
are the instruments of obtaining paradise, can take place otherwise, i.e, 
even without an Is vara (God). For the fact that sacrifices, etc., are the 
instnunents of obtaining paradise is to be learned from the Veda, while 
the authority of the Yeda rests upon its eternal faultlcssness ; and the 
[immemorial] admission of that authority results from its reception by 
^HBtriouB men. Now in this way there is no proof of the existence of 
* God to be derived from the idea that he is the cause of the Veda. Or 
let it be supposed that the Veda was preceded [composed] by Kapila 
and other sages, who by their wealth in devotion had acquired omni- 

" In answer to all this the author says : [verse] * Since truth depends 
^ iUi external source, since creation and dissolution occur, and since 
"^ is no confidence in any other than God, therefore no other manner 
^ be conceived [in which the Veda originated, except from God].' 
[Comment] Verbal truth [or authoritativcncss] is derived from the 
attribute, possessed by its promulgator, of comprehending the true 
KQse of words [%,$. in order to constitute the Veda an authoritative 



rule of duty, it must have proceeded from an intelligent being who 
understood the sense of what he uttered] ; and since God is the sub- 
stratum of this attribute [of intelligence], there is proof of his existence. 

'< But it may be said that if the Veda had a maker, then, indeed, 
such comprehension of the true sense of words as you insist upon may 
be a quality belonging to him ; but if the Veda had no maker, let it be 
its faultlessness which imparts to it its authority, while the [imme- 
morial] admission of that authority results from its reception by illus- 
trious men. 

*' In answer to this the author says : * Since creation and dissolu- 
tion occur.' Since the previous Ycda [the one which existed during 
the former mundane period] perished after the dissolution of the uni- 
verse, how can the subsequent Yeda [».^. the one supposed by our 
opponents to have existed during the dissolution] be authoritative, since 
there was not then even any reception of it by illustrious men [who 
also had all become extinct at the dissolution]. And further, the non- 
etcmity of sound is proved by the conviction we have that letters such 
as G are produced, [and not eternal] : and even that eternity (or per- 
petuity) of the Yeda which consists in unbroken continuity of tradition, 
does not exist, as there is probable proof of a dissolution.^ But, again, 
it is urged that Kapila and other saints — who, £rom their perception of 
duty, springing £rom the practice of devotion during the former mun- 
dane period, had acquired an intuitive knowledge of every subject — 
may at the creation have been the authors of the Yeda. This is an- 
swered in the words, ' since there is no confidence in any other but 
God.' If persons capable of creating the universe and possessing the 
faculty of minuteness be omniscient, then, for the sake of simplicity, 
let one such person only be admitted, namely, the divine livara.^ 
And no confidence can be reposed in any person who is not eternal, and 
who is not possessed of a knowledge which extends to all objects. 
Thus the Yedic tradition disappears. And so he concludes that no 
other manner [of the origination of the Yeda] can be conceived [except 

^** The writers on the other side seem to reply to this Naiyayika ohjection aboat 
the interruption of the tradition of the Yeda through the dissolution of the universe, 
hy saying that the Yeda wbb retained in the memory of BrahmS or the Bishis during 
the intenral while the dissolution lasted. See KuUClka on Manu, i. 23, above, p. 6 ; 
and the passage of Kaiyya(a on the MahabhSshya, above, p. 96. 

ttft (• The law of parsimony bids as assume oiJy one such," etc.— Cowell. 


from I^Tara] ; that is, in the system of those who deny an livara [no 
way is pointed out]." 

II. Knsumanjali, iii. 16. — **Napramdnam an&ptoktir nddfishfe kvachid 
dptatd I adrih/a-drishtau sarvajno nd eha nitydgamah kshama^ " \ ayarh hi 
iarva-kartritvdhhdvdvedakah iahdah andptoktai ched na pramdnam \ dp- 
iokiaS eked eiad-artha'yockara-jndnavaio nitya-sarvO'Viskayaka-jndnavat'' 
fvam indriyddy-abkdvdt \ dyanuuya cka nityatvatk dilshitam eva prdg iti 
veda-kdro nityah sarvafnah siddkyati | 

[Terse] " The word of an incompetent person is not authoritative ; 
nor can there he any competency in regard to a thing unseen [hy the 
speaker]. To perceive invisihle things, a person must he omniscient ; 
and an eternal scripture is impossible. [Comment] This [supposed] 
scriptural testimony, denying the fact of there being a creator of all 
things, if uttered by an incompetent person, would be no proof. If it 
was uttered by a competent person, then the person who possessed an 
acquaintance with this circumstance [that there was no creator] would 
he master of a knowledge which was eternal, and universal in its range, 
since he woull not be limited by any bodily organs. And we have 
previously disproved the eternity of any scripture (see the first extract 
from the Kusumanjali, above). Consequently an omnisdent and eternal 
author of the Yeda is established." 

III. Kusumanjali, V. 1. — "Kdryydyofana-dkrttyddek paddt pratyayO' 
to^ iruteh \ vdkydt sankkyd-tnieskdch cka sddkyo viivavid avyayah " | . . • 
Vratyayatak prdmdnydt \ veda-janya-jndnam kdrana-gu^a-janyam pro- 
mdiicdt I pratyakskadi'pramd-vat \ ^uter veddt \ veda^ pauruskeyo veda^ 
ifdd dyurveda^at \ kineka veda^ pauntskeyo vdkyatvdd Ikdratddi-vat \ 
^eda-vdkydni pauruskeydni vdkyatvdd aimad'ddi-vdkya-vat \ 

[Verse] ''An omniscient and indestructible Being is to be proved 
from [the existence of] effects, from the conjunction of [atoms], from 
^6 support [of the earth in the sky], etc., from ordinary usages, from 
^lief [in revelation], from the Veda, from sentences, and from parti- 
^ numbers." 

The following is so much of the comment as refers to the words 
f^^yaya, iruti, and vdkya : ''From belief, %,$, from authoritativeness. 
The knowledge derived from the Yeda is derived from the attributes of 
its Cause ; since it is true knowledge, like the true knowledge derived 
from perception. From the iruti, i,e, the Yeda. The Yeda is [shewn 


to be] derived firom a person, by its having the characters of a Yeda, 
like the Ayur-veda. It is also [shewn to be] derived from a person, 
by having the character of sentences, like the Mahabharata. The 
words of the Yeda are [shewn to be] derived froni a person, by their 
having the character of sentences, like the sentences of persons such as 

rV. Kusumanjali, v. 16. — "Sydm^' ''ahhuvam^^ **hhavishi/dmV* ^tyadau 
sankhyd pravaktri-gd \ samdkhyd ^pi cha sdkhdndm nddya-pravachatidd 
fite I Vaidikottama'purushena svatantrochchdrayituh sankhyd vdchyd \ 
*'tad aikshata eko ^ham hahu sydm*^ ityddi-hahushu uttama-purusha-iru- 
teh I sankhyd'paddrtham any am dha ^^ samdkhyd " ityddi \ sarvdsdm 
idkhdnam hi Kdthaka'Kdldpakddydh samdkhydh sanjnd-vUeshdh iru' 
yante \ te cha ha adhyayana-rndtra-nihandhandh \ adhyetfindm dnantydt \ 
dddv anyair apt tad-adhyayandt \ tasmdd atindriydrtha-daril hhagavdn 
eva livarah kdrunikah sargdddv asmad'ddy'adrish^dkrishta-kdthakddi- 
iarzra-viiesham adhishfhdya ydm Sdkhdm iiktavdihs tasydh Sdkhdyds tan- 
ndmnd vyapadekah iti siddham Ikara-mananam moksha-hetuh j 

[Verse ] ** In the phrases ' let me be,* * I was,' * I shall be,' [which 
occur in the Yeda], personal designations have reference to a speaker ; 
and the names of the S'akhas could only have been derived from a 
primeval utterance. [Conmient] The first person (I), when it occors 
in the Yeda, must be employed to denote a self-dependent utterer. 
Now there are many instances there of such a use of the first person, 
as in the words, ^ It reflected, I am one, let me become many.' The 
author then specifies another signification of the term s^tjikhyd in the 
clause, ' and the designations,' etc. For all the S'akhas of the Yeda tradi- 
tionally bear the names, the special names, of Kd^haka, Kalapaka, etc. 
And these names cannot be connected with the mere study [of these S'ak- 
has by Ka^ha, Kalapa, etc.] from the infinite multitude of students, since 
they must have been studied before by others besides the persons just 
mentioned. Wherefore the particular STikhas which I ^ vara, the be- 
holder of objects beyond the reach of the senses^ the compassionate 
Lord, himself uttered at the beginning of the creation, when he assumed 
the bodies of Kafha, etc., which were drawn on by the destiny {adrishta) 
of beings like ourselves — these S'akhas, I say, were designated by the 
names of the particular sages [in whose persons they weso promul- 
gated]. And so it is proved that the contemplation of I^vara is the 
cause of final liberation." 


I am unable to say if tlie ancient doctrine of the Nyaja was theistic, 
as that of the Yaiseshika Sutras (at least as interpreted by S'ankara 
Ki^ra) appears to be, and as that of the Kusumanjali, the Tarka-san- 
graha,^" and the Siddhanta Muktavali undoubtedly is (p. 6 of Dr. Bal- 
lantyne's ed., or p. 12 of his " Christianity contrasted with Hindu Phi- 
losophy," and p. 13 of Dr. Koer's Bhasha-parichchheda, in Bibl. Ind.). 
The remarks of Dr. Eocr on the subject, in pp. xv., xvi., of the intro- 
duction to the last named work, may be consulted. The subject is also 
discussed by Professor Banerjea in his work on Hindu philosophy, pp. 
144-153. The solution of the question may depend much on the inter- 
pretation to be given to the aphorisms of Gotama, 19-21 of the fourth 

in. The Sdnkhya. — The opinions of the author of the Sankhya aphor- 
isms in regard to the authority of the Yeda and the principles on which 
that authority depends, are contained in the 45th to the 51st aphorisms 
of the Fifth Book, which I extract with the comments of Yijnana 
Bhikflhu : ^^ 

45. " iVa nityatvam Veddndih kdryatva-iruteh " | " iSa tapo Hapyata 
Umat tapas tepdndt trayo vedd ajdyanta*^ ity ddi-iruter veddndih na 
nityatvam ity arthah \ veda-nityatd-vdhydni cha sajdtJydnupurvi'pravd- 
hdnuehchheda-pardni \ Tarhi kim paurusheydh veddh \ na ity dha \ 46. 
" Na paurusheyatvam tat-kartuh purushasya abhdvdt " | Uvara-pratishe- 
M iti ieshah \ sugamam \ aparah karttd hhavatv ity dkdnkshdydm dha \ 
47. *^ Muktdmuktayor ayoyyatvdt^^ \ Jlvan-mukta-dhurlno Vishnur viiud- 
^wtivatayd niratiiaya-Mrvajno ^pi vita-rdgatvdt sahasra-Sdkha^eda' 
fiirmdndyoyyah \ amuktas tv asarvajnatvdd eva ayogyah ity arthah \ nanv 
ttam apaunisheyatvdd nityatvam eva dgatam \ tatrdha \ 48. ^* Na apau- 
Tutheyatvdd nityatvam ankurddi-vat " | Spashfam \ nanv ankurddishv api 
^atvena ghatddi^at purusheyatvam anumeyam \ tatrdha \ 49. '^Teshdm 
tpi tad-yoge drishta-lddhadi-prasaktih " | Yat pauruslieyam tach chha- 

^ Jmmdhikaranam atma | sa dviridho j'waima paramatma eha \ tatra Jararah 
f^Tajnah paramatma eha eva \ j'tmtma prati iarlram bhinno vibhur nityaseha \ 
^'The sahetratum of knowledge is soul. It is of two kinds, the embodied soul, and the 
npreme soul. Of these the supreme soul is the omniscient IsVara, one only. Tho 
enbodied soul is distinct in each body, all-pervading, and eternal." 

^ Compare Dr. Ballantyne's translation of the Sunkhya Aphorisms, books y. and 
tL, published at Mirzapore in 1856, pp. 26 ff., as well as that which subsequently 
^ipmd in the Bibliotheca Indica (in 1865), pp. 127 ff. 


rlra-janyam iti vy&ptir loJce drishtd tasydh hddh&dir evam sati tydd Ui 
arthah \ nanv Adi-purushocJicharitatvad Veddh apt paurusheydh eva ity 
dha I 50. ^^Yasmin adrishfe^pi krita-huddhir upaj'dyate tat paurtuk^ 
yam " | Dfishfe tva adrishfe *pi yasmin vastuni krita-huddhir huddhi- 
purvakatva - hiutdhir jdyaie tad eva paurusheyam iti vyavahriyate ity 
' artliah | etad ukiam hhavati I na purushochchariiatd-rndtrena paunuhe- 
yatvam hdsa-prahdsayoh stMhupti-kdllnayoh paurusheyatva-vyavahdrd' 
hhdvdt hintu huddhi-purvakatvena \ Vedds tu nihsvdsa-vad eva adrishfa- 
vaidd ahuddhi'purvakdh eva Svayamlhuvah sakdidt svayam hhavanti \ ato 
na te paurusheydh \ taihd cha Srutih ** tasyaitasya mahato hhutasya ni- 
hasitam etad yad figvedo ity ddir " iti \ nanv evam yathdrtha-vdhydrtha- 
jndndpHrvakatvdt Suka - vdkyasyeva veddndm api prdmdnyam na eydt 
tatrdha \ 61. ^^Nija-iakty-alkvyakteh evatah prdmdnyam" \ Veddndm 
nijd evdbhdvikl yd yathdrtha-jndna-janana-iaktis tasydh mantrdyurvedd- 
ddv ahhivyakter upalamhhdd akhila-veddndm eva svata^ eva prdmdnyam 
siddhyati na vaktfi'yatMrtha-jndna-mulakatvddind ity arthah \ tathd 
cha JNfydyasutram \ ^'manirdyurveda-prdrndnya-vach cha tat-prdmdnyam*' 
iti I 

** Sutra 45. ' Eternity cannot be predicated of the Yedas, since 
various texts in these books themselves declare them to have been pro- 
duced.' The sense is this, that the Yedas are proved not to be eternal 
by such texts as the following : ' He performed austerity ; from him, 
when he had thus performed austerity, the three Yedas were produced.' 
[See above, p. 4.] Those other texts which assert the eternity [or 
perpetuity] of the Yedas refer merely to the unbroken continuity of 
the stream of homogeneous succession [or tradition]. Are the Yedas, 
then, derived from any personal author ? * l^o,' he replies in Sutra 46. 

* The Yedas are not derived from any personal author (paurwheya), 
since there is no person to make them.' "We must supply the words, 

* since an Ihara (God) is denied.' The sense is easy. In answer to 
the supposition that there may be some other maker, he remarks, 
Sutra 47, ' l^o ; for there could be no fit maker, either liberated or un- 
liberated.' Yishnu, the chief of all those beings who are liberated even 
while they live,'" although, from the pure goodness of his nature, he is 
possessed of perfect omniscience, would, owing to his impassiveness, be 
unfit to compose the Yeda consisting of a thousand sakhas (branches), 

^^ See Colebrooke*8 Essays, i 369, or p. 241 of Williams and Norgate's ed. 


while any nnliberated person wonld be unfit for the task from want of 
omniscience. (See Sbnkara's comment on Brahma Sutras i. 1, 3 ; above, 
p. 106:) But does not, then, the eternity of the Yedas follow from 
their haying no personal author ? He replies (48), ' Their eternity does 
not result from their having no persofial author, as in the case of sprouts, 
etc/ This is clear. But is it not to be inferred that sprouts, etc., since 
they are products, have, like jars, etc., some personal maker ? He re- 
pHes (49), * If such a supposition be applied to these (sprouts, etc.) it 
mnst there also be exposed to the objection that it is contrary to what 
we see, etc.' Whatever is derived from a personal author is produced 
from a body ; this is a rulo which is seen to hold invariably. But if 
we assert that sprouts are derived from a personal author, we contra- 
dict the rule in question, [siiice they evidently did not spring from any 
embodied person].' But are not the Yedas, too, derived from a person, 
seeing that they were uttered by the primeval Furusha ? He answers 
(50), * That object only (even though it be an invisible one), which its 
maker is conscious of having made, can be said to be derived £rom [or 
made by] such a person.' It is only those objects, be they seen or un- 
seen, m regard to which a consciousness of design arises, that are ordi- 
iiarilj spoken of as made by a person. The sense is, that it is not mere 
utterance by a person which constitutes formation by that person (since 
we do not ordinarily speak of the inspirations and expirations of any 
person during the time of sleep, as being formed by that person), but 
onlj utterance with conscious design. But the Yedas proceed of their 
own accord from Svayambhii (the self-existent), like an expiration, by 
the force of adrishta (destiny), without any consciousness on his part. 
Hence they are not formed by any person. Thus the Yeda says, * This 
%-veda, etc., is the breath of this great Being, etc' [See above, 
p> 8.] But will not the Yedas, also, be in this way destitute of au- 
thority, like the chatter of a parrot, since they did not result from any 
knowledge of the correct meaning of the words of which they are made 
up? In reference to this, he says (51), ♦The Yedas have a self-proving 
wthority, since they reveal their own inherent power.' The self- 
endencing authority of the entire Yedas is established by the per- 
ception of a manifestation in certain portions of them, viz. in the for- 
mulas and the Ayur-veda, etc., of that inherent power which they (the 
^edas) possess of generating correct knowledge, and does not depend on 



its being shown that they (the Yedas) are founded on correct knowledge 
in their uttcrer,** or on any other ground of that sort. And to this 
effect is the Nfyaya Sutra, that ' their authority is like the authority of 
the formulas and the Ayur-veda.' (See above, p. 114.) 

In reference to the 46th Sutra I add here the 98th aphorism of the 
1st book, with the remarks by which it is introduced and followed : 

Nanu chet sadd sarvajnah Uvaro ndsti tarhi veddnta-mahdvakydriha^ya 
viveJcasya upadsse ^ndha -parampardsankayd aprdmdnyam prasajyeta \ 
tattra dha \ 98. Siddha-rupa-hoddhritvud vdhydriliopadesah \ Iliranya' 
garhhddindm siddha-rupdndtfi^^ yathdrthdrtha^ya hoddJiritvdt tad-vak- 
tfikdyurvedddi ' prdmdnyena avadhritdch cha eshdm vdkydrthopadesah 
pramdnam iti ieshah \ 

** But may it not be said that if there be no eternally omniscient 
l^vara, the charge of want of iauthority will attach to the inculcation 
of discriminative knowledge which is the subject of the great texts of 
the XJpanishads, from the doubt lest these texts may hare been handed 
down by a blind tradition. To this he replies : 86. ' From the fact that 
beings perfect in their nature understood them, it results that we have 
an (authoritative) inculcation of the sense.' As Hiranyagarbha (Brah- 
ma) and other beings who were perfect in their nature understood the 
true sense, and are ascertained to have done so by the authontativeness 
of the Ayur-veda, etc., which they uttered, their inculcation of the 
sense of the texts is authority ; — such is the complete meaning of the 

In the 57th and following Sutras of the fifth book, Kapila denies 
that sound has the character of sphofa, or that letters are eternal : 

57. ^^ Pratlty-apratUibhydm na sphotdtmakah iahdah*' \ Prafyeka- 
varnehhyo Hiriktafh kala§ah ityddi-rupam akhandam eka-padam sphotah 
itiyogair dbhyupagamyate \ kamhU'grivddy'avayavehhyoUinkto ghafddy' 
avayavlva \ sa cha Sahda-viSesho paddkhyo ^rtha-sphuftkarandt aphofah ity 
uchyate \ sa iabdo *prdmdnikah \ kutah \ *' pratUy-apratUibhydm " | sa 
iahdah kim pratiyate na vd \ ddye yena varna-samuddyena dnupurvl- 

^^ This directly contradicts the doctrine enunciated in the Yaiseshika SQtras and 
the Kusumanjali. See aboTC, pp. 121, 123, and 129 f. 

^^ This is a varions reading giycn by Dr. Hall in the appendix to his edition 01" 
the Sankhya-pravachana-bhashya ; and I have adopted it in prefcrcnco to siddha^ 
rupatya which he giyea in his text, as the former seems to afford a better sense. 


tmha-visishfena so ^hhivyajyaie tasya era artha'pratyayahttvam astu 
Im antargadund tena \ antye tv ajndta-sphotasya ndsty artha-pratydyana- 
saktir iti vyartJui sphofa-kalpand ity arthah | Purvam veddndm nitya- 
Uam pratishiddham \ idanliii varm - nityatvam apt pratishedati \ 58. 
"Na khda-nttyatvam kdryatd'pratiteh^^ \ Sa eva ayath ga-kdrah ityddi- 
fratyMijnd - haldd varna-nityatvaih na yuMam \ utpanno ga-kdrah 
ityaii'pratyayena anityatva-siddher ity arthah \ pratyahhijfid taj-jati- 
yatd-viskayini | anyathd ghafdder apt pratyabhiJndydJj^ nityatdpatter iti \ 
knkate \ 59. "Furva'siddlia-sattvasya alhhyaktir dipeneva ghafasya " | 
Nanu purta'Siddha'Sattdkasyaiva Sahdasya dhvany-ddibhir yd ^Ihivyaktis 
tan-mdtram utpattih pratlter vishayah \ ahhivyaktau drishtdnto dipeneva 
ghafasya iti \ Pariharati \ 60. **Sat'kdryya-8iddhdntaS chet siddha-sddha- 
nam^* \ Ahhivyaktir yady andgatdvasthd - tydgena varttamdndvasthd- 
khhah ity uchyate tadd sat-kriryya-siddhdntah \ tddriia-nifyatvarh cha 
iona-kdrydndm eta iti siddha-sddhanam ity arthah \ yadi cha varttamd- 
nataya satah eva jitdna-^dtra-rupiny ahhivyaktir why ate tadd ghafddl' 
n&m apt nityatvdpattir ityddi \ 

" ' Sound has not the character of sphota, from the dilemma that the 
latter must be either apparent or not apparent.' A modification of sound 
called iphofa, single, indivisible, distinct £rom individual letters, exist- 
ing in the form of words like kalaia (jar), distinguished also from parts 
of wordo like kamhu-griva (striped-neck) and forming a whole like the 
yror^ghafa (jar), is assumed by the Yogas. And this species of sound 
called a word {pada) is designated ephota from its manifesting a mean- 
ing. But the existence of this form of sound is destitute of proof. 
Why? *From the dilemma that it must be either apparent or not ap- 
parent' Does this form of sound appear or not ? If it appears, then 
let the power of disclosing a meaning [which is ascribed by our op- 
ponents to ephofa'] be regarded as belonging to that collection of letters, 
Mranged in a particular order, by which the supposed sphofa is mani- 
fested. What necessity is there then for that superfluous sphofa ? If, on 
the contrary, it does not appear, then that unknown sphofa can have no 
power of disclosing a meaning, and consequently it is useless to suppose 
that any such thing as sphofa exists. 

"The eternity of the Vedas has been already denied. He now denies 
the eternity of letters also. 58. * Sound is not eternal, since it is clear 
that it is a production.' The meaning is, that it is not reasonable to 


infer on the strength of the recognition of the letter G as the same 
that we knew before (see Mimansa Aphorisms i. 13 ; above, p. 74), 
that letters are eternal ; since it is clear that G and other letters are 
prodnced, and therefore cannot be eternal. The recognition of these 
letters has reference to their being of the same species as we have per- 
ceived before; since otherwise we are landed in the absurdity that, 
because we recognize a jar or any other such object to be the same, it 
must therefore be eternal. 

'' He expresses a doubt : 59. ' What we hear may be merely the 
manifestation of a previously existing thing, as a jar is manifested (not 
created) by the light of a lamp.' (See Mimansa Aphorisms i. 12, 13 ; 
above, p. 74.) Is it not the fact that it is merely the manifestation of 
previously existing language by sounds, etc., which we perceive as 
originating ? An illustration of such manifestation is that of a jar by 
means of a lamp. 

" He repels this doubt : 60. ' If the axiom that an effect exists in its 
cause be here intended, this is merely proving what is already admitted.' 
If by manifestation is meant the relinquishment by any substance of its 
past (?) condition, and the attainment of its present state, then we have 
merely the recognized principle of an effect virtually existing in its 
cause (see Sankhya Karika Aph. ix.) ; and as such eternity is truly 
predicable of all effects whatever, it is proving a thing already proved 
to assert it here. If, on the other hand, by manifestutiou be merely 
meant the perception of a thing actually existing, then we shall be in- 
volved in the absurdity of admitting that jars, etc., also are eternal^ etc." 

Sect. X. — On ths use which the authors of the different Darianas make 
of Vedic texts, and the mode of interpretation which they adopt. 

I have already (in p. 107) touched on the mode of interpretation ap- 
plied by the author of the Brahma Sutras, or his commentator Sankara 
Acharyya, to the Yedic texts, derived chiefly from the Brahmanas and 
Upanishads, on which the Vedantic doctrines are based, or by which they 
are defended, or with which, at least, they are asserted to be consistent 
It will, however, be interesting to enquire a little more in detail into the 
extent to which the Indian scriptures are appealed to, and the manner 
in which they are treated by the authois or expounders of the different 


Darianas. The object proposed by the Furra-mTmansa is an enquiry 
into duty {dharma-jifnasd — Aph. i.)* Duty is defined as something en- 
joined by the Veda {cJiodand-lalcshano *rtho dharmaf^ — Aph. ii.) ; and 
which cannot be ascertained to be duty except through such injunc- 
tion.^ The first six lectures of the Mimansa, according to Mr. Cole- 
brooke, " treat of positive injunction ; " the remaining six concern " in- 
direct command." " The authority of enjoined duty is the topic of the 
first lecture : its differences and Tarieties, its parts, .... and the pur- 
pose of performance, are successively considered in the three next. . . • 
The order of performance occupies the fifth lecture ; and qualification 
for its performance is treated in the sixth. The subject of indirect 
precept Ls opened in the seventh lecture generally, and in the eighth 
particularly. Inferable changes, adapting to the variation or copy 
wiiat was designed for the type or model, are discussed in the ninth, 
and bars or exceptions in the tenth. Concurrent efficacy is considered 
in the eleventh lecture ; and co-ordinate effect in the twelfth." .... 
** Other matters are introduced by the way, being suggested by the 
main topic or its exceptions " (Misc. Essays, i. 304 f.). It appears, 
therefore, that the general aim of the Purva-mlmansa is (1) to prove 
the authority of the Yeda, and then to (2) deduce from it the duties, 
whether enjoined directly or indirectly, which are to be performed, the 
manner and conditions of their performance, and their results. It is 
also termed the Karma-mimansa, '* as relating to works or religious ob- 
servances to be undertaken for specific ends " (Colebrooke, i. 296, 325). 
The Brahma-mlmansa, or Vedanta, is, according to the same author, 
the complement of the Karma-mimansa, and ''is termed uttcwa^ later, 
contrasted with purva^ prior, being the investigation of proof deducible 
from the Yedas in regard to theology, as the other is in regard to tcorka 
and their merit. The two together, then, comprise the complete system 
of interpretation of the precepts and doctrine of the Yedas, both prac- 
tical and theological. They are parts of one whole. The later Mimans& 
is supplementary to the prior, and is expressly affirmed to be so : but 
differing on many important points, though agreeing on others, they 
are essentially distinct in a religious as well as a philosophical view " 
(Misc. Ess. i. 325). In fact the Brahma-mimansa proceeds upon a de- 
predation of the value of the objects aimed at by the Karma-mimansa, 

^^ See Ballantyne's Mlmansfi aphorisms, p. 7* 


since the rewards which the latter holds out even in a future state are 
but of temporary duration ; and according to S'ankara it is not eyen 
necessary that the seeker after a knowledge of Brahma should first 
have studied the Karma-mimansa before he conceives the desire to 
enter upon the higher enquiry {nanv iha karmdvahodhunantaryyam vt'ie- 
shah I na \ dharma-jijudsdydh prdg apy adhlta-veddntasya Brahma-jijna^ 
sopapatteh), (S'ankara on Brahma Sutra, i. 1, 1, p. 25 of Bibl. Ind.) 
This is distinctly expressed in the following passage, p. 28 : 

Tastndt kim apt vaktavyam yad-anantaram Brahma-jijndsd upadisyate 
iti I uchyate \ mtydnitya-vastu-vivekah ihdmuirdrtha-phala'bhoyO'mrd' 
yah iania-damddi-sddhana-sampad mumukshatvam cha \ teshu hi satsu 
^rdg apt dJuirma-jijndsdydh urddhvam cha iakyate Brahma jijndsayitum 
jndtum cha na viparyyaye \ tastndd **aiha^* Sahdena yathohta-sddhana- 
Bampatty'dnantaryyam upadiiyate \ ** atah" iahdo hetv-arthah \ yasmdd 
vedah eva agnihotrddindrh ireyas-sddhandndm anitya-phaiatdm dariayati 
" tad yathd iha karma-chito lokah kshlyate evam eva amuttra punya-ehito 
lokah kshiyate " ity-ddi \ tathd Brahma-vijndndd api param ptirushdr- 
thaih dariayati Brahma^id dpnoti param " ity-ddi \ tamndd yathokta- 
8ddhana'8ampatty-anantaram*Brahma-jijnd8d kartavyd \ 

The author is explaining the word atha 'now,' or *next,' with 
which the first Sutra begins ; and is enquiring what it is that is re- 
ferred to as a preliminary to the enquiry regarding Brahma : " What, 
then, arc we to say that that is after which the desire to know Brahma 
is enjoined ? ' The answer is, ' it is the discrimination between eternal 
and non-eternal substance, indifference to the enjoyment of rewards 
cither in this world or the next, the acquisition of the means of tran- 
quillity and self-restraint, and the desire for final liberation. For if 
these requisites be present, a knowledge of Bralima can be desired, and 
Brahma can be known, even before, as well as after, an enquiry has 
been instituted into duty. But the converse does not hold good (t.^. 
without the requisites referred to, though a man may have a know- 
ledge of duty, i,e. of ceremonial observances, he possesses no prepara- 
tion for desiring to know Brahma). Hence by the word atha it is 
enjoined that the desire in question should follow the possession of 
those requisites.' The next word atah, 'hence,' denotes the reason. 
Because the Veda itself, — ^by employing such words as these, * Where- 
fore just as in this life the world which has been gained by works 


perishes, so too in a fature life the world gained by merit perishes ' — 
points out that the rewards of the agnihotra sacrifice and other in- 
struments of attaining happiness are but temporary. And by such 
texts as this, ' He who knows Brahma attains the highest exaltation/ 
the Veda further shews that the highest end of man is acquired by the 
knowledge of Brahma. Hence the desire to know Brahma is to be 
entertained after the acquisition of the means which have been already 
referred to." 

In the Mimansa Sutras, i. 1, 5, as we have seen above (p. 71), Bada- 
rayana, the reputed author of the Brahma Sutras, is referred to as con< 
earring in the doctrine there laid down. But in many parts of the 
Brahma Sutras, the opinions of Jaimini are expressly controverted, both 
on grounds of reason and scripture, as at variance with those of Bada- 

I adduce some instances of this difference of opinion between the 
two schools : 

'We have seen above, p. 99, that according to the Brahma Sutras the 
gods possess the prerogative {adhikdra) of acquiring divine science. 
This, however, is contested by Jaimini (see Brahma Sutras, i. 3, 31), 
who objects (1) that in that case (as all divine sciences possess the 
characteristic of being science) the gods would also have the prerogative 
of becoming adepts in the science called Madhuvidya, etc., which would 
be absnrd, because the sun (Aditya), being the virtual object of worship 
in the ritual connected with that science, could not be worshipped by 
another sun, who, according to the supposition, would be one of the 
deities skilled in it, and one of the worshippers. Similar difficulties 
are famished by other cases, as, for instance, that on the hypothesis 
referred to, the Vasus, Eudras, and three other classes of gods, would 
be at once the objects to be known and the knowers. In the next 
Sutra the further objection is made (2) that the celestial luminaries, 
commonly called gods, are in reality destitute of sensation and desire ; 
and on this ground also the prerogative in question is denied to the sup- 
^,osed deities. Badarayana replies in the 33rd Sutra (1) that although 

*» Dr. Ballantyne refers to the MTmansakas as being the objectors alluded to by 
8'ankara in his remarks which introduce and follow Brahma Sutra, i. 1, 4 ; but. as 
Jaimini is not expressly mentioned there, I shall not quote this text in proof of my 
a«ertion. See Ballantyno's Aphorisms of the Vedauta, p. 12» 


the gods cannot concern themselyes with snch branches of knowledge as 
the Madhuvidya, with which they themselves are mixed np, yet they do 
possess the prerogative of acquiring pure divine science, as that depends 
on the desire and capacity for it, and the non-existence of any obstacle 
to its acquisition {tatMpy asti hi Suddhdydm hrahma'Vidydy&ih %amhhaoo 
^rthitva-admarthydpratishedhady'apehshatvdd adhikdrasya). An excep- 
tion in regard to a particular class of cases cannot, he urges, set aside a 
rule which otherwise holds good ; for if it did, the circumstance that 
the generality of men belonging to the three highest castes are excluded 
from the performance of particular rites, such as the Eajasuyay would 
have the effect of rendering them incapable^ of performing any sacrifice 
whatever. And he goes on to cite several Yedic texts which prove 
that the gods have both the capacity and the desire for divine know- 
ledge. Thus : Tad yo yo devdndm pratydbudhyata ia eva tad ahhavat 
tatha jruhindfh tathd manuahydndm \ " Whosoever, whether of gods, 
rishis, or men, perceived That, he became That." Again : Te ha Hchur 
*' hanta tarn dtmdnam anvichhdmo yam dtmdnam anvUhya sarvdn lokdn 
dpnoti 8arvdtnS cha kdmdn " iti \ Indro ha vai devdndm ahhi pravavrdja 
Viroohano ^surdndm iti \ " They said, ' come, we shall enquire after 
that Soul, after investigating which, one obtains all worlds, and all ob- 
jects of desire.' Accordingly Indra among the gods, and Yirochana 
among the Asuras, set out " (" to go to Prajapati the bestower of divine 
knowledge,'' according to Govinda Ananda). And in reply to the second 
objection, SjAnkara maintains that the sun and other celestial laminaries 
are each of them embodied deities possessed of intelligence and power; 
an assertion which he proceeds to prove from texts both of the Yeda and 
the Smf iti. He then replies to a remark of the Mlmansakas, referred to 
under Sutra 32, that allusions in the Yedic mantras and arthavadas (illus- 
trative passages) cannot prove the corporeality of the gods, as these texts 
have another object in view : and his reply is that it is the evidence, 
or the want of evidence, derivable from any texts which occasions us to 
believe or disbelieve in the existence of anything ; and not the circum- 
stance that such a text was or was not primarily intended to prove that 
particular point. The Mimfinsaka is represented as still unsatisfied : but 
I need not carry my summary further than to say that Sknkara concludes 
by pointing out that the precepts which enjoin the offerings to certain 
gods imply that these gods have a particular form which the wor- 


shipper can contemplate; and that in fact such contemplation is en- 
joined in the text, *^ Let the worshipper when about to repeat the 
Vashatkara meditate on the deity to whom the oblation is presented " 
[yMyai devatdyai havir gfihltam sydt tdm dhydyed voBhatharishyan)}^ 

In Brahma Sutras, iii. 4, 1, it is laid down as the principle of Bada- 
r&yana that the knowledge of Soul, described in the XJpanishads, is the 
sole means of attaining the highest end of man, i.e. final liberation ; 
that it is not to be sought with a Tiew to, and that its operation is 
altogether independent of, ceremonial obseryances {atah \ asmdt veddnta* 
vihitdd dtma-jndndt watantrdt purtuhdrthah siddhyati iti Bddardyana^ 
dcharyyo manyaU). This he proves by various texts {ity-evam-jatlyakd 
irutir vtdydydh kevaldydhk purushdrtha " hetutvam irdvayati), such as 
Tarati ioJcnm dtma-vit \ sa yo ha vai tat param Brahma veda Brahma eva 
hhavati \ Brahma-vid dpnoti param | ** He who knows soul overpasses 
grief" (Chhandogya Up. see above, p. 33) ; "He who knows that Brah- 
ma becomes Brahma;" "He who knows Brahma obtains the highest 
(exaltation) ; " etc. Li the following Sutra (2) Jaimini is introduced 
as contesting this principle, and as affirming that the knowledge of soul 
is to be acquired with a view to the performance of ceremonial works. 
The Sutra in question, as explained by SUnkara, means that " as the 
fact that soul is an agent in works implies an ultimate regard to works, 
the knowledge of soul must also be connected with works by means of 
its object" (Jcarttritvena dtmanah karma-Seshatvdt tad-vijndnam apt . . . 
ruhaya-dvdrena karma-samhandhy eva iti). The same view is further 
stated in tiie following Sutras 3-7, where it is enforced by the example 
of sages who possessed the knowledge of Brahma and yet sacrificed 
(Sutra 3), by a text which conjoins knowledge and works (Sutra 5), by 
a second which intimates that a person who knows all the contents of 
the Yeda has a capacity for ceremonial rites (Sutra 6), and by others (7). 
Sankara replies under Sutra 8 to the view set forth in Sutra 2, which he 
declares to be founded on a mistake, as " the soul which is proposed in 
the TJpanishads as the object of knowledge is not the embodied soul, 
bat the supreme Spirit, of which agency in regard to rites is not pre- 
dicable. That knowledge, he affirms, does not promote, but on the 

1** The passage in which S'anVara goes on to answer the objection that in cases 
like this the ItihSaas and PuraQas afford no independent endence, will be quoted 


contrary, puts an end to all works '' (na cha tad-vijndnatn karmandm 
pravarttakam hhavati pratyuta tat harrndny uchchhinatti), and under Sutra 
16 ho explains how this takes place, viz. by the fact that " knowledge 
annihilates the illusory conceptions of work, worker, and reward, which 
are caused by ignorance, and are necessary conditions of capacity for 
ceremonial observances'' {^pi cha karmddhihdra'hetohkriya'kdrahh' 
pTiala-hkshanasya samastasya prapancha^ya avidyd-kritasya vidyd-admar- 
thy at svarupopamarddam dmananii). To Sutra 3 Badarayana replies that 
the ceremonial practice of sages is the same whether they do or do not 
acquire knowledge with a view to works ; to Sutra 5, by saying that in 
the text in question works and knowledge are not referable to one and 
the same person, but works to one and knowledge to another ; and to 
Sutra 6, by declaring that it is merely the reading of the Veda, and not a 
knowledge of all its contents that is referred to in the text in question. 
Another reason assigned in Sutra 17 to shew that divine knowledge is 
not dependent on, or subservient to works, is that ascetics who practise 
no Vedic ceremonies are yet recognized in the Veda as competent to 
acquire it {Urdhhvaretassu c?ta dSrameshu vidyd iruyate na eha iattra kar- 
mdngatvam vidydydh upapadyate karmdhhdvdt j na hy agnihottrddlni vai- 
dikdni karmdni teshdih santi). In the following Sutra (18) Jaimini is 
introduced as questioning the validity of this argument on the ground 
that the Vedic texts, which are adduced in support of it, merely allude to 
the existence of ascetics, and do not recognize such an order as consistent 
with Vedic usage, or that they have another object, or are ambiguous ; 
while another text actually reprehends the practice of asceticism. To 
this Badarayana rejoins in Sutra 19, that the texts in question prove 
the recognized existence of the ascetic order as much as that of any 
other ; and that the alleged ambiguity of one of the passages is removed 
by the consideration that as two of the three orders referred to, viz. 
those of the householder and brahmacharin, are clearly indicated, the 
third can be ho other than that of the ascetic. The subject is further 
pursued in the next Sutra 20, where the author and his commentator 
(who adduces additional texts) arrive at the conclusion that the prac- 
tice of asceticism is not only alluded to, but enjoined in the Veda, and 
that consequently knowledge, as being inculcated on those who practise 
it, is altogether independent of works {tasmdt 'n'ddhd urddhvaretasafi 
uSramdit Htddhaih cha urddhvaretassu vidhdndd vidydyd^ svdtantryatn). 


Again in Brahma Sutras, iy. 3, 7-14, the question is discussed whether 
the words ia etdn Brahma gamayati, '' He conducts them to Brahman," 
refer to the supreme Brlihm&, or to the created BrUhma. Badari 
(Sutra 7) holds that the latter is meant, whilst Jaimini (in Sutra 12) 
maintains that the former is intended. The conclusion to which the 
commentator comes at the close of his remarks on Sutra 14 is that the 
view taken by Badari is right, whilst Jaimini's opinion is merely ad- 
vanced to display his own ability (tasmdt **kdryyam Bddarir** ity esha 
eta pakshal^ Hhitah \ ^^ par am Jatminir** iti cha pahhdntara-pratipd' 
dana-mdHra-pradarianam prajnd-vikdSandya iti drashfavyam). 

Farther, in Brahma Sutras, iy. 4, 10, it is stated to be the doctrine 
of Badari that the sage who has attained liberation no longer retains 
his body or bodily organs, but his mind {manas) alone, whilst in the 
following Sutra (11) it is declared to be Jaimini's opinion that he re« 
tains his body and senses also. In the 12th Sutra it is laid down as 
the decision of Badarayana that either of the two supposed states may 
be assumed at will by the liberated spirit. 

Jaimini and his opinions are also mentioned in Brahma Sutras i. 2, 
28, and 31 ; i. 4, 18 ; and iy. 4, 5. 

I shall now adduce some illustrations of the claims which the 
founders of the other philosophical schools put forward on behalf of 
their own principles as being in conformity with the Vedas. I begin 
with a passage on this subject from Slankara's note introductory to 
Brahma Sutras i. 1, 5 ff. : 

Brahma eha sarvajnam aarvaiaktijagad'Utpatti-sthiti-ndia'kdrafiam ity 
uktam I Sdnkhyddayas tu parinishthitamvastupramdndntara-gamyam eva 
iti manyamdndh pradhdnddlni kdrandntardni anumimdnds tat-paratayd 
0va veddnta-^dkydni yojayanti \ sarveshv eva tu veddnta-vdkyeshu sfishfi' 
rishayeshu anumdfi&na eva kdryyena kdranam lilakshayishitam | iVo- 
dhdna-purueha-aarhyogd^ nitydnumeydh iti Sdnkhydh manyante \ Kdnd^ 
ddi iv etebhyah eva vdkyehhyah I&varaih nimitta-kdranam anumimats 
am&M eha aamavdyi-kdranam \ evam anye *pi tdrkikdh vdkydhhdsa-yukty- 
dhhdedvashtamhhdi^ pUrva-paksha-vddinah iha uttishfhante | tattra pada^ 
vdhfthpramdna-jnena dchdryyena veddnta-vdkydndm Brahmdvagati-para- 
tva-^adariandya vdkydhhdsa-yukty'dbhdsa^praiipattaya^ pUrvapakshU 
ifitjfa mrdkriyante | tattra Sdnkhydh pradhdnam trigunam aehetanaih 
jlg^aiaik kdrdnam iti manyamdnd^ dhur *^ydni veddnta^dkydni iarvafna- 




sya iarvaiakter Brahmano jagat-hdranatvam pratipadayanti ity avoehas 
tdni pradhdna-kdrana-pakshe *pi ycjayitufn Sakyante \ sarvaiakiitvam 
tdvat pradhdtkuydpi sva-vikdra-vishayam upapadyate \ evam sarvajna- 
tvam upapadyate \ katham \ yat tvarn jndnam manyase sa sattva-dharmah 
*'iaUvdt aanjdyate jndnam^* iti smfiteh | tena cha iottva-dharmena 
jndnena kdryya-karanavantah purushdh sarvajndh yogina^ prasiddhdh | 
Mttvasya hi niratisayotkanhe sarvajnatvam prasiddham \ na cha kevalasya 
akdryya-kdranasya purushasya upaluhdhi-rndttrasya sarva-jtuUvam kin- 
ehij-jnatvam va kalpayitum iakyam | trigunatvdt tu pradhdnasya sarva- 
jndna-kdrana-hhutam sattvam pradhdndvasihdydm apt vidyate iti pradhd^ 
fMsya achetanasya eva aatah sarvajnatvam upacharyyate veddnta-vdkyeshu j 
uvaiyafn cha tvayd ^pi sarvajnam Brahma ahhyupagachhaid iarva-jnanO' 
iaktimattvena eva sarvajnatvam ahhyupagantavyam \ na hi sarva-vishayaA 
indnam kurvad eva Brahma varttate \ iathd hijndnasya nityatve jndna- 
kriydm prati svdtantryaih hiyeta \ atha anityam tad iti jndna-kriydydh 
uparame uparameta api Brahma \ tadd sarva-jndna-iaktimattvena era 
sarvajnatvam dpatati \ api cha prdg utpatteh sarva-kdraka-iunyam Brah- 
ma ishyate tvayd \ na cha jndna-sddhandndm Sarlrendriyddindm ahhdve 
jndnotpattih kasyachid upapannd \ api cha pradhdnasya anekdtmakasya 
parindma-samhhuvdt kdranatvopapattir mrid-ddi-vat \ na asamhatasya 
$kdtmakasyaBrahmanah \ ity evam prdpte idam s&tram drahhyate \ 5. ''^- 
ihaterna \ aSabdam*^ \ na Sdnkhya-parikalpitam achetanam pradhana^ja- 
yatah kdranam sakyam veddnteshv dSrayitum \ aiabdam hi tat \ katham 
asahdam \ ** ikshiteh** \ ikshitritva-Sravandt kdranasya \ katham j evaiSkki 
irUyate ** Sad eva saumya tdam agre dsid ekam eva advitlyam " ity upaira-' 
mya'' tad aikshata * hahu sydm prajdyeya* iti tat tejo 'sfifata " iti \ taUra 
idam-iahda^dchyam ndma-rHpa-vydkritaih jagat prdg utpatte^ sad-dt' 
mand ^vadhdryya tasya eva prakfitasya sach-chhahda-vdehyasya ikshana* 
pUrvakafh tefah-prahhriteh srashfritvam dariayati \ taihd eha anyatra 
^' dtmd vai idam ekah eva agre dsit \ na anyat kinchana mishat \ sa aik" 
ihata 'lokdn nu sfijai^ itisa imdn lokdn asrijata " iti ikshd-pUrvikdm eva^ 
Sfishtim dchashfe | . . . . ity-evam-ddlny api sarvajmhara-kdrana-pardf^i 
vdkydny uddharttavydni \ yat tu uktam '' sattva-dharmena jndnena sar^ 
vajnam pradhdnam hhavishyati** iti tad na upapadyate \ na hi pradhd- 
ndvasthdydfh guna-sdmydt sattva-dharmo jndnaih sambhavaii | nanu 
uktam *^ sarva-jndna-iaktimattvena sarvajnam bhavishyati** iti tad api na 
upapadyate \ yadi guna-sdmye sati sattva^yapdirayd^ jndna-iaktim 


diritya iorvajnam pradMnam uehyeta Jcdmam rajaS'tamO'Vyapusrayam 
apt jnana-pratihafidhaka-iaktim diritya kinchij'jmtvam uehyeta \ apt cha 
na asdkshikd aattva-vrittir j'dtmti na ahhidhiyate \ na cha achetanaiya 
pradhdnasya sdkshitvam asti \ tasmdd anupannam pradhdnasya sarvq/na* 
tvam I yogindm iu ehetanatvdt sarvotkarsha-nimittam aarvajnatvam upa* 
pannam ity anuddharanam \ atha punah sdkshi-nmiitam ikshitfitvam 
pradhdnasya kalpyeta yathd agni-nimittam ayah-pinddder dagdhritvaih 
tathd 8ati yatMhimittam ikshitritvam pradhdnasya tadeva sarvajnam mukh- 
yam Brahma jayataft kdranam iti yuktam \ yat punar uktam Brahmano 
*pi na mukhyatn sarvajnatvam upapadyate nitya-jndna-kriyatve jndna- 
kriydm prati svdtantrydsamhJiavdd ity attra uchyate \ idam tdvad bhavdn 
prashfavyah " katham nitya-jndna-kriyatve sarvajnatva-hdnir " iti \ yasya 
hi sarva^ishaydvabhdsana-kshamam jndnam nityam asti so ^sarvajnah iti 
vipralishiddham \ anityatvshijndnasyakaddchijjdndtikaddchidnaj'dndti 
ity asarvajnatvam api sydt \ na asau jndna-nityatve dosho 'sti \ jndnO' 
nityatve jndna-vishayah svdtantrya-vyapadeSo na upapadyate iti chet \ 
na I pratataushnaprakdie *pi savitari dahati prakdiayati iti stdtantrya- 
ryapadeia-darSandt \ nanu savitur ddhya-prakdsya-samyoge sati dahati 
prakdiayati iti ^yapadeiah sydt \ na tu Brahmana^ prdg utpatter jndna* 
karma-saihyogo *sti iti vishamo drish^dntah \ na \ asaty api karmani savitd 
prakdHaU iti karttfitva^yapadeia-dariandt \ warn asaty api jndna-koT' 
mani Brahmanas '' tad aikshata " iti karitfitva-vyapadeiopapatter na vai- 
shamyam \ karmdpekshdydm tu Brahmani ikshitfitva-irutaya^ sutardm 
upapannd^ \ kim punas tat karma yat prdg utpatter iivara-jndnasya 
ffishatfthhavati iti \ tattvdnyatvdbhydm anirvachanlye ndma-riipe avyd- 
kfite vydchiklrshite iti hrUmah \ yat-prasdddd hi yogindm apy atltdnd- 
fioia-^hayam pratyaksham jndnam ichhanti yoga-idstra^idah kimu vak- 
iavya^ tasya nitya-iuddhasya livarasya srishfi-sthiti'Sarnhfiti-vishaya^ 
nitya-jndnam hhavati iti \ yad apy uktam prdg utpatter Brahmana^ iari- 
rddi-sambandham antarena ikshitfitvam anupapannam iti na tach ohodyam 
anUaraii savitfi-prakdia-vad Brahmano jndna-svampa-^ityatvenajndnO' 
9&dhandpekshdnupapatte^ | . . . . yad apy uktam ** pradhdnasya anekdl- 
wuikaMid mfnd^di^at kdranatvopapattir na asamhatasya Brahmanah'* 
Ui tat pradhdnasya aiahdatvena eva pratyuktam \ yathd tu tarkendpi Brdh- 
manal^ iva kdrafiatvaih nirvodhufh iakyats na pradhdnddlndth tathd pro- 
pamehayishyate **na viiakshanatvdd asya" ity-evam-ddind (Brahma Su- 
iL 1, 4) l" 


Attra 6ha if ad uktaih '' na acl^tanam pradhQnain jagat-kdranam ikshi* 
ifitva-iravandd " iti tad anyatha ^py upapadyate \ achetane *p% ehetafUH 
vad upachara-daHandt \ pratydsanna-pdtanatdm kulasya dlakihya Jtulam 
pipatishati ity achetane ^pi kule ehetana-vad upachdro dfishfas tad-^ad ache" 
tane *pi pradhdne pralydsanna-sarye chetafia-vad upachdro hhavishyati 
*'tad aikshaia*^ iti \ yathd loke kaichich cheianah sndtvd hhuktvd eha 
*^ apardhne grdmam rathena gamishydmV^ iti ikshitvd anantaram tathaiva 
niyamena pravarttate tathd pradhdnam api mahad-ddy-dhdrena niyamena 
pravarttate \ taamdch chetana-vad upacharyyate \ katmdt puna^ kuranad 
vihdya mukhyam ikshitrittam aupachdrikam kalpyate \ ** tat tejah aik- 
ihata " ** tdh dpah aikshanta*' iti cha achetanayor apy ap-tefasoS chetana- 
vad upachdra-darSandt \ tasmdt aat-karitrikam api ihhanam aupachdrV' 
ham iti gamyate upachdra-prdye ^achandd ity evam prdpte idam eUtram 
Srahhyate \ 6. **Gaunas chet \ na \ dtma-iahddV^ \ yad uktam pradhdnam 
achetanaih each-chhahda-vdehyam tasminn aupachdrikl ikshitir ap-tefaeor 
iva iti tad asat | kasmdt \ dtma-iahddt \ '*8ad eva saumya idam ogre 
asld*^ ity upakramya ** tad aikshata tat tejo ^arijata " iti cha tefo^h-annd" 
ndm srishfim uktvd tad eva prakritam sad tkshitfi tdni cha tefo-'b-anndni 
devatd'Sahdena pardmrisya dha " sd iyarh devatd aikshata hanta aham 
imds tisro devatdh anma jivena dtmand ^nupraviSya ndma-ritpe vydkara- 
vdni*^ iti \ tattra yadi pradhdnam achetanam guna-vfittyd tkshitfi kal- 
pyeta tad eva prakritatvdt sd iyafh devatd pardmriiyeta \ na tadd devatd 
flvam dtma-Sahdena ahhidadhydt \ jivo hi ndma chetanah iarirddhyakshah 
prdndndm dhdrayitd prasiddher nirvachandch cha \ sa katham achetanasya 
pradhdnasya dtmd hhavet \ dtmd hi ndma svarupam \ na achetanasya 
pradhdnasya chetano jlvah svdrupam hhavitum arhati \ attra tu ehe- 
ianam Brahma mukhyam ikshitri par igf thy ate \ tasya jlva-vishayak 
dtma-iahda-prayogah upapadyate \ tathd **sa yah esho^nimd etaddt* 
myam idam sarvarh tat satyam sa dtmd tat tvam asi S'vetaketo** ity 
attra **sa dtmd" iti prakjritam sad-animdnam dtmdnam dtma-iahdena 
ftpadiiya **tat tvam asi S'vetaketo" iti chetanasya Svetaketor dtmatvena 
upadiiati \ ap-tejasos tu vishayatvdd achetanatvam ndma-rHpa-vyd- 
iaranddau eha prayojyatvena eva nirdeidt \ na cha dtma - Sahda - vat 
kinehid mukhyatve kdranam asii iti yuktam kula-vad gaunatvam ikshi* 
tfitvasya \ tayor api cha sad-adhishthitatvdpeksham eva ikshitritvam \ 
satas tv dtma-iabddd na gaunam ikshitfitvam ity uktam \ atha uchyate \ 
achetane* pi pradhdne hhavaty dtma-iabda^ \ dtmanah sarvdrtha-kdritvut | 


yathd rdjnah sarvartha-kdrini hhritye hhavaty dtma-iahdo '' mama dtmd 
Bhadrasenah '' iti \ pradhdnam hi purushdtmano ^^ hhogdpatargau kurvad 
upakaroti rdjnah iva hhrityah sandhi-vigrahddishu varttamdnah \ athavd 
ekah eva dtma-iahdaS cheiandchstana-vuhayo Ihavishyati ** bhutdtmd" 
*' tndn'ydtmd ** iti cha prayoga-dariandd yathd ekah eva jyotih-iahdah 
kraiu-jvalana-viehayah \ tattra kutah etad dtma-Sabdddlkshtter agaunaivam 
Uy attra uitaram pafhati \ 7. " Tan-niehfhasya mokshopadeidt " | na prO' 
dhdnam aehetanam dtma-Sahddlambanam hhavitum arhati "«<t dtmd^* iti 
prakritafh sad animdnam dddya " tat tvam asi S'vetaketo " iti chetanasya 
S'vetaketor mokshayitavyasya tan-nishfhdm upadiiya " Achdryyavdn pu' 
rueho veda iasya tdvad eva chiram ydvad na vimokshye atha sampatsye^* 
iti mokshopadeSdt | yadi hy aehetanam pradhdnam each-chhahda-vdchyafh 
*'tad oii" iti grdhayed mumukshum chetanaih santam ** achetano ^ei*' 
iti tadd viparita-^ddi idatram purushasya anarthdya ity apramdnafh 
sydt I na tu nirdoeham idstram apramdnam kalpayituth yuktam \ yadi 
cha ajnasya sato mumukshor aehetanam andtmdnam ** dtmd " ity upadiiet 
pramdna-hhutath idetrafk sa iraddadhdnatayd ^ndha-go-ldngnla-nydyena 
tad-dtma-dfiehtim na parityajet tadrvyatiriktam eha dtmdnam na prati- 
padyeta \ tatlid sati purtuhdrthdA vihanyeta anartham eha fichhet \ tat' 
mad yathd evargddy-arthino ^gnihotrddi-sddhanarh yathd-hhutam upadi- 
Mi tathd mumukshor api *^ ea atmd \ tat tvam asi 8'vetdketo^^ iti 
yathd ' hhutam eva dtmdnam upadiSati iti yuktam \ evam cha sati 
tapta'paraiu-grahana-moksha-drishtdntena satydhhisandhasya moksh(h 
padeiah upapadyate | . . . . tasmdd na sad^animany dtma^iahdasya 
gaunatvam \ hhfitye tu svdmi - hhritya - bhedasya pratyakshatvdd upth 
panno gaunah dtma-Sahdo **mama dtmd Bhadrasena^ iti \ api cha 
ivachid gaunah idbdo drishfah iti na etdvatd iahda- pramdnake Wthe 
gauni kalpand nydyyd sarvattra andhdsa-prasangdt \ yat tu uktafh 
ehetandehetanayoh sddhdranah dtma-sahdah kratu-j'valanayor iva jyotil^ 
dahdah iti \ tad na \ anekdrthatvasya anydyyatvdt \ tasmdch chetana' 
vishayah eva mukhyah dtma-sahdai chetanatvopachdrdd hhutddishu pra- 
yujyate *' hhntdtmd " '' indriydtmd " iti cha | sddhdranatve ^py dtma- 
iahdasya na prakaranam upapadam vd kinchid nischdyakam antarena an- 
fatara-vrittitd nirdhdrayitum iakyate I na cha atra achetanasya nischd- 
yakam kinchit kdranam asti prakritam tu sad ikshitfi sannthitaS cha 
ahetanah S'vetaketuh \ na hi chetanasya Svetaketor achetana^ dtmd sam- 
^ The edition printed in Bengali characters reads jwnaAaiy a atmanafy* 


hhavati ity avoehdma | toimdeh chetana-vishayah iha dtma-iahdaf^ iti 
niichlyate \ 

** And it has been declared that Brahma, omniscient and omnipotent^ 
is the cause of the creation, continuance, and destruction of the wprld. 
But the Sankhyas and others, holding that an ultimate {pannuhtMa)^'* 
substance is discoyerable by other proofs, and inferring the existence of 
Pradhana or other causes, apply the texts of the UpanishadB as having 
reference to these. For (they assert that) all the texts of the UpanishadB 
"which relate to the creation, design inferentially to indicate the cause by 
the effect The Sankhyas think that the conjunctions of Pradhana and 
Purusha (Soul) are to be inferred as eternal. From the very same texts 
the followers of Kanada (the Yaiieshikas) deduce that livara is the in- 
strumental cause and atoms the material cause ^^ (of the world). So, too, 
other rationalizing objectors rise up who rely on fallacies founded on texts 
or reasoning. Here then our teacher {uchdryya), who understood both 
words and sentences and evidence, with the view of pointing out that 
the texts of the TJpanishads have for their object the revelation of 
Brahma, first puts forward and then refutes the fallacies founded by 
those persons on texts or reasoning. The Sankhyas regarding Pradhana, 
consisting of the three qualities {gunas^ viz. sattva, rqfas, and tamas^ or 
** Goodness," '* Passion," and ** Darkness"), and inanimate, as the cause 
of the world, tell us : (a) ' Those texts in the TJpanishads which, as you 
say, declare that an omniscient and omnipotent Brahma is the cause of 
the world, can be applied to support the view that Pradhana is the 
cause. For omnipotence in regard to its own developments is properly 
predicable of Pradhana also; and omniscience too may be rightly 
ascribed to it. You will ask, how ? We answer (5), What you call know- 
ledge is a characteristic of ' Goodness ' (^sattva), according to the text of 
the Smfiti, 'From Goodness springs knowledge.' And (e) through this 
knowledge, which is a characteristic of Goodness, Yogins, who are men 

i*> CompATO Sfinkhya SOtras, i. 69 : pdramparyy$ *py ekatra pariniih^haf etc., 
which Dr. fiaUaniyne renders, " Even if there be a succession, there is a halt {pari' 
nishiha) at some one point," etc. 

^^ The phrase so translated is aamavayi'karanam. The word samavaya is rendered 
by Dr. BaUantyne, in his translation of the Bh&shaparichheda (published January, 
1851), p. 22, by "intimate relation" (the same phrase as Dr. Roer had previously 
employed in 1850) ; and in the translation of the Tarka-sangraha (pahliahed la 
September of the same year), pp. 2 and 4, by " eo*iiihereno6." 


with bodily organs,^ are reputed to be omniscient; for owing to the 
transcendent excellence of Goodness its omniscience is matter of notoriety. 
Nor it is only of a person (^purusha) whose essence is mere perception, 
and who is devoid of corporeal organs, that either omniscience or partial 
knowledge can be predicated : bat from PradhSna being composed of 
tbe three qualities, GK>odness, which is the cause of omniscience, belongs 
to it too in the condition of Pradhana. And so in the texts of the TJpa- 
nishads omniscience is figuratively ascribed to it, although it is uncon- 
scious. And {d) you also, who recognize an omniscient £rahma, must 
of necessity acknowledge that Sis omniscience consists ill His possessing 
the power of omniscience. For He does not continually exercise know- 
ledge in regard to all objects. For {e) if His knowledge were continual. 
His self-dependence (or voluntary action) in reference to the act of know- 
ledge would be lost. But if kngwledge be not continual, then when 
the act of knowledge ceases Brahma must cease (to know). And so 
omniscience results from the possession of the power of omniscience. 
Further (/) you, too, hold that before the creation Brahma was devoid 
of any impulse to action. Nor can knowledge be conceived to arise in 
anyone who has no bodily organs or other instruments of knowledge. 
Moreover (g) causality can properly be ascribed to Pradhana (as it can 
to earth, etc.) owing to the variety in its nature,^^ and the consequent 
possibility of its development, but not to Brahma whose essence is simple 
and uniform.* These arguments having been urged, the following Sutra 
is introduced : 5. 'No; for in consequence of the word 'beholding' being 
employed, your view is contrary to the Veda.' (a) The unconscious Pra- 
dhana, imagined by the Sankhyas as the cause of the world, can find no 
Bopport in the XJpanishads. For it is unscriptural. How so ? From its 
lieholding, i.e. because the act of 'beholding' (or 'reflecting') is in scrip- 
tore ascribed to the cause. How? Because the Yeda contains a text which 
liegins thus : ' This, o fair youth, was in the beginning' * Existent, one 
^thont a second' (Chh. Up. vi. 2, 1); and proceeds: *It beheld, let 

^ The epithet karyya-karanavantah is rendered dehtndrfya-yukta in the Bengali 
^'vosUtion of 8'ankara's comment, which fomu part of the edition of the S'ariraka- 
"^^ with comment and gloss, puhUshed at Calcutta in 1784 of the S*aka aBra. This 
Affiliation is useful for ascertaining the general sense, but it does not explain all the 
^colt phrases which occur in the orisinal. 

^ The meaning of this is that Pra&iina, aa cause, possesses in its nature a variety 
^^n^ponding to that exhibited hy the different kinds of objects which constitute the 
^1)le creation ; whilst Brahma b one and unifonn. 


me multiply, and be propagated.' ' It created light ' (3). By these 
words the scripture, having first determined that the world, denoted by 
the word ' this * and now developed as Name and Form, subsisted be- 
fore the creation in the form of the ' Existent,' then goes on to shew 
that this very subject of the text, denoted by the word ' Existent,' 
became, after ' beholding,' the creator of light and other objects. And 
accordingly another text (Ait. Tip. i. 1) declares in the following words 
that the creation was preceded by ' beholding : ' ' This was in the be- 
ginning Soul, one only : there was nothing else which saw."* It be- 
held, Let me create worlds ; it created these worlds.' " After quoting 
two other texts Sankara proceeds : ''These and other passages may also 
be adduced which shew that an omniscient 1 1^ vara was the cause (of all 
things). And (b) the opinion which has been referred to, that Pra- 
dhana will be omniscient in virtue of the knowledge which is an attri- 
bute of Goodness, is groundless. Eor since the three qualities are in a 
state of equilibrium as long as the state of Pradhana lasts, knowledge 
as an attribute of Goodness cannot then belong to it. And the assertion 
{d) that Pradhana will be omniscient from possessing the power of 
omniscience is equally untenable. If (3) in reliance on the power of 
knowledge residing in Goodness during the state of equilibrium, it be 
maintained that Pradhana is then omniscient, a merely partial know- 
ledge may with equal reason be ascribed to it on the strength of the 
power to obstruct knowledge which resides in Passion and Darkness 
(the other two qualities which constitute it). Besides, no function of 
Goodness can either be, or be called, knowledge, unless it be accom- 
panied by the power of observing (or witnessing). But Pradhana, being 
unconscious, possesses no such power. Consequently the omniscience of 
Pradhana is untenable. And the omniscience of Togins, ((;) springing 
from their eminence in every attribute, becomes possible in consequence 
of their being conscious creatures ; and therefore cannot be adduced as 
an illustrative argument in the case before us. If, again, you ascribe to 
Pradhana a power of reflection derived from an observer (like the power 
of burning possessed by iron balls, etc., which is derived from fire) 
then it will be right to say that the source from which that power of 
reflection comes to Pradhana, viz. the omniscient Brahma in the proper 
sense, and nothing else, is the cause of the world. Once more, (/) it is 

**> This is the sense assigned in Bohtlingk and Roth's Lexicon to the word mii^aU 
The commentators render it "monng *' {ehalat). 


urged tliat omniscience cannot in the literal sense be properly attri- 
buted even to Brahma himself, because if the cognitive acts were con- 
tinual, His self-dependence (or spontaneity), in regard to the act of 
cognition, would be no longer conceiyable : we reply, that we must ask 
you how the supposition that cognitive acts are continual, interferes 
with the existence of omniscience. Because it is a contradiction to say 
that he who possesses a perpetual knowledge which can throw light 
upon all subjects can be otherwise than omniscient. For although on 
the hypothesis that knowledge is not continual, a negation of omni- 
sdence would result, as in that case the person in question would some-- 
times know and sometimes not know, — the same objection does not 
attach to the supposition of a perpetuity of knowledge. If you reply 
that on that supposition, self-dependence (or spontaneity), in regard to 
knowledge can no longer be attributed, we deny this, because we ob- 
serve that spontaneity, in regard to burning and illuminating, is attri- 
buted to the sun, although he continually bums and shines. If you 
again object that this illustration does not hold good, because the 
power in question is ascribed to the sun only when his rays are in 
contact with the objects to be burnt or illuminated, whereas before 
the creation, Brahma has no contact with the object of knowledge ; — • 
ve reply that the parallel is exact, because we observe that agency in 
siuniDg is attributed to the sun even wl^en there is jio object [for his 
beams] ; and in the same way agency in regard to 'beholding,' is justly 
ascribed to Brahma, even when there is no object of knowlege. But 
the texts which record the fact of ' beholding ' will be applicable to 
Brahma with still greater propriety if tiiat ' beholding ' have had refer- 
ence to a positive object. What then is the object which is contem- 
plated by Brahma before the creation ? We reply, the undeveloped 
Kame and Form which were not describable either in their essence or 
differences, and which He wished to develope. For what need we say 
to prove the perpetual knowledge, relating to the creation, continuance, 
and destruction of the world, which belongs to Ii^vara, the perpetually 
pure, from whose grace it is that the intuitive knowledge of things past 
and future, which men learned in the Toga doctrine attribute to Togins, 
is derived ? And as regards the further objection (/) that Brahma, who 
before the creation was without body or organs of sense, could not be 
concei^ijd to ' behold,' — that argument cannot be sustained, as from 


Brahma's existence in the form of knowledge being, like the son's liutrei 
perpetual, he cannot be supposed dependent upon any (bodily organs 
as) instruments of knowledge." ....'' Then as regards the assertion 
(^) that Pradhana, from its multiformity of character can (like earth, 
etc.,) be readily conceived as the cause (of the manifold products which 
we see around us), whilst such causality cannot be ascribed to the 
simple and uniform Brahma, — that has been answered by the remark 
(hat the existence of Pradhana is not established by scripture. And 
that the causality of Brahma, but not that of Fradhana, etc., can be 
established by reasoning will hereafter be shewn in the Sutras, ' Brah- 
ma, you say, cannot be the material cause of this world, because it 
differs from him in its nature,' etc. (Brahma Sutras, ii. 1, 4 fL). Here 
the Sankhyas remark : ' As regards your objection that the unconsdotia 
Pradhana cannot be the cause of the world, because the Yeda describes 
that cause as ^beholdiug,' we observe (A) that that text, if otherwise 
explained, will be consistent with our view. For we find that even 
unconscious objects are figuratively spoken of as conscious. Thus we 
notice that any one who perceives that the bank of a river is on the 
point of falling, speaks in a figurative way of that unconscious bank as 
intending to fall.^^ In the same way when Pradhana is on the point of 
creating, it can be figuratively said of it, although unconscious, as of a 
conscious being, that it ' beheld.' ^^ Just as any conscious person, after 
bathing and eating, resolves that on the following day he will proceed 
to his village in a car, and afterwards acts according to that plan, so too 
Pradhana (becoming developed) in the form of Mahat (intellect), etc., 
acts according to a law, and therefore is figuratively spoken of as con- 
scious. If you ask us, why we abandon the proper sense of 'beholding,' 
and adopt a figurative one, we answer that we do so because we find the 
term figuratively applied to Water and to Light, though unconscious ob- 
jects, in the Vedic texts, *The Light beheld,' * the Waters beheld ' (Chh. 
Up. vi. 2, 3f.). Hence from the fact that the expression is. for the most 

'^ Kulam pipatiahatiy literally, "The bank wishes to fall ;" but, as is well knowiif 
a verb, or Tcrbal noon, or adjectiTe, in the desiderative form, often indicates nothing 
more than that something is about to happen. Here, however, the Sankhyas are 
introduced as founding a serious argument on this equivocal form of speech. 

^*^ See Yijnana Bhikshu's remarks on the Sankhya SQtra, L 96, where the same 
illustration is ^ren. 


part fignratiyely employed, we conclude that the act of beholding/ per- 
formed by the ' Existent ' also was a fignratiye one." These objections 
haying been brought forward, the following Sutra is introduced : 6. ''If 
you say that the act of 'beholding' is figuratiyely ascribed to Fradhana, 
it is not so, because the word Soul also is applied to the cause." (A) "The 
assertion that the unconscious Pradhana is designated by the word ' Ex- 
istent,' and that 'beholding' is figuratiyely ascribed to it, as to Water and 
Xighty is incorrect. Why ? Because the word Soul also is employed. The 
text which begins with the words, ' This, o fair youth, was in the be- 
ginning Existent,' and goes on 'It beheld, it created light,' after relating 
the creation of Xight, Water, and Food, refers to that 'Existent,' the 
' beholder,' which is the subject of the text, and to Light, Water, and 
Food, under the appellation of deities, thus : ' This deity beheld (or re- 
Bolyed), come let me enter into these three deities with this liying Soul, 
and make manifest Name and Form ' (yi. 3, 2). Here if the unconscious 
Pradhana were regarded as being, through the function of the quality (of 
Goodness), the ' beholder,' it would from the context be referred to in 
the phrase ' that deity ;' and then the deity in question could not denote 
a ' liying being ' by the term ' Soul.' For the principle of life is both 
according to common usage, and interpretation, the conscious ruler of the 
body, and the sustainer of the yital breaths. How could such a prin- 
ciple of life be the Soul of the unconscious Pradhana ? For Soul means 
the essential nature, and a conscious principle of life cannot be the es- 
sence of the unconscious Pradhana. But in reality the conscious Brah- 
ma is understood in this text as the 'beholder' in the proper sense of the 
term; and the word Soul, as relating to the principle of Hfe, is rightly 
applied to Him. And thus in the sentence ' This entire uniyerse is iden« 
tical with this subtile particle ; it is true ; it is Soul : Thou art it, o S^ye- 
taketu,' (Chh. Up. yi. 8, 6 f.) the author by employing the words ' it is 
Soul ' designates the 'subtile particle, the Existent, which is the subject 
of the text, as Soul, by the term Soul, and so in the words ' thou art it, 
o 9yetaketu,' describes the conscious S^yetaketu as being Soul. But 
Water and Fire are unconscious things, because they are objects of 
sense,^'* and because it is pointed out that they were employed in the 
manifestation of Name and Form; and so there is no reason, as in the 

1^ VukafftUvat mm dfiff'visha^atpai, "from their being objects of the seuie of 
sight."— G6Tinda Ananda. 



case of Souly to describe them as ' beholders ' in the proper sense : that 
term must be applied to them by a figure, as in the case of the ' river 
bank.' And their act of 'beholding' was dependent on their being 
governed by the ' Existent.' But, as wo have said, the act of ' behold- 
ing ' is not figurative in the case of the ' Existent,' because the word 
Soul is applied to it. But it is now urged (i), that the term Soul does 
apply to Pradhana, though unconscious, because it fulfils all the objects 
of soul ; just as it is applied by a king to his servant who accomplishes 
all his designs, when he says ' Bhadrasena is my soul.' For Pradhana 
renders aid to a man's soul by obtaining for it both celestial enjoyment, 
and final liberation, as a king's servant assists him by acting in peace 
and war, etc. Or {j) the one word Soul may apply both to conscious 
and unconscious objects, as we see it employed in the phrases ' soul of 
the elements,' ' soul of the bodily organs; ' just as the same word jyotit 
means both sacrifice and light. Why then, the Sankhyas conclude, 
should you infer firom the word ' Soul ' that the term ' beholding ' can- 
not be figuratively used ? 

" This is answered in the 7th Sutra (*Soul cannot denote Pradhana), 
because it is declared that the man who fixes his thoughts upon it 
obtains final emancipation.' Unconscious Pradhana must not be under- 
stood to derive any support from the word * Soul; ' for after referring 
in the words ' it is Soul ' to the * Existent,' the * very subtile thing,* 
which is the subject of the passage, and indicating in the words ' thou 
art it, S^vetaketu,' that the conscious Svetaketu, who was about to 
obtain emancipation, was intent upon it, the text above adduced de- 
clares his emancipation in the words ^ the man who has an iDstructor 
knows, "this will only last until I am liberated; I shall then be per- 
fected." ' (Chh. Up. vi. 14, 6) For if the unconscious Pradhana were 
denoted by the term 'Existent,' the words 'thou art it,' would cause 
the conscious person, who was seeking after emancipation, to under- 
stand (of himself) *Thou art unconscious ; ' and in that case the Sastra 
which declared what was contradictory would be unauthoritative, be- 
cause injurious to the person in question. But we cannot conceive a 
faultless Sastra to be unauthoritative. And if a Sastra esteemed au- 
thoritative should inform an ignorant seeker after emancipation, that a 
thing which was not soul was soul, he (the ignorant seeker) would in 
consequence of his £uth, persist in regarding it as spul, as in the case of 


the blind man and the bull's tail/^ and would fail of attaining to soul 
which was quite different from it ; and would in consequence lose the 
object of its efforts, and suffer injury. It is therefore proper to con- 
clude that just as the Yedic precept, that he who desires paradise should 
perform the agnihotra sacrifice is conformable to truth, so, too, the text 
which says to the man seeking after emancipation, ' this is soul, thou art 
that, o S^vetaketu,' declares to him soul in conformity with the reality. 
And so, — as in the case of the man (charged with theft) who takes into his 
liand the red-hot axe, and (in consequence of the truth of his protesta- 
tion of innocence) is delivered (Chh. Up. vi. 16, 2), — the promise of final 
emancipation will hold good in the case of the man whose thoughts are 
fixed on the true Brahma. . . . Consequently the application of the word 
^ sool ' to the ' existent subtile thing ' is not figurative. Whereas (»') 
i:lie use of the same word when applied to a servant (as when it is said 
^Bhadrasena is my soul '), is shown to be figurative by the manifest 
^Ustinctness of a servant from his master. And the fact that a word is 
sometimes observed to be employed figuratively does not justify the 
eupposition that it is so used in cases where the (proper) sense is estab- 
lished by the words ; because that would give rise to doubt in every 
"instance. Again, {j) it is incorrect to say that the word soul is common to 
things conscious and unconscious, (as the term jyotts means both sacri- 
:£ce and flame), because the assertion that it has a variety of significa- 

^** The story or fable here alluded to is told at length by Ananda Giri, and more 
briefly. by GoTinda Ananda as follows: Kaichit kila dttahfatma maharanya-marge 
patitam andham sva-bandhu-fiagaram jigamithum babhaahe " kirn attra agtuhmata 
duhthitena tthlyate " iti \ $a eha andhah ntkha^ntm akarnya tarn aptam matva 
uvaeha *^aho fnad-bhagadheyam yad attra bhavan math dlnam tvdbhlahfa-^tagara^ 
prapty^asgmartham bhashats" iti \ $a eha vipralipsur duakfa-go-yuvanam amy a ta» 
diyo'languktm andham grahayamaaa upadideia eha enam andham **esha go-yuva 
ivam nagaram neshyati ma tyaja langulam" iti ta eha andhah iraddhdlutaya tad 
Mtyqjan avabhhhtam aprapya anartha-paramparam praptai tena nyayena ity arthah \ 
**A certain malicious person said to a blind man who was lying on the road through 
• forest, and wishing to proceed to the city of his frienda, ' Why, distressed old man, 
do you stay here ? ' The blind man hearing the agreeable Toice of the speaker, and 
ref(firding him as trustworthy, replied : *■ how great is my good fortune that you 
liave accosted me who am helpless, and unable to go to the city which I desire to 
reach !' The other, wishing to deceiye him, brought a vicious young bull, and made 
the blind man lay hold of his tail, and told him that the young bull would conduct 
bim to the city, enjoining him not to let go the tail. Trusting to the speaker, the 
Uind kept his hold, but did not attain the object of his desire, and encountered a 
Kries of mishaps ;— such is the illustration." 


tions IS nnreasonable. Hence the word soul, which properly refers to con- 
scious things, is applied to the elements, etc., by a figurative ascription to 
them of consciousness, as when we say, ' the soul of the elements,' or 
< the soul of the bodily organs.' And even if it were admitted that the 
word soul was common to different things, it could not be ascertained 
whether it had reference to one thing or another unless the context or 
some auxiliary word determined the point But in the case before us 
there is nothing to determine that it denotes anything unconscious ; on 
the contrary, the subject of the sentence is the ' Existent, the beholder,' 
and in immediate connection with it is tiie conscious SVetaketu ; for as 
we have already said an unconscious thing cannot be conceived as the 
soul of the conscious 9vetaketu. Thus it is settled that the word 
^ soul ' refers to a conscious being," etc. 

In tiie fourth section ( paAa) of the 1st Book, the author of the Sutras 
returns to his controversy with the Sankhyas, and Sankara, after allud- 
ing to the aphorisms in which they had previously been combated, pro- 
ceeds as follows (p. 334) : 

liafik iv iddnlm avasishfam uianlcyate \ yad uktam pradhunaaya aiah- 
datvarh tad asiddham kdsuchit idkhdsu pradhdfUhMmarpandhhdsdndA 
idbddnaih Sruyamdnatvdt \ atah pradhdnasya kdranatvaih veda-proiid' 
dham eva mahadhhih paramarshihhih Kapilddihhih parigrihltam iti prO' 
MJyaU I tad ydvat teshdm iabddndm anya-paratvam na pratipddyaU 
tdvat sarvajnam Brahma jagatah hdranatn iti pratipdditam apy dkuh' 
hhavet I atas teshdm anya-paratvafh dariayitum para^ sandarhhal^ pro- 
varttate \ '* dnumdnikam api^^ (Br. Sutra i. 4, 1) anumdna-nirupitam 
api pradhdnam ^^ekeshdm " kdkhindm iabdavad upalahhyate \ Kdfhake hi 
pat hy ate ** mahatah par am avyaktam avyaktdt pumshah parah " iti \ 
tattra ye eva yan-ndmdno yat-kramakdi cha mahad-avyakta-punuhd^ 
smfiti-prasiddhds te eva iha pratyahhijndyante \ tattra ^* avyaktam " Hi 
9mriti-prasiddheh iabdddi-hlnatvdch cha na vyaktam avyaktam iti vyut- 
patti'Samhhavdt nmriti-prasiddham pradhdnam dbhidhiyate \ atas taeya 
iabdavattvdd aiahdatvam anupapannam *^ | tad eva cha jagatah kdramoM 
iruti'Smfiti-praeiddhibhya^ iti chet \ na etad evam | na hy etat Kdfhako' 
vdkyafk smfiti-prasiddhayar mahad-avyaktayor^utitva-param \ na hy attra 
yddfUaih smriti-praeiddhaih evatantraih kdranafh trigunam pradhdnaik 

1** The text giTCOi in the BiU. Indioa hai ^papa»HMM, bat I follow the old editica 
in Bengali character! in reading an^^popanntm^ which leema required by the aenae. 


tddfidam pratyahhijndyate \ MdtMnattraih hy aitra avyaktam iti pra* 

tyahhijndyaU \ sa cha iahdo na vyaktam avyaktam iti yauyikatvdd an- 

yasminn api tUkshme durlakshye cha prayujyaU na cha ayaih has- 

winichid rudha^ \ yd tu pradhdna ' vddindm rUdhih sd teshdm eva 

pdribhdshikl sati na veddrtha-nirupane kdrana-hhavam pratipadyate \ 

na cha krama-rndttra'Sdmarthydt samdndrtha-pratipattir hhavaty asati 

tad - rupa -pratyahhtjndne \ na hy aha-stMne gdm paiyann aivo 'yam 

ity amiidho *dhyavasyati \ prakarana-nirupandydm cha attra na para* 

parikalpitam pradhdnam pratJyate sarira - rUpaka - vinyasta -yrihtteh \ 

iarlram hy attra ratha-rupaka^inyastam avyakta-iahdena pariyfihyate \ 

hitah I prakarandt partseshdch cha | tathd hy anantardttto granthah 

atma-iarirddlndm rathi-rathddi-rHpaka'klriptim dariayati \ (Ka^ha 

XJpanishad, i. 3, 3 f.) '' dtmdfiafh rathinam viddhi Sarlram ratham eva 

cha I huddhim cha sdrathim viddhi manah pragraham eva cha \ 4. Indri- 

Sfdni haydn dhur vishaydme teshu gochardn \ dtmendriya-mano-yuktam 

hhoktety dhur manUhinah " | taii chaindriyddibhir asamyataih samsdram 

^tdhigachchhati \ eamyatais tv adhvanah pdram tad Fishnoh paramam 

^padam dpnoti iti dariayitvd kirn tad adhvanah pdram Vishnoh paramam 

jpadam ity asya dkdnkshdydm tehhyah eva prakritebhyaJ^ indriyddibhyah 

paraivena paramdtmdnam adhvanah pdram tad Vishnoh paramam padaih 

dariayati \ Xafha Up. i. 3, 10 f.) ** indriyebhyah pardh hy arthdh arthe- 

bhyai cha param manah \ manasat tu pard buddhir buddher dtmd mahdn 

parah | 11. Mahatah param avyaktam avyaktdt purushah parah \ puru- 

ihddna param kinchit sd kdshfhd sd pard gatir " iti \ , . , , ** Buddher 

dtmd mahdn paraJ^ " yah sa '' dtmdnam rathinam viddhi " iti rathitvena 

upakshiptaft \ kutah \ dtma-iabddd bhoktui cha bhogopakarandt paratvopa* 

patteh I mahattvafh cha asya svdmitvdd upapannam \ , . , . yd pratha^ 

majasya JSiranyaga^bhasya buddhi^ sd sarvdsdm buddhinum paramd pro- 

tishfhd 9d iha ** mah^n dtmd '* ity uchyate \ sd cha pHrvattra buddhi- 

grahanena eva gfihltd satl hirug iha upadiiyate tasydh apy asmadlyd- 

hhyo buddhibhyah paratvoupapatte^ \ . . , . tad evafh iartram eva ekam 

pariHshyate \ teshu ^*^ itardni indriyddini prakritdny eva parama-pada* 

iidariayishayd samanukrdman parUishyamdnena iha anena avyakta-iab" 

dsna parihshyamdnam prakfitam iariram dariayati iti gamyate | . • . • 

tad evam pikrvdpardlochandydm ndsty attra para-parikalpitasya pradhd" 

ntuya avakdia^ \ 2. ^^Sukshaih tu tad-arhatvdt " | uktam ettU prakara^nfh 

^ The earlier edition aboTe referred to omiti iethm. 


pariieshahhy&m SarJram avyahta-hldafh na pradhdnam %t% \ (dam 
iddnim dSankyate hatham avyakta - iabddrhatvam iarlrasya ydvatd i^fi- 
latvdt spashtataram idam Sartram vyahta-ialddrkam ospashta-vachanM 
tv avyakta ' iahdah iti \ atah uttaram uchyate \ sUksham tv iha kdra- 
natmand iarira^ vivahshyaU iuhshmasya avyakta -idhddrhatvdt j yady*^ 
apt sthulam idam iariram na svayam avyakta-iahdam arhati tatluLpi 
tasya tv dramhhakam hhuta - suksham avyakta - iahdam arhati | . . . . 
attra dha yadi jagad idam anahhivyakta - ndma - rUpam vljdtmakam 
prdg ' avastham avyakta - idbddrham alhyupagamyeta tad-dtmand cha 
Sarlrasydpy avyakia-iahddrhatvam pratijndyeta sa eva tarhi pradkdna- 
kdrana - vddah evam saiy dpadyeta asya eva jagatah prdg - avasthdydh 
pradhunatvena ahhyupagamdd iti \ attra uchyate \ yadi vayam watantrdm 
kdnchit prdg -avasthdm, jagatah kdranatvena abhyupagachehema prasanja" 
yema tadd pradhdna-kdrana^ddam \ Parmeharddhlnd tv iyam aemd' 
hhih prdg-avasthd jagato ^hhyupagamyate na svatantrd \ sd cha avaiyam 
ahhyupagantavyd \ arthavatl hi sd \ na hi tayd vind Paramesvaraeya 
srashfritvam siddhyati Sakti-rahitasya tasya pravfitty-anupapatteh muk- 
tdndfh cha punar-utpaftir vidyayd tasydh vlja-Sakter ddhdt \ avidydtmihd 
hi sd vJja-iaktir avyakta -^abda-nirdeiyd FaramehardSrayd mdydmayl 
mahdsushuptir yasydfh svarupa - pratilodha • rahitdh ierate saihsarino 
jlvdh I tad etad avyaktam kvachid dkaSa'^iahda-nirdishfam \ ^^eta^min 
nu khalv akshare Odrgi dkdiah otai cha proiaS cha '' iti Sruteh \ kvachid 
akshara-Sahdoditam '* dkshardt paratah parah^* iti iruteh \ kvachid mdyd 
iti sUchitam ^*mdydrh tu prakritiih vidydd mdyinam tu maJiesvaram" iti 
mantra-varndt \ avyakid hi sd muyd taitvdnyatva-nirHpanafya aiakyai- 
vdt I tad idam " mahatah param avyaktam " ity uktam avyakta-prahha- 
vatvdd mnhato yadd Hairanyagarhhl huddhir mahdn \ yadd tu jivo sno' 
hdms tadd ^py avyaktddhlnatvdj jiva-hhdvasya mahatah param avyaktam 
ity uktam \ avidyd hy avyaktam avidydvattve cha jivasya sarvah sam- 
vyavahdrah santato varttate \ tach cha avyakta-gatam mahata^ paratvam 
abhedopachdrdt tad-vikdre hrlre parikalpyats | 

** But now this doubt still remains. The assertion that the ezistenoe 
of Pradhana is not supported by the Yeda is, say the Sankhyas, desti- 
tute of proof, as certain Ycdic Sakhaa contain passages which have the 
appearance of affirming Pradhana. Consequently the causality of Pra- 
dh&na has been received by Kapila and other great rishis on the ground 
that it is established by the Yeda ; and this is an objection to the stato* 


ment which you make to the contrary. Until, therefore, it be estab-^ 
liahed that these passages have a different object, the doctrine that an 
omniscient Brahma is the cause of the world, even tiiough it has been 
proved, will be again unsettled ; and consequently you bring forward a 
^reat array of arguments to shew that these texts apply to something 
else. In the words ' it may be deduced also,' ue. it is determined by 
inference, — it is shewn that in the opinion of certain schools the doo- 
"^rine of Pradhana is scriptural, for in the Katha IJpanishad (i. 3, 1 1) we 
sread the words ^ Above the Great one is Avyakta(the Umnanifested one), 
^md above the Unmanifested one is Purusha (Soul).' Here we recognize 
^ the Great one,' * the Unmanifested one,' and Purusha, witii the same 
mames and in the same order in which they are known to occur in 
"Che Smfiti (i.e. the system of Eapila), Here that which is called Pra- 
^dhana in the Sm|iti is denoted by the word ' the Unmanifested one,' as 
^we learn both from its being so called in the Smjiti, and from the epi- 
*thet ' unmanifested ' (which is derived from the words ' not ' and ' ma- 
niifested ') being properly applicable to it in consequence of its being 
devoid of sound, and the other objects of sense : wherefore, from its hav- 
ing thiB Yedic authority to support it, its (i.^. Pradhana's) unscriptural 
^^haracter is refuted ; and it is proved both by the Yeda, the Smfiti, 
and common notoriety to be the cause of the world. If the Sankhyas 
mxgae thus, w^ reply that the case is not so ; for this ie±t of the Katha 
TJpanifthad does not refer to the existence of the ' Great ene ' and the 
^Unmanifested one,' which are defined in the Sm^iti (of Sapila); f^ here 
-vedo not recognize such a self-dependent cause, viz. Pradhana, composed 
cf the three qualities, as is declared in that Smfiti, but the mere epithet 
'munanifested.' And this word 'unmanifested,' owing to its sense as 
a derivative frt>m the words 'not' and 'manifested,' is also applied to 
ttiything else which is subtile or indistinguishable, and has not pro- 
perly a conventional meaning in reference to any particular thing. 
As for the conventional use which the assertors of Pradhana make of it, 
ftat is a technical application peculiar to themselves, and does not 
^ord any means for determining the sense of the Yedas. Nor does the 
^^ identity of the order (of the three words) famish any proof of 
identity of meaning unless we can recognise the essential character 
^ the things to be the same. For no man but a fool, if he saw 
ft cow in the place where he expected to see a horse, would falsely 



ascribe to it the character of a horse. And if we determine the sense 
of the context, it will be foond that the Fradhana imagined by our 
opponents finds no place here, since it is the ^ body ' which is indi- 
cated in the preceding simile. For here the body as represented under 
the figure of a chariot, etc., is to be understood by the word ' the 
Unmanifested.' Why ? From the context and the remainder of the 
sentence. For the context which immediately precedes sets forth the 
fioul, the body, etc., under the figure of a rider, a chariot, etc., as 
IbUows : ' Know that the soul is the rider, the body the chariot, the 
intellect the charioteer, and the mind the reins. The senses are called 
the horses, and the objects of sense the roads on which they go. The 
soul accompanied by the senses and the mind is the enjoyer; ^^ so say 
the wise.' After pointing out (in the following verses) that with these 
flenses, etc., if uncontrouled, the soul gains only this world, but if they 
are kept under controul, it attains to the highest state of Yishnu, 
which is the end of its road ; the author (in answer to the question 
' What is that highest state of Yishnu which is the end of the road ?') 
shews in the following verses that it is the supreme Spirit who 
transcends the senses, etc. (which form the subject of the context), 
who is alluded to as the goal, and the highest state of Yishnu: 
'The objects of sense are higher than the senses; the mind is 
higher than the objects of sense ; the intellect is higher than the 
mind; the Great soul is higher than the intellect; the Unmanifested 
one is higher than the Great soul ; the spirit (Furusha) is greater 
than the Unmanifested: there is nothing higher than Spirit, that 
is the end, that is the highest goal.' " After observing that the 
various terms in these lines are the same which had been previously 
introduced in the simile of the chariot, charioteer, rider, horses, etc, 
S^nkara assigns the reason of the superiority attributed to each suc- 
ceeding object over that which precedes it, and then goes on to say in 
regard to intellect and soul : *** The Great soul is higher than the in* 
tellect,' that soul, namely, which is figuratively described as a rider, in 
the words ' Know the soul to be the rider.' But why is the Soul 

1^ The words of the original, hoth as giyen here and in the text of the Ka^ 
Upamshad are atmendriya-mano-ifuktam bhoktOf which are not very clear. The 
eommentators onderstand atman at the beginning of the compound as denoting body, 
and supply dtmanam as the subject. See Dr. Boer's translation of the Upaniihads 
(Bibl. Ind. p. 107). 


superior to the intellect? Both from the use of the word Soul and 
becanse it aids the enjoyment of the enjoyer, it is shewn to be superior. 
Its character as the Great soul is proved by its being the master. . . The 
intellect of Hiranyagarbha, the first-bom, is the highest basis of all 
intellect ; and it is that which is here called the * Great soul.' It had 
been previonsly comprehended under the word * intellect,' but is here 

separately specified, because it also is superior to our intellects 

XhuB the body alone remains of the objects referred to in the passage. 
After going over all the others in order, with the view of pointing out 
tiihe highest state to be attained, he indicates by the one remaining 
^Word, the ' TJnapparent,' the one remaining subject of the text, viz. the 
"body — such is our conclusion. . . • Hence after examining both the 
earlier and later portions of the passage, we find that there is no 
^lace for the Pradhana imagined by our opponents." Going on to in- 
'tierpxet the next aphorism (i. 4, 2) ' But the subtile body may also be 
jnroperly called ' unmanifested, ' Sknkara begins : 

'* We have declared that, looking to the context and the only word 

^^irliich remained to be explained, the body, and not Pradhana, is denoted 

T>7 the word the ' Unapparent.' But here a doubt arises : * How can 

"ttie body be properly designated by the word ' unapparent,' inasmuch 

WM from its grossness it is very distinctly perceptible, and therefore 

should rather be denoted by the word ' apparent,' while the word ' un* 

apparent' signifies something that is not perceptible? We answer: 

3n this passage the subtile body in its character of cause is intended; 

mance what is subtile is properly designated by the term * unapparent.' 

^Although this gross body itself cannot properly be described by the 

"Woid * Vnapparent,' still this term applies to the subtile element which 

^ its originator" .... Bknkara begins his interpretation of the next 

aphorism (L 4, 3) as follows : '* Here the Sankhyas rejoin : * If you 

*^t that this world in its primordial condition, before its name and 

^orm had been manifested, and while it existed in its rudimentary 

bim, could be properly designated by the word ' XJnapparent,' and if 

the game term be declared applicable to body also while continuing in 

^t state, then your explanation will exactly coincide with our doc- 

^^ine of Pradh§na as the cause of all things ; since you will virtually 

^^^wledge that the original condition of this world was that of Pra- 

dtfiuu To this we reply : If we admitted any self-dependent original 


condition as the cause of the world, we should then lay ourselves open 
to the charge of admitting that Pradhana is the cause. But wc con- 
sider that this primordial state of the world is dependent upon the 
supreme Deity (Parameivara) and not self-dependent. And this state 
to which we refer must of necessity be assumed, as it is essentiaL 
For without it the creative action of the supreme Deity could not be 
accomplished, since, if he were destitute of his Bkkti (power), any 
activity on his part would be inconceivable. And so, too, thoae who 
have been emancipated from birth are not bom again, because this gep- 
minative power (on the destruction, — which implies the previous 
existence, — of which emancipation depends) is consumed by know- 
ledge.^^ For that germinative power, of which the essence is 
ignorance, and which is denoted by the word ' Unapparenty' has its 
centre in ihe supreme Deity, and is a great illusive sleep, during 
which mundane souls repose unconscious of their own true nature. 
This 'Unapparent one' is in some places indicated by the term 
sether (S^oia), as in the text (Lph. Ar. Fp. iii. 8, 11) 'On this 
undecaying Being, o €^gl, the sther is woven as warp and woof; ' ic 
other places by the word 'undecaying' (akshara), as in the texf^ 
'Beyond the Undecaying is the Highest;' and is elsewhere desig- 
nated by the term 'illusion' {mdyd) as in the line (SVetaiv. Up. 4, 10) 
' Enow that Prakriti (or matter) is illusion, and the great Deity the 
possessor of illusion.' For this 'illusion' is ' unapparent,' because it 
cannot be defined in its essence and difference. This is the ' Unap- 
parent' which is described as above the ' Great one,' since the latteri 
when regarded as identical with the intellect of Hiranyagarbha, springs 
from the former. And even if the ' Great one' be identified with the 
embodied soul (J^va\ the 'Unapparent' can be said to be above it» as 
the condition of the embodied soul is dependent upon the 'Unapparent.' 
For the ' Unapparent' is ignorance, and it is during its condition of 
ignorance that the entire mundane action of the embodied soul is car- 

^^^ Govinda Ananda explains thiB clause as follows : Bandha-mukti-vytnoMtKarthmik 
apt ia avlkaryya ity aha "muktanam" Hi \ yan-naiad mukiih sa tvtJKtryffa tamigika 
eva trUhfau muktanam punar bandhapattir ity arthah \ ** In the words * Those who 
had been emancipated/ etc., he tells us that this ignorance must be admitted, in ordci 
to secure the permanence of emancipation from the bondage (of birth) : that is, thai 
ignorance by the destruction of which emancipation is ootained must be admitted; u 
without it those who had been emancipated would at the creation be again iavolTsd 
in bondage,'* [because to be released at all, they must be released from Bomething]. 


ried on. And fhat superiority of fhe ' Unapparent ' over the ' Great 
one ' is by a figurative description of body as identical with the former 
attributed to body also." 

By these subtle and elaborate explanations %nkara scarcely appears 
to make out his point. But I cannot follow further the discussion of 
this question, and now go on to the eighth aphorism (i. 4, 8) where the 
purport of another Yedic text is inyestigated : 

*^Chamaia-vad iwiieshdt " | ptmar apt pradhdtuhPddi aiahdatvam pra- 
ihdmuya anddhafh ity aha \ humdt \ numtra-varn&t \ (9 vetaiivatara 
TJpanishad, !▼. 5) " ajam ekd^ hhita-iukUih'hjrishn&m hahvlh prqj&h sfi- 
jmdndm warHp&h '^ | t^'o hy ekojushamdno ^nuiete jahdfy endm hhuktO' 
Ikgdm qjo^nyah^^ iti \ attra hi mantre lohita-hikla-kfishna'iahdaih 
njak-iottva-iamafniy ahhidhlyanU \ hhitafh rqjo ranfandtmakatvdt hik- 
kSiioUvafh prakdidtmakatvdt kfishnam tamahdvarandtmakatvdt \ teshdm 
9&mydvasthdvayava'dhartnair vyapadiiyaU lohituhiukla-hrishnd iti \ na 
jayate iti eha *'ajd** tydd ^^mula-prakj-itir avikritir'* ity ahhyupayamdt | 
mmv ajd'iabdai chhdydydffi rUdhah \ vddham | 8d tu rUdhir iha na dira- 
yitu^ iakyd vidyd-prakarandt \ sd cha hahvlh prajds traiymydnvitdft 
jtmytUi • • . . tasmdt iruti-mUld eva pradhdnddi-kalpand Kdpildndm 
Of/ warn prdpte hrHmah \ na anena mantrena Sruti-mUlatva^ Sdnkhya- 
fddatya iakyam dirayitum \ na hy ayam mantrah wdtantryena kanchid 
tfi vddafk samarthayitum utsahate \ sarvatrdpi yayd kaydchit kalpanayd 
^dtffddi-iampddanapapatteh Sdnkhya-vddah eva iha abhipretah iti vise" 
ikivadhdrana-kdrandhhdvdt \ ** chamasa-vat " | 

'' 'Because, as in the case of the spoon, there is nothing distinctive.' 

Tbe assertor of Fradhana again declares that Pradhana is not proved to 

be nnscriptural. Why ? From the following verse (S^v. Up. iv. 6) : 

'One unborn male, loving the unborn female of a red, white, and 

Uack colour, who forms many creatures possessing her own character, 

unites himself with her : another unborn male abandons her after he 

has enjoyed her.' For in this verse the words 'red,' 'white,' and 

'^Uack,' denote (the three Qualities) Passion, Goodness, and Darkness ; 

—Passion^ from its stimulating character, being designated by the term 

^ The text of Dr. Boer's ed. of the Upamshad (Bibl. Ind. yoL rii.) haa two 
Tirioiis readings in this line, yiz. lohita-krishna^arnam for lohita-sukla'kfishnam 
(which Utter, howeyer, is the reading referred to by S'ankara in his commentary on 
that work), and §arupam for warupal^ 


* red/ Goodness, from its illaminating cbaraoter, by ' wli^te/ and Dark- 
ness, from its enveloping character, by * black.' The unborn female is 
described as red, white, and black, with reference to the characteristics 
of the three components which make up the state of equilibium. 8he 
must be called * unborn ' {Ajd\ because she is not produced, since it is 
admitted that ' original matter ' (Mula-Prakriti = Pradhana) is not a 
modification (of any other^bstance — Sankhya Karika, verse 3). But 
is not cjd the conventional name for ' she- goat ? ' True (reply the 
Sankyas), but that conventional sense cannot be adopted here, because 
knowledge is the subject of the context. And this unborn female pro- 
duces many creatures characterized by the three Qualities . . • . And 
from this it is concluded that the theory of Kapila's followers re- 
garding Pradhana, etc., is based upon the Yeda. We reply : that it 
cannot be admitted on the strength of this verse that the theory of 
the Sankhyas is founded on the Yeda. For the verse in question, if 
regarded independently, is powerless to sustain any hypothesis what- 
ever ; and the reason is that, as this description of the state of the un- 
born female may be rendered applicable on any hypothesis whatever, 
there is no ground for determining specifically that the Sankh]^ theory 
is here intended — ' as in the case of the spoon.' '' This aphorism refers 
to a verse quoted in the Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad, ii. 2, 3 (Bibl. Ind. 
p. 413 of the Sanskrit, and p. 174 of Dr. Boer's translation), and be- 
ginning ' a cup with its mouth down, and its bottom upwards,' which, 
as Sankara remarks, cannot, without some further indication, be applied 
to any one cup in particular ; and in the same way, he argues, the un- 
born female in the passage under discussion cannot, in the absence of 
anything to restrict the application in any special way be understood 
as denoting Pradhana {evam ihdpy aviiesho ^jam ekdm ity asya man' 
trasya \ na asmin mantre Fradhdnam eva ajd ^hhipretd iti iakyate myan- 
turn). The question then arises what is meant by this * unborn female.' 
To this the author of the aphorisms and Sknkara reply, that the word 
denotes the material substance of a four-fold class of elements, viz. 
light, heat, water, and food, all derived from the supreme Deity {Fara^ 
mehardd utpannd jyotih-pramukhd tejo ^h-anna-lakshand chatur-vidha- 
hhata-grdmasya prahriti-hhutd iyam ajd pratipattavyd). These four ele- 
ments he however seems (p. 357) to identify with three, in the words : 
hhnta-traya-lahhand eva iyam ajd vijneyd na yuna-traya-laishand \ * This 


nnbom female is formed by three elements, not by the three quali- 
ties ; ' and the ascription of the three colours in the text to tiiese 
three elements is supported by a quotation from the Chhandogya Upa- 
nishady yi. 4, 1, which is as follows : Yad agneh rohitam rUpam tejasaa 
tad rupam yat Sukla^ tad qpdm ytd krishnarh tad annoiya \ " The red 
colour of fire is that of heat ; its white colour is that of water ; and its 
Hack colour is that of food (which here means earth, according to the 
^commentator on the Chhandogya Upanishad).^^ In this way, he adds, 
Ihe words denoting tiie three colours are used in the proper sense, 
Trhereas if applied to tho three qualities they would be figuratively em- 
ployed {rohitddinai/i cha Sabddndm rupa-viiesheshu mttkhyatvdd hhdkta- 
tvdeh eha guncHmhayatvasya). Shnkara concludes that this verse, de- 
scriptive of the unborn female, does not denote any self-dependent 
material cause called Pradhana, but is shewn from the context to 
signify the Divine Power in its primordial state before Name and Form 
were developed (na tfvo^an^rs kdchit prakritih pradhanafh ndma aja-man' 
irena dmndydts iti iakyate vaktum \ prakarandt tu sd eva daivl iaktir 
avydkrita-ndnuhrOpd ndma-rHpayoh prdg avasthdnendpi mantrena dmnd' 
yate iiy uchyate). 

Passing over the further questions, which are raised on this subject, 
I go on to the 1 1th Sutra and the comment upon it, frt>m which we 
learn that the words * knowing him by whom the five times five men, 
and the sether are upheld, to be Soul,' etc. {yasmin paneha pancha^'andh' 
ikd4di eha prattshfhitah \ tarn evdnyah dtmdnam vidvdn %tydd%)y are ad- 
duced by the Sankhyas in support of their system, as the number of 
the principles {tattva), which it affirms (see Sankhya Karika, verse 3, 
and Sankhya Sutras, i. 61), corresponds to the number twenty-five in this 
^xt ; while the applicability of the passage is denied by the Yedantins 
the ground that the ' principles ' of the Sankhya are not made up of 
ye homogeneous sets of five each (p. 362) ; that if the Soul and sether 
^^lentioned in the text are added, as they must be, to the twenty-five, 
^lie aggregate number will exceed that of the Sankhya ^ principles,' 
^^jnong which both Soul and sether are comprehended (pp. 364 f.) ; that 
e fact of the correspondence of the numbers, if admitted, would not 
^-office to shew that the * principles ' of the Sankhya were referred to, 
they are not elsewhere recognized in the Yeda, and as the word 
^ See Baba Bajendra LSI Mittra's traiLBlation of this Upsxiishad, p. 106. 


' men ' (^jandh) is not usually applied to denote * principles ' (p. 365) ; 
and further that the phrase ^ the five five men,' signifies onlj ' five,' 
and not ' five times five ' (p. 366), etc. The conclusion arrived at in 
the twelfth -aphorism is that the breath, and other vital airs, are re- 
ferred to in the passage under consideration; and that although the 
word ' men ' (Jonah) is not generally applied to ^ breath,' etc., any more 
than to ' principles,' the reference is determined by the context. Others, 
as Sknkara observes, explain the term ' the five men ' (panchajanah) of 
the gods, fathers, gandharvas, asuras, and rakshases, and others again of 
the four castes, and the Kishadas.^^ The Yedantic teacher (Badara- 
yaQa) however, as his commentator adds, has decided that the breath, 
etc., are intended. 

If we now turn to the Sankhya aphorisms themselves, we shall find 
that their author constantly refers to texts of the Yeda as supporting, 
coinciding with, or reconcileable with his dogmas. I have noticed the 
following instances, viz. Sutras i. 5, 36, 51, 54, 78, 84, 148, 155; ii. 
20-22; iii. 14, 15, 80; iv. 22 ; v, 1, 12, 15, 21 ; vi. 32, 34, 51, 58, 
59, which may be consulted in Dr. Ballantyne's translation. I can 
only refer more particularly to a few of these with the commentator's 

I begin with Sutra i. 155,'^^ in which the author of the Aphorisms 
maintains that the great distinctive dogma of the Yedanta, the oneness 
of Soul, is not supported by the Yeda. In Sutra 150 he had laid it 
down as his own conclusion, established by the fact of the variety ob- 
servable in the conditions of birth, etc., that there is a multitude of 
souls, and he now defends this as conformable to Scripture. 

**Na advaita-iruti'virodko jati'paratvdV^ \ dtmaikya-irutindm v%rodha% 
tu ndstt tdsdm jdti'paratvdt \ jdtih sdrndnyam eka-rdpatvam tattra ad- 
vaita-Srutind^ tdtparyydd na tv ahhandatve prayojandbhdvdd ity arthah \ 
.... yathd-iruta-jdti'iabdasya ddare tv '^dtmd idam ehah eva agre eulV* 
*^ sad eva saumya idam agre dsid ekam eva adoitlyam " (Ghhand. Up. vi. 
2, \)ity'ddy'advaita'iruty-upapddakatayd eva eUtraih vydkheyam \ *^jdti- 
paratvdt^* \ vt/dtlya-dvaita-ntshedha-paratvad ity arthah \ tattra ddyeh- 
vydkhydydm ayam hMva^ | dtmaikya-iruti-amritiehv ekddi-iahddi chid* 

^ See the First Volume of this work, pp. 176 fE. 
^»L 154 in Dr. Hall's edition in the BibL Ind. 


ekarUpatd'tnattra-parcLh bhedddi-Sabddi cha vaxdharmya-lahhanarhhedo' 
pardh \ 

'' 155. * This is not opposed to the Yedic doctrine of non-dnality, 
aince that merely refers to genus.' Our doctrine that souls "Bie numer- 
ouB does not conflict with the Yedic texts which affirm the oneness of 
Soul, since these passages refer to oneness of genus. Gtenus means 
sameness, oneness of nature ; and it is to this that the texts regarding 
non-duality relate, and not to the undividedness (or identity) of Soul ; 
rince there is no occasion for the latter view. The Sutra must he 
explained with due regard to the sense of the word genus as it occurs 
in the Veda, so as (therehy) to bring out the proper meaning of such 
texts, expressing non-duality, as these, 'This was in the beginning 
Soul, one only ;' ' This was in the beginning, o fear youth. Existent, 
one without a second.^ The words ' since that merely refers to genus,' 
mean 'since that is merely intended to deny a duality denoting a 
difference of genus.' The first of two interpretations given of the 
Sutra is as follows : In the texts of the S^ruti and Smfiti relating to the 
oneness of Soul, the words ' One,' etc., denote simply that Spirit is one 
in its nature; whilst the words, 'distinction,' etc., designate a dis- 
tinction defined as difference of nature." At the close of his remarks 
the commentator gives a second explanation of the Sutra. 
The author returns to this subject in the 61st Sutra of the fifth Book : 
''iVa advaitam atmano lingdt tad-bheda-prailtsy* \ yadyapy dCmandm 
ftnyonyam hheda^dlcya-vad ahheda-vdkydny apt santi Mhdpi na advaitam \ 
H€i aiyantam ahhedah \ ajudi-vdhya-sthaih prdkfiti-tydgdtydgddi'Ungair 
hJkediuyawa nddher ity arthah^ \ na hy atyantdhhede tdni lingdny upa-- 
f^^Utyante \ 

** ' Soul is not one ; for a distinction of souls is apparent from various 

^ns.' Although there are texts affirming that there is no distinction, 

as there are others which assert a distinction, of souls, still non- 

X-^moality, i.e. an absolute absence of distinction must be denied; because 

^- distinction is established by signs, such as the abandonment and non- 

^Tfcandonment of Prakpiti, etc., mentioned in such texts as that about the 

^ imbom female,' etc. (See above, p. 165.) For these signs are incon- 

^^^istent with the hypothesis of an absolute absence of distinction," etc. 

A kindred subject is introduced in the next Sutra, the 62nd : 

**Ifa andtmand ^pi pratydkiluhhddhdV^ \ andimand^pHhogya-prapa't- 


chena dtmano na advaitam pratt/akshendpi bddhdt \ dtmanah sarwhhhdf' 
yabhede ghatthpafayor apy dbhedah sydt \ ghatddeh pafddy-ahkinndtwtd* 
hheddt I Ba cha hhedO'grdhdka'pratyaJuha'hddhitah \ 

« < Further, there is not an ahsence of distinction {i.e. identity) be- 
tween Soul and non-soul, as this is disproved by the evidence of sense/ 
That is : non-duality {i,e. identity) is not predicable of Soul on the 
one hand, and non-soul, i,e, the perceptible objects by which our senses 
are affected, on the other, because this is opposed to the evidence 61 
sense. For if soul were identical with all that is perceptible, there 
would also be no distinction between a jar and cloth, inasmuch as jai8| 
etc., would not be distinct from soul which is not distinct from doth, 
etc. ; and such identity (of jars, etc., with cloth, etc.) is opposed to the 
evidence of sense which obliges us to perceive a distinction." 

But how is this to be reconciled with such Yedic texts as ' this is 
nothing but soul' {dtmd eva idam) ? An answer is given in Sutra 64, 
which seems to admit that the passages in question do at least on a 
prima facie view convey the sense ascribed to them by the YedantinB : 

**Anya-paratvam avivekdndm tattra'^ \ avivekdndm aviveki-puruehdn 
vrati tattra advaite ^nya-paratvam updsandrthakdnuvddah ity arthah \ 
loke hi iaftra-iarlrinor hhogya-hhgktroi cha advehena dbhedo vyawihriyaU 
*^'ham gauro" ^^mama dtmd Bhadraeenay^ ityddih \ atae tarn eva vya^ 
vahdram anudya tdn eva prati taihd updeandm Sruiir vidadhdti ioUvO' 
iuddhy-ddy-artham iti \ 

*' 'These texts have another object, with a view to those who have 
no discrimination.' That is : in the passages which affirm non-duality 
another object is intended, viz. a reference (to vulgar ideas) with a view 
to stimulate devotion. For it commonly occurs that undiscriminating 
persons confound the body and the soul, the object to be experienced, 
and the person who experiences it, as when they say 'I am white,' 
' Bhadrasena is myself.' The Yeda, therefore, referring to this mode of 
speaking, inculcates on such undisceming people the practice of devo- 
tion with a view to the promotion of goodness, purity, etc." 

The author returns to the subject of non-duality in Sutra vL 51, 
which is introduced by the remark : 

Nanv evam pramdnddy-anurodhena dvaiUhsidhhdv advatUhinUeh kd, 
gaiir iti \ 

** But if duality be thus established in accordance with proofs, etc., 
what becomes of the Yedic texts declaring non-duality ?" 


The answer is as follows : 

*^ Na irtUi-virodho rdgindih vairdgydya tat-nddheh '* | advaita-iruii- 
virodhas tu ndaii rdgindm purushdtirikte vairdgydya eva irutibhir advau 
ta-sddhdndt \ 

«< < Oar Tiew is not opposed to the Yeda, as the texts in question 
establish non-daality with a yiew to prodace apathy in those who are 
actuated by desire.' That is to say : There is in our doctrine regard- 
ing non-duality nothing contrary to the Yeda, as the passages referred 
to afirm this principle with the Tiew of producing in those who have 
desire an indifference in regard to everything except SouL'' 

The 12th aphorism of the fifth Book asserts that according to the 
Yeda, Pradhana, and not I^vara, is the cause of the world. The details 
of the reasoning on which this view is founded^ as here stated by the 
commentator, differ in some respects from those which Siankara puts 
into the mouth of the Sankhyas : 

**8'rutir apt pradhdna-kdryyatvasya " | prapanche pradhdna-kdryya' 
tvasya &ca irutir asti na chetana-kdranatve \ yathd " qfdm ekdm hhitO' 
htkkhJtfishndm hahvih prajdh sftjamdndih sarUpdh" | "tad ha idaih 
tarhy avydkriiam aaU tad ndma-rUpdlhydfk vydkriyata** ity-adir ity 
arihah \ yd cha " tad aikshata hahu sydm " ityddii ehetana-kdranatd' 
irutih id iorgdddv utpannasya mahat-tattvopdihikasya mahdpurushasya 
janyo'jn&na'pard \ hiihvd hahu-hhavandnurodhdt pradhdne $va " hulam 
pipaiiihati" iti-vad garni \ anyathd "sdhshl ehetdh kevalo nirgunai 
eAa"(S^Y6tfi^yatara Upanishad, vi. 11) ity»ddi»irtUy»uktdparindmitva- 
sya puruihe *nupapatter, iti \ ayafk cha Uvara - pratUhedhah aUvaryye 
viUrdgydrtham Uvara -jndnafh vind *pi mohha - pratipddandrihaih eha 
prauihi-^dda-m&ttram iti prdg eva vydkhydtam \ 

« < There are also Yedic texts to support the doctrine that the world 
has sprung from Pradhana, as its cause.' That is : There are Yedic 
texts to shew that the phenomenal world has sprung from Pradhana, 
and that it has not had a conscious being for its cause. They are such 
as these : ' An unborn female, red, white, and black in hue, producing 
many creatures like herself, etc.;' 'This was once undeveloped: it 
was developed with Name and Form.' As regards those other texts 
which affirm the causality of a conscious being, such as ' It reflected, 
let me become many,' they refer to the knowledge which sprang up in 
the great Male who was produced at the beginning of the creation pes- 

__j*ac'i.'*« 33 OEIGW, ETC- 

. .-r . . lueiuid ai Intellect (Mihal). Or. in ■«■ 

. . .-.uuuux iL^tipIied, tho expresslic indicat- 

u., '-3 tJ^unciTely applied to Fradliar^ u vheii 

. . . .:«:f 'iiut it 'intends to fall.* F:r on uy 

jfMuuitT of any modification which is iKfibed to 

^j ^ ii who is the vitness, the coqkIiu, the 
ui ...o Qualities,' conld not properly be applied to 

^e juuerial cause of the creatioa ho most become 

d .ueu 'x&m explained"* that this denial of an 

^uiy i£ ingennity, introduced tor the pnrpoie of 

.. .-tiani 30 gloiy, and of proponnding a method of 

. ^ ^lutfiwudeatly of the knowledge of an Israia-*' 

: jM o4dt Sutra of the aiztb Book, with the remaiki 

.^wUkW iod followed; 

lut^n ffaniikat lampratatdh" ity-ddi-imtek pant- 
.^^■iMiM rirarttildi - vdddh Hirayan^yu^ itg Haul ft 
.-u.Mi« «rt htlarkBpatadaiya Atma-lCbhah" \ puntka- 
,« MiCMiI^ tamhh&vitUt U larte iruti-virvddha^ iti | 
,^a«.f-'«dA kutdriiieady - adhamdnam &ima - irarSpa- 
.t >> jrtAd^ [ »tena &tmani tukha-duhkhddi-gunopidA- 
itHiif-MlJ^ tra I ^Aibn apy Htma-t/atkartha-jnaitam 
,4ry<um I atna-karanald-irutayai eha iakti-iaitimad' 
^uhi^ tra "ajsm fkSm" ily-ddi-h-utibhih pradhdrui- 
vkii ria Hkiiatya abhradif-adhxihthdita-kdraiutd-t-ad 
meAfote (add tad na nirdkurma^ parindmuya prt- 

k w« B>.«t adopt the theories of an illosory creation, etc., 

AOiHU'.ty of Pumsha (soul) is to bo learned from encb testa 

>it^ ' many creatures have been produced &om Furusha ? ' 

.^tihultv hi' rt'plies: 'From his opposition to Scripture the 

i;i'tintv 'i'Mf* not attain to Soul.' Tho sense of this is, that all 

affirminfc the causality of Soul, which hare been de- 

iMiiMty to tho Veda ; and conseqncntly the low class of bad 

Ik'., whit adopt them have no knowledge of the nature of 

iMtt llhilihu'i ranstki, introdudoiy to ths SDtnu (p. S, at the foot), 
>tiw4nl lu lh« nril SMtian, mid hii comment on Sotra i. S3, lit u, 
^feitJL *u vJivlic, anJ not a thoiwig)i<g<miK idlicT«nt of tho Sunkbya. 


800I. Hence it is to be understood that those also who assert that 
Soul is the substance of the qualities of pleasure and pain, etc., are 
incompetent reasoners : they too are destitute of the true knowledge of 
Soul. The Yedic texts which declare its causality are intended to in- 
culcate devotion on the ground that there is no distinction between 
Power {S'akti) and the possessor of Power {S^aktimat) ; for the causality 
of Pradhana is established by such texts as that relating to the 'one 
unborn female,' etc. But if it be affirmed that Soul is the cause of the 
world merely in the same sense in which the aether is the cause of clouds, 
etc., viz. by affording them a receptacle, we do not object to that, since 
we only deny the transformation (of Soul into material productions)."'" 
In regard to the question whether the principles of the Yedanta or 
those of the Sankhya are most in harmony with the most prevalent doc- 
trine, of theTJpanishads, I shall quote some of the remarks of Dr. Boer, 
the translator of many of these treatises. In his introduction to the 
Taittirfya TTpanishad he observes that we there find 'Hhe tenets pecu- 
liar to the Yedanta already in a far advanced state of development ; it 
contains as in a germ the principal elements of this system." '^ There 
are, however," he adds, '' differences " (Bibliotheca Indica, vol. xv. p. 5). 
The same nearly is the case with the Aitareya TTpanishad (ibid. p. 27). 
In reference to'the S* veta^vatara TTpanishad he remarks : '' Sknkara in 
his commentary on this TTpanishad generally explains its fondamental 
views in the spirit of the Yedanta. He is sometimes evidently wrong 
in identifying the views of some of the other TTpanishads with the 
tenets of the Yedanta, but he is perfectly right to do so in the explana- 
tion of an TTpanishad which appears to have been composed for the 
express puipose of making the principle of the Yedanta agreeable to 
tlie followers of &e Sankhya " (ibid. pp. 43 f.). Of the Katha TTpani- 
shad Dr. Boer says (ibid. p. 97) : '' The standing point of the E!atha is 
on the whole that of the Yedanta. It is the absolute spirit which is 
the foundation of the world. .... In the order of manifestations or 
emanations from the absolute spirit it deviates, however, from that 
adopted by the other TTpanishads and by the later Yedanta, and is evi- 
dently more closely allied to the Sankhya. The order is here : The 
nnmanifested {avya]Ua)y the great soul {mahutma, or mahat), intellect 

'A See Dr. Ballantyne's translation, which I have often followed. He does not, 
howerer, render in extenso all the passages which I have reproduced. 


{huddhi)y mind, fhe objects of the senses, and the senses/' etc.^ The 
reader who wishes to pursue the subject further may consult the same 
author's remarks on the other TJpanishads. On the whole question of 
the relation of the Yedanta and the Sankhya respectively to the Yeda, 
Dr. Roer thus expresses himself in his introduction to the S* vetaiyatara 
TJpanishad (p. 36) : '^ The Yedanta, although in many important points 
deviating from the Yedas, and although in its own doctrine quite inde- 
pendent of them, was yet believed to be in perfect accordance with 
them, and being adopted by the majority of the Brahmans, it was 
never attacked on account of its orthodoxy. The same cannot be said 
of the Sankhya ; for it was not only frequently in opposition to the 
doctrine of the Yedas, but sometimes openly declared so. Indeed, the 
Yedanta also maintained that the acquisition of truth is independent of 
caste (1) or any other distinction, and that the highest knowledge 
which is the chief end of man cannot be imparted by the Yedas (vide 
Xatha ii. 23) ; yet it insisted that a knowledge of the Yedas was ne- 
cessary to prepare the mind for the highest knowledge (2). This the 
Sankhya denied altogether, and although it referred to the Yedas, and 
especially to the TJpanishads, still it did so only when they accorded 
with its own doctrines, and it rejected their authority (3) in a case of 

I make a few remarks on some points in this quotation indicated by 
fhe figures (1), (2), and (3). (I) We have already learned above, p. 99, 
that, according to the Brahma Sutras (see i. 3, 34 ff., and Siuikara's ex- 
planation of them), at least, a Sudra does not possess the prerogative of 
acquiring divine knowledge. (2) It appears from S^ankara's argument 
against Jaimini that he does not consider a knowledge of the ceremonial 
part of the Yeda as necessary for the acquisition of divine knowledge^ 
but he seems to regard the TJpanishads as the source from which the 
latter is derived. (3) I do not know on what authority this statement 
that the S&nkhyas ever actually rejected the authority of the Yedas ia 
founded. Their attempts to reconcile their tenets with the letter of 
fhe Yeda may often seem to be far-fetched and sophistical ; but I have 
not observed that Sankara, while arguing elaborately against the inter- 
pretations of the Sankhyas, anywhere charges them either with deny- 
ing the authority of the Yeda, or with insincerity in the appeals whidh 
they make to the sacred texts* 

>M See above, p. 161. 


On the subject of the XJpamshads the reader may also consult Prof. 
Max Miiller's Ancient Sanskrit Literature. 

I subjoin in a note some extracts from this work.'^ 

The Nyaya and Yaiieshika Sutras do not appear to contain nearly so 
many references to Yedic texts as the Sankhya ; but I have noticed the 
following: Nyaya iii. 32 (= iii. 1, 29 in the Bibl. Ind.) ; YaiiSeshika 
iL 1, 17 ; iii. 2, 21 ; iv. 2, 11 ; v. 2, 10. 

The author of the Vai^eshika Sutras affirms, in iii. 2, 20, the doctrine 
that souls are numerous; and in the 21st Sutra, which I quote, along 
with the comment of Sknkara Mi^ra, and the gloss of the editor Pandit 
Jayan&rayana Tarkapanchanana, he claims Yedic authority for this tenet : 

21. " /^dstra-sdtnarthi/deh eha^' | (S^ankara Mi^ra) S'dstra^ irtUih \ 

U6 <i J^ej (the XJpanisbadB) contain, or are supposed to contain, the highest an- 
thoritj on which the Tarioos systems of philosophy in India rest. Not only the 
Yediinta philosopher, who, by his yery name, professes his faith in the ends and 
objects of the Veda, but the Sunkhya, the Yaife'eshika, the Nyaya, and Yoga philo- 
■opben, all pretend to find in the Upanishads some warranty for their tenets, however 
antagonistic in their bearing. The same applies to the numerous sects that haTe 
eziated and still exist in India. Their founders, if they have any pretensions to 
orthodoxy, inTariably appeal to some passage in the Upanishads in order to substan- 
tiate their own reasonings. Now it is true that in the Upanishads themselves there 
is ao much freedom and breadth of thought that it is not difficult to find in them some 
authority for almost any shade of philosophical opinion." (p. 316 f.) Again : " The 
early Hindus did not find any difficulty in reconciling the most different and some- 
times contradictory opinions in their search after truth; and a most extraordinary 
medley of oracular sayings might be collected from the Upanishads, even from those 
which are genuine and comparatively ancient, all tending to elucidate the darkest 
points of philosophy and religion, the creation of the world, the nature of God, the 
relation of man to God, and similar subjects. That one statement should be contra- 
dicted by another seems never to have been felt as any serious difficulty." (p. 320 f.) 
Once more : '* The principal interest of the older Upanishads consists in the absence 
of that systematic uniformity which we find in the later systems of philosophy ; and 
it 11 to be regretted that nearly all the scholars who have translated portions of the 
TTpanifhads have allowed theniselves to be guided by the Brahmanic commentators," 
etc. (p. 322). ** In philosophical discussions, they (the Brahmans) allowed the greatest 
possible freedom ; and although at first three philosophical systems only were admitted 
as orthodox (the two MimfinsSs and the Nyfiya), their number was soon raised to six, 
BO as to indnde the Vaiseshika, SSnkhya, and Yoga schools. The most conflicting 
Tiews on points of vital importance were tolerated as long as their advocates succeeded, 
no matter by what means, in bringing their doctrines into harmony with passages of 
tlie Yeda, strained and twisted in every possible sense. If it was only admitted that 
besides the perception of the senses and the induction of reason, revelation also, as 
contained in the Yeda, furnished a true basil for human knowledge^ all other poiiUs 
seemed to be of minor importance." (p. 78£) 



tayd *py dimano hheda-pratipddandt \ kuyate hi ... , (Jayanarayana) 
ito ^py jivasya Uvara-hhinnatvam ity aha \ idsUasya iruteh idtnarthydj 
jlvekarayor hheda-hodhahatvdt \ tathd hi \^^dve hrahmanl veditavye^' 
(Maitri Up. yi. 22) | *^ dvd stiparnd sayujd sakhdyd aamdnam vri^sham 
parishasvajdte | tayor anyah pippalam svddu atti anainann anyo ahhichd" 
koHW (Big-veda Sanhita, i. 164, 20; Bvei^v. Up. vi. 6; Mun^aka 
Up. i. 3, 1, 1) ity-ddi'iruter jUeSvarayor bhedo *vaiyam anglkdryya^ \ 
na eha ^^tat tvam asi 8'vetaketo^* ^^Brahna-vid Brahma em bhavati** 
ity-ddi-krutindth kd gatir iti vdchyam \ *' tat tvam asi*^ Hi iruies tad* 
abhedena tadlyatva-pratipddanena ahheda-bhdvand-paratvdt \ ''Brahma* 
vid Brahma ^a" iti irutii cha nirduhkhatvddind ISvara-sdmyam jlvoiya 
abhidhatte na tu tad-dbhedam \ '* niranjanah para^ sdmyam upaiti '* iti 
kuter yaty-antardsambhavdt \ asti hi laukika-vdhyeihu ** sampad^dhikye 
fwrohito ^yaih rdjd Baihvfittah " ity-ddishu iddfiSya-pareshv ahhedopa* 
ehdrah \ na cha mohha- daidydm ajndna-nivjittdv ahhedo jdyat§ iti 
vdehyam bhedasya nityatvena ndidyogdd bheda-ndSdnylkdrs ^pi vyaJsH^ 
dvaydvasthdnasya dvaSyakatvdch eha iti eankihepah \ bheda-iddhakdni 
yukty-antardni iruty-antardni cha yrantha-yaurava-bhiyd parityaktdni \ 
*' ' And this opinion is confirmed by the SUstra.' (Sknkara Miira) 
The Siastra means the Veda; by which also a distinction of SouIb is 
established. For it is said/' etc. [He then quotes two texts which are 
repeated by Jayanarayana, the author of the gloss, whose remarks are 
as follows :] *' There is another proof of the Soul being distinct frooi 
I^vara ; viz. this, that it is confirmed by the Si&stra, the Veda, which 
declares the distinctness of the two ; and this principle must of neoes- 
sity be admitted from such texts as these : ' Two £ridmi&s are to be 
known ; '"* and * Two birds, united, friends, attach themselves to the same 
tree ; one of them eats the sweet fruit of the pippala tree, while the other, 
without eating, looks on.' Nor are we to ask what will then become of 
such other texts as (1) 'Thou art that, o S^vetaketu;' (2) 'He who 
knows Brahma becomes Brahma ;' for the former of these two passagei 
(1) tends to conyey the idea of identity by representing as identity 
with That, the fact of S^vetaketu's entirely belonging to That; whilst 

^M The full text is : Ihe brahmanl veditavye iahda-hrahma param eha yat — iabd^ 
brahmani nithnatah param brahmadhigachhati \ ''Two Br&hmils arc to be known, the 
▼erbal and the Biipremc. He who is initiated in tbe former attains the latter." Here, 
howoTer, by the yerbal Br&hm&, the Veda must be intended. 


the second (2) affirms the equality of the Soul with Isvara, in con- 
sequence of its freedom from pain and other weaknesses, and not its 
identity with Him ; for it is shewn by another Yedic text, viz. ' The 
passionless man attains the highest state of equality,' that any other 
destiny would be inconceivable. In secular modes of speaking also, 
such as the following, ' From the abundance of his wealth the domestic 
priest has become the king,' we find a figurative assertion of identity. 
I^or can it be said that distinction disappears on the cessation of ignor- 
ance in the state of final emancipation, because distinction, from its 
eternity, cannot be destroyed, and because, even if its destructibility 
were admitted, two separate personalities must still continue to exist. 
Such is a summary of our argument : further proofs from reasoning, 
and further texts of the Yeda, are omitted from a dread of making the 
book too bulky." 

The charge of open contempt of the Veda is brought by Sankara 
against S^an4ilya9 the author of the Bhagavata heresy, as the orthodox 
Yedantin considers it.'^ Of that doctrine S'ankara thus speaks in 
his remarks on Brahma Sutra ii. 2, 45 : 

Vedthvipratiihedhai eha hhavati \ chaturshu vedeshu param heyo ^lah- 
dkvd Sdn^ifyafiidam idsiram adhigatav&n ity'ddi-^eda-nindd-dariandt \ 
iatmdd asangatd eshd kalpand iti iiddham \ 

" And it also contradicts the Veda : for we see such an instance of 
contempt of the Vedas as this, that S'an^ilya, not finding the means 
of attaining the highest good in the whole four of them, devised this 
S'astra. Hence it is established that these imaginations are absurd." 

The points of the Bhagavata doctrine objected to by Simkara do not 
however appear to be those which are principally insisted on in the 
Bhakti Sutras of S^aQ^^ya, published by Dr. Ballantyne in the Biblio- 
theca Indica in 1861. I will notice some of these doctrines. The 
laading principle of the system is that it is not knowledge {jndna) but 
devotion {bhakti) which is the means of attaining final liberation 
(Sutra 1). Devotion is defined in the 2nd Sutra to be a supreme love 
of CK>d {ad pard anuraktir Ihars). Knowledge cannot, the author con- 
sidersy be the means of liberation, as it may co-exist with hatred of the 
object known (Sutra 4). Neither the study of the Veda nor the acqui- 

W See Colebrooke's Misc. EseajB, i. 413 : << A passage quoted by S'ankara Acb&rya 
to intimate that its promolgator was S an^ilya," etc, etc. 



sitioii of such qualities as tranquility of mind is a necessary preliminaiy 
to devotion. The only requisite is a desire of emancipation, acoording 
to the commentator (remarks on Sutra 1). Ceremonial works, too, 
have no bearing upon doTotion (Sutra 7), which may be practised by 
men of all castes, and even by Chan^alas, since the desire to get lid of 
the evils of mundane existence is common to all (Sutra 78). The com- 
mentator e:iplains that the authority of the Yedas as the only souroe of 
supernatural knowledge is not deniedi nor the fact that only the three 
highest castes have the right to study them: but it is urged that 
women, S'udras, etc., may attain by means of the Itihasas and Pur&nas, 
etc., to knowledge founded on the Yedas, whilst Chan^alas, etc., may 
acquire it by traditional instruction basbd on the Smfiti and the prac- 
tice of virtuous men. Those whose devotion is not matured in the 
present world, will find the opportunity of perfecting it in S^vetadvlpa, 
the world of the divine Being (Sutra 79). Even the wicked may have a 
penitential devotion {drtti-bhakidv eva adhikdrah), and after they are 
freed from their guilt, they may attain to full devotion. The Bhagavad 
Gita is much quoted by the commentator on theso Sutras; but the 
Veda is also sometimes adduced in proof of their doctrines ; as tf.y. the 
following words of the Chhandogya TJpanishad, vii. 25, 2, are cited to 
prove that devotion is the chief requisite, and knowledge, etc, subser- 
vient to it : 

*' Aimd eva idarh sarvam iti \ sa vat esha evam paiyann evam numpd^ 
wa/k evam vijdnann dtma-ratir dtma-kri4a1^ dtma-mithunah dtmdnanda^ 
ia svardd bhavati** \ tattra *'dtma-raU'*nipdifdhpara'bhakteh'*fai' 
yann " iti darianam apriyaUddi-bhrama-nirdsa-mukKena angam bhavati \ 

" * All this is Soul. He who perceives this, thinks this, knows thisi 
delights in Soul, sports with Soul, consorts with Soul, takes pleasure 
in Soul ; he becomes self-resplendent.' Here the sight expressed in 
the words ' perceiving,' etc., is by removing all errors regarding dis- 
agreeableness, etc., an adjunct of supreme devotion in the form of ' de» 
Ught in Soul.' " 

In his remarks on Sutra 31 the commentator quotes another paaaage 
of the same Upanishad, iu. 14, 4, in which a S^an^ilya is referred to as 
the author of a statement. Sknkara in his commentary on the Upani- 
shad calls him a rishi. He cannot, however, have been the same person 
as the author of the Sutras ; although, even if he had been so reputed, 


Sknkara would haye bad little difficulfy in denying that they could 
have been written by a rishi, as we ahall see in the next section thai 
he contradicts the opinion that the rishi Kapila, referred to in the 
S^retaivatara Upanishad, was the author of the Sankhya aphorisms* 

Sect. 'Xl.-^IHstincU'on m point of authority heiwesn the Veda and ih$ 
Smritii or non» Vedic S'dsirasj as stated in the Nydt/a-mdld-viitara, 
and hy the Commentators on Manu, and the Veddnta, etc. ; difference 
of opinion between S'ankara and Madhusiidana regarding the ortho^ 
doxy of Kapila and JTandda, etc. ; and VijndnaEhikshi^s mew oftha 

A distinct line of demarcation is generally drawn by the more 
critical Indian writers between the Yedas, and all other classes of 
Indian S^astras, however designated. The former, as we have seen, are 
considered to possess an independent authority and to be infallible, 
while the latter are regarded as deriving all their authority from the 
Veda, and (in theory at least) as infallible guides only in so far as they 
coincide with its dicta. This will be clear from the following passages : 
I. Kydya-mdld'Vieiara, — The first text which I adduce has been 
already quoted in the Second Volume of this work, but is repeated hero 
for facility of reference. It is from the treatise just named, i. 3, 24 : 

BaudhdyandpastamhuivaldyanOrlcdtydyanddi-ndindnkitdJi kalpa-sHtrd" 
ii^grantltdhk mgama" nirukta'shad-anga-granthdh Manv-ddi-smfitayak cha 
apaurusheydh dharma-huddhi'janakatvdt veda-vat \ na cha mula-pramdna- 
sdpekshatvena veda-vaishamyam it* iankanlyam | utpanndydh buddhei 
svaiah-prdmdnydng'ikdrena nirapekshatvdt \ Maivam | uktdnumdnasya 
luldtyaydpadishfatvdt \ Baudhuyana-sfdram Apastamba-srUram ity evan 
purusha-ndmnd te granthdh uchyante \ na cha Kdfhakddi'Samdkhyd'Vat 
pravaehana-nimitiaivam yuktam \ tad-grantha-nirmdna-kdle taddnlnianaihi, 
kaiichid upalabdhatvdt \ tach cha avichhinna-pdramparyena anuvarttato | 
iataik Kdliddsddhgrantha^at paurueheydl^ \ iathdpi veda-mulatvdi pra*^ 
mdnam | . # • . kalpasya vedatvam nddydpi siddham \ kintu prayatnena 
sddhanlyam \ na cha tat sddhayitufh iakyam \ paurtuheyaicasya samdkh* 
foyd tait-karttur upalambhena cha sddhitatvdt | 

*'It may be said that the Kalpa Sutras and other works designated 
by the names of Baudhayana, Apastambat AiTolayanai Katyajanfti eto^i 


and the Nigama, Nirukta, and six Yedangas, together with the SmptLs 
of Manu and others, are superhuman, because they impart a knowledge 
of duty, as the Yedas do ; and that they should not be suspected of 
inferiority to the Yedas on the ground that they depend upon a primary 
authority, since the knowledge which they impart is independent, 
because it is admitted to be self-evidencing. But this view is in- 
correct, for the inference in question proceeds upon an erroneous 
generalization. The books referred to are called by the names of 
men, as ' the Sutras of Baudhayana,' ' the Sutras of Apastamba ; ' and 
these designations cannot correctly be said to originate in the exposition 
of the works by those teachers whose names they bear (as is really the 
case in regard to the Xa^haka, and other parts of the Yeda) ; for it was 
known to some of the contemporaries of these men, at the time when 
they were composing these Sutras, Smritis, etc., that they were so en- 
gaged; and this knowledge has descended by unbroken tradition. 
Hence these books are, like the works of Kalidasa and others, of human 
origin. Nevertheless, they possess authority, as being founded on the 
Yeda." . . . The following additional remarks represent the opinion of 
the Guru (Prabhakara) on the same question : '^ It is not yet proved 
that the Xalpa Sutras possess the character of the Yeda; it would 
require great labour to prove it ; and, in fact, it is impossible to prove 
it. For the human origin of these books is established by the names 
which they bear, and by their being observed to have had authors.^' 

II. Kulluka. — The same thing is admitted by KuUuka, the commen- 
tator on Manu, who (in his remarks on i. 1) thus defines the relation 
of his author to the Yedas : 

Pauruiheyatve^pi Manu-vaky&ndm miglta-mahdjaruhparigraKat Sruiy» 
upagrahdch cha veda-mulakatayd pramdnyam \ Tatha cha chhandogyth' 
hrdhmane hHyate **Manur vai yat kinchid avadat tad hheshajam hheshafa^ 
tdyai" iti \ Vfihaspatir apy aha ^^Vedurthopanibandhj'itvdt prddhdnyafk 
hi Manoh smritam \ Manv-ariha-viparitd tu yd smritih sd na iasyate \ 
Tdvach chhdstrdni Sohhante tarka-vydkarandni cha \ Dharmdrtha-mokaho^ 
padesh^d Manur ydvad na drihjate '' | Mahdhhdrate ^py uktam ^^Purdnam 
Mdnavo dharmah sdngo vedai chikitsitam \ djud-iiddhdni chatvdri na 
hantavydni J^etubhih " | virodhi-Battddhadi-tarkair na hantavydni \ anU' 
kulas tu mtmdmsddi'tarkah pravarttanlyah eva \ ata eva vakshyati " dr* 
shatn dJtarmopadeiath cha veda-idstrdvtrodhind \ yas tarkendnusandhatU 
90 dharmah veda netarali " iti | 


" Though the Institutes of Manu had a personal author, still, as their 
reception hy illustrious men of unimpeached [orthodoxy], and their 
conformity to the Yeda, prove that they are based upon the latter, they 
are authoritative. Accordingly it is recorded in the Chhandogya Brah- 
mana that, ' Whatever Manu said is a medicine for remedial purposes/ 
And Yfihaspati says : ' As Manu depends upon the contents of the 
Yeda, he is traditionally celebrated as pre-eminent. But that Smfiti 
which is contrary to the sense of Manu, is not approved. Scriptures 
and books on logic and grammar are all eclipsed as soon as Manu, our 
instructor in duty, and in the means of attaining both earthly pros- 
perity, and final liberation, is beheld.' And it is said in the Maha- 
bharata : ' The Puranas, the Institutes of Manu, the Yeda with its 
appendages, and treatises on medicine, these four, which are established 
by authority, are not to be assailed by rationalistic arguments ; ' that 
is, they are not to be attacked by hostile reasonings, such as those of 
the Bauddhas. But friendly arguments, such as those of the Miman- 
sakas, are to be employed. And accordingly we shall find below (Manu 
ziL 106) that he says, 'the man who investigates the injunctions of 
the rishis, and the rules of duty by reasoning which is agreeable to the 
Yeda, he, and he only, is acquainted with duty.' " (See above, p. 24, 
note 29.) 

III. Nydya-m&ld-vistara, — ^But the precepts of the Bmriti are not 
considered useless or superfluous. On the contrary, an authority is 
attributed to them corresponding to the antiquity, elevated position, 
and sacred character of their supposed authors. Thus the author of 
the Nyaya^mala-vistara says (i. 3, 3) : 

VimtUd amfitir veda-muld \ vaidika-manv-ddi'pranltO'Smjrititvdt \ upa- 
nayanddhyayanddi'Smfiii-vat \ na cha vaiyarthyam iankanlyam \ asmad- 
ddindm pratyahheshu parohheshu ndnd vedeshu viprakirfmya anushfhe- 
^drthoiya ekatra ianhhipyamdnatvdt \ 

** The variously understood Smfiti is founded on the Yeda, because 
the traditionB, such as those regarding investiture, study, etc., have 
been compiled by Yedic men, such as Manu and others. Nor is it to 
he surmised that the Smfiti is useless, since it throws together in a 
condensed form a variety of injunctions regarding matters to be ob- 
served, which are scattered through different Yedas, both such as are 
TisiUe and suoh as are invisible to us." (This last expression appears 


to refer to the snppoaiticii that some parts of the Veda wliich Mann 
and others had before them when compiling their own works have 
now been lost. See Miiller'a Anc. Sansk. Lit. pp. 103-107.) 

Accordingly the Smiritis haye an authority superior to that founded 
merely en the practice of learned men of modem ^ate, who have no 
intuition into the past and inyisible. Thus the Kyaya-mala-Yistart 
5ays(i. 3, 19): 

Na hi %ddnlniandh iishtdh MunV'&di-vad dda-Jcala-viprahjriihtaik veiaH 
iivya-jndnena sdtthdtkarUuffi iahiuvanti yena itshtdehdro mitla-vedam 
anumdpay3i | 

*' For learned men of the present day do not possess the poweri 
Fliich Uanu and others had, of placing before their minds, through 
divine knowledge, the Veda which is far removed from them both in 
place and time, so as to justify us in regarding the practice of these 
modems as a sufficient ground for inferring the existence of a Yeda as 
its foundation." 

But as leamed men, in any particular country or at any particular 
time, may be able to consult some Smfiti which authorizes their par- 
ticular obser7anceS| *' these observances may serve as ground for infer- 
ring the existence of some Smpti on which they are founded, but not 
for inferring a Yeda {tasmdeh ehhUhtdchdrena amfitir anumdtum iakyaU 
na tu irutih). But a Smpiti which is thus merely inferred to exist is 
6ct aside by any visibly existing Smf iti of contrary import {anumitd 
cha Mifitir uruddhayd pratyahshayu smfityd hddhyaUy* 

lY. S'ankara. — The above passages, by assuming that Mann and 
other eminent sages had tho power of consulting Yedio texts now no 
longer accessible, make them practically almost infallible. The same 
view is taken by S'ankara Acharyya. (See, howevor, the passage quoted 
from him abovO| in note 67, p. 62 ; but there ho has the author of the 
Sankhya in view, whose tenets he regarded as contrary to tho Yeda.) 
In answer to the remark of a Mimansaka objector stated in tho com- 
ment on tho Brahma Sutra i. 3, 32, that the Itihasas and Fura^asy 
being of human origin, have only a derived and secondary authority 
i^itihdsa'furSQam apt paurmheyatv&t pramdndntara'tnukUum dkun' 
hhat$ '), Sankara argues in his explanation of the following Sutra (L S, 
^S) that they have an independent foundation : 

ItihOiO'jm'&Bam api vyukhyaUna m&ryesa iambhavad mantrarihapd4(h 


mikUU/vdtprahhavatidevatd'^graMdiprapanehayiium \ pratyaksha-mulam 

apt Mmhhavati \ hhavaiihiasmdkam apratyahsham apt cMrantandndm pra- 

tyakaham \ tathd cha VyiUddayo dwat&hhih pratyakshath vyaioaharanti iii 

mnaryaU \ yas tu hrHydd iddnlntandndm ivapHrveihdm apt ndsii devddihhir 

vyaicaharttutk idmarthyam iti sa jagai^aiehitryam pratishedst \ iddnJm 

ita eha na anyadd ^pi adrvahhaumah hshatriyo Uti iti hnydt tatai elu rnfo- 

tUyddi-ehodandh vparundhydt \ iddnim iva eha kdldntare *py avyavasihita- 

prdydn varndiranuhdharmdn pratijdnlta tatai cha vyavasthd-vidhdyi ids- 

tram anarthakam kurydt \ Tatmdd dharmotkanhovaidt chirantand^ devd- 

iiidhdh pratyahhaih vyajahrur iti iliihyaU \ api eha smaranti *^ wddhyd* 

S^dduhfa-devatd'iamprayoyt^ " ityddi \ yoyo ^py animAdy-aiivarya'prdpti- 

^^halakafi smaryamano na iakyate adhasa-mdtrena pratydkhydtum \ irtUii 

cha yoga-mahdtmyam prakhydpayati \ ''pf^thvy-ap'tejo-^nila-khe iomut- 

Mhite panehdtmake yoya-yune pravfiUe \ na tasyo royo najard na mj^tyuh 

^^Hrdpiasya yopdd^^ nimiaham Sarlram" iti \ jrishindm api mantra-hrdh" 

-wnana-daHindih idmarthyam na a»madiyena admarthyena upamdtum yuk' 

tarn I tasmdt BO-mUJam itihdsa-purdnam \ 

" The Itihaaas and Pnranas also, having originated in the way which 
has been explained, have power, as being based on the hymns and 
arthavadas, to evince the corporeality, etc., of the gods. It is also 
reasonable to suppose that they are founded upon intuition. For there 
were things palpable through intuition to the ancients, though they are 
not thus palpable to us.^ Accordingly it is recorded in the Smfiti that 
Vyasa and others associated £gu» to face with the gods.^*^ Any man 

u* Instead of yogad HMMuAam the text of the Biblioth. Indica reads yoyaynimayam. 

^'^ See above, pp. 116, 118, and 127; and also Prof MUller's article on the Vaise- 
shOcA Philosophy in the Journal of the Grerman Oriental Society, vol. vii. p. 311, 
where it is remarked that the Yais'eshikas, like Eapila, include the intuition of risMs 
under the category of pratyaktha {flrsham jnantak tutra-kfita pfUhak na lakthi» 
torn yoffi-pratyakafte *ntar-bhavat). 

169 Compare with this R.Y. i. 179, 2 : T$ chid Hipurve fitoKipah aaan tdkam deve- 
hkir avadann fitdni \ te ehid avatur ityadi \ " The pious sages who lived of old and 
who conversed about sacred truths with the gods, — they led a conjugal life," etc. See 
also the passages quoted from the Vana-parvan of the Mahabharata, the S'atapatha 
BrShmana, and Plato in the First Volume of this work, p. 147 ; and compare Hesiod 
fragment 119: |umU 7^ riir* Zcurts Utray, (vmU 8ff 06cfKoi dBoMrouri $toi<n irara- 

" Immortal gods, not unfamiliar, then 
Their feasts and oonvene shared with mortal men.'* 
And Herodotus writes of the Egyptians, ii. 144 : T& l\ wp^r^pow rAv dvZp&v rovrmv 


who should maintain that the ancients, like his own contempoTariea, 
were destitute of power thus to associate with superhuman heings like 
the gods, would be denying all variety in the history of the world. 
Such a person would in like manner affirm that as now there is no 
Kshattriya possessed of universal sovereignty, so neither was there ever 
such a prince ; and would thus impugn the scriptural injunctions re- 
garding the rdjasuya sacrifice [which was only to be x>6rformed by a 
universal monarch]. He would also allege that in former timesy as 
now, the dutes of castes and of orders were scarcely at all in force, and 
would thus render fruitless the scriptures by which the rules relating 
to them are prescribed. By these considerations it is intimated that the 
ancients, in consequence of their eminent holiness, were admitted to 
associate immediately with the gods, etc. And the Sm^iti ^ says that 
nearness to, and converse with the gods is gained by reading the Yeda, 
etc. Again, when the Smpiti talks of the practice of Yoga resulting in 
the acquisition of superhuman faculties, such as minuteness, this asser- 
tion cannot be impugned through mere audacity, [i.e. it must have 
had some good foiindation]. The Yeda, too, declares the immense 
power of devotion in these words : ' When the fivefold influence of 
Yoga, connected with the elements of earth, water, fire, air, and aether, 
has b^^ to act, and a man has attained an sthereal [or fiery] body, 
he is no longer affected by disease, decay, or death.' And it is un- 
reasonable to estimate, by the analogy of our own power, the power of 
the rishis, the seers of the Yedic hymns and Brahmanas. Wherefore 
the Itihasas and Puranas have an (independent) foundation.' " 

SSankara does not, however, treat all the ancients in this way. like 
many other systematizers, he finds no difficulty in rejecting or explain- 
ing away any authorities which come into confiict with his views. It 
is thus that he deals with Kapila, the author of the Sankhya. That 
eminent sage is thus spoken of in the S^vetaivatara TJpanishad, v. 2 : 

To yonim yonim adhitish(haty eko vUvdni rUp&ni yonU cha sarvdh \ 

Otohs hpeu robs ip 'Aty&irr^ Hpxorras, iiKiotrras ifua roiffi iyOp^hrouri, " And [the 
Egyptian priests said] that before these men the gods were the mien in Egypt, 
dwelling together with men." 

>>^ It appears from the gloss of Goyinda Ananda that one of the Yoga SQtras ii 
here quoted. I give the sense according to his explanation : wumtrthjopad 
nidhyham taUtambhathanam eha iti tutrartha^. 


rishim proiiLtaih Kapdaih ya% tarn agrejndnair hibharttijdyam&naih eha 
paSyei \ 

** The god who alone raperintends every sooioe of prodnction and 
all fonns, who fonnerly nourished with various knowledge his son the 
rishi Eapila, and beheld him at his birth, etc.''^^ 

Towards the dose of his comment on Brahma Sutras ii. 1, 1, which 
I shall cite at some length, Sisinkara makes some remarks on this pas- 
sage of that TJpamshad. After stating the points that had been estab- 
hshed in the first Book {adhydya) of the Brahma Sutras, and alluding 
to the objections which had been urged against the Sankhya and other 
hostile doctrines as contrary to the Yeda, S^ankara goes on to explain 
the object of the second book, and the purport of the aphorism with 
which it begins, as follows : 

Iddnlfk wchpahshe smriti-nyayehvirodha^arthdrah pra.lkdnddi-vddd' 

ndih eha nySydhhdsopabrimhitatvam prativeddntaih sfiihty-ddi-prakri' 

ydydh avigltatvam ity asya artha-jdtasya pratipddandya dvitfyo'dhydyai^ 

drahhyaU \ tattra prathamafn tdvat smfiti-virodham upanyasya pariho' 

rati I yad uktam Brahma eva sarvajnafh jayata^ kdranam tad ayuktam \ 

kutalk " tmrity-anavakdia- dosha- prasanydf \ imjitii eha tantrdhhyd 

paramarahi-pranltd iishfa^ariyrihltd \ anydS eha tad-antudrinyah smrt- 

tayalk \ evaih saty anavakdidh pratqfyeran \ tdnt hy aehetanam pradhd- 

naih tvatantraih jagatah kdranam upanibadhyate \ Manv-ddi'Smritayas 

^vaeh ehodand'lakshanena agnihotrddind dharma-jdtena apekshttam 

€9rtha^ iamarpayantya^ sdvakd^di^ hhavant* asya varmuya aamtn kdU 

^wiena vidhdnena vpanayanam idfiiai eha dehdra^ ittham vedddhayanam 

-^Hhafk samdvarttanam itthaih saha-dharma- ehdrinl -saihyoya^ iti tathd 

,^!3uru»hdrthdfhi ehatur-varndirama'dharmdn ndnd-vtdhdn vidadhati \ na 

7am ndpildduimtidnam anushfheye vishaye ^vakdio Uti moksha-sddhanam 

7a hi iamyay-darianam adhikfitya td^ pranltdh \ yadi tattra apy ana" 

^sakdidh iyur dnarthakyam eva dsdm prasajyeta \ tasmdt tad-aoirodhena 

^:eddntdh vydkhydtavyd^ \ katham puna/r ** Ikshity-'ddihhyo hetubhyo 

Brahma eva sarvajnafh jagatah kdranam ity avadhdritah iruty-artha^ \ 

** trnfity-anavakdia-dosha-prasangena '' punar dkshipyate \ hhaved ayam 

imdkihepa^ eva-tantra-pri^'ndndm \ para-tantra-prqfnds tu prdyena jarUL^ 

^ See S'ankara's commentary <m this passage in Bibl. Ind. yiL 351, and Dr. Boer's 
tnnslatbn, p. 62, with the note ; also Ihr. Hall's note in p. 19 of the pre&ce to his 
edition of the Sfinkhja Sfira, in the Bibl. Ind. 

« * 


ivdtaninfena iruty-artham avadhdrayitum aiaknuvantah prakhydta-prM — 
fietrikdsu stnfitishv avalamheran tad-haima eha iruty-artham pratipat^ 
$erann asmat-krite eha vydkhyane na vihasyur bahu-mdndt smritlndim' 
ffranetfishu \ kapikhprahhritlndm eha drahafh jndnam apratihataih snuh 
ryyate indii eha hhavati "fishim prasUtam kapilafh yoi tarn agrejndnair 
hihharttijdyamdnam ehapaSyed'* iti \ tasmdd na eshdm matam ayathdr* 
iham iahyaih sambhdvayitum \ tarhdvashfambhena eha t$ Wtham pratisk- ' 
thdpayanti \ toitndd apt smriti-halena veddntdfi vydkhyeyd^ iti punar 
dhhepah i tasya Bamddhir *' na \ anya-amfity-anavakdia-doiha-prasath 
gdd " iti I yadi unrity-anavakakhdosha-prtuangena Uvara-kdrana-vddak 
dkshipyeta evam apy anyd^ ihara-kdrana^ddinyah smrityo ^navakdidh 
prasajyeran \ tdh uddharishydinah | . • . . evam anekaia^ smritishv api 
iharah kdranatvena updddnatvena eha prakdiyate \ smfiti-halena pratya- 
vatiihthamdnasya smriti-halena eva uttaram pravaksnydmi ity aio *yam 
anya'Smrity-anavakdia-doshopanydsah \ dariitam tu irutlnam Uvanh 
kdrana-vddam prati tdtparyyam \ vipratipattau eha emfitindm a/caiyo' 
kartavye ^nyatara^arigrahe ^nyatarasydh paritydge eha inUy-anusdrim- 
yah smfitayah pramdnam anapekshydh itaral^ \ tad uktam pramdna4a- 
kshans " virodhe tv anapekshafh sydd asati hy anumdndm '' iti (MlmanBa 
Sutras i. 3, 3) I na eha aflndriydn arthdn irtUim antare^a kaiehid upo" 
lahhaie iti iakyam sambhdvayitum nimittdbhdvdt \ iakyam kapilddlndm 
Hddhdndm apratihata-jndnatvdd iti ehet \ na \ siddh&r api idpekihatvdt \ 
dharmdnushthdndpekshd hi siddhih sa eha dharmai ehodand^lakshanafi j 
tatai eha purva-siddhdydi ehodandydh artho na paiehima-nddha-pmruBha- 
vachana-vaiena atiiankitufh Sakyate \ aiddha^yapdiraya-kalpandydm apt 
hahutedt siddhdndm pradar&itena prakdrena smfiti'VipratipaUau iotydH 
na iruti^yapdiraydd anyad nirnaya-kdranam OBti \ para-tantra^afna-' 
sya api na akasmdt smriti-viiesha-vishaya^ pakshapdto ytiktaft \ katyaehit 
kvaehit tu pakshapdte »ati puruaha-mati-vaiharupyena tattvdvyMthdnth 
praaangdt \ tasmdt tasya api smriti-vipratipatty-upanydiena iruty-anU" 
idrdnanusdra-vivechanena eha Bon-mdrge prajnd sangrahanlyd \ Yd tu 
irutih KaptUuya jndndtiiayam dariayanti pradarHtd na tayd iruti' 
viruddham api KdpHam matam iraddhdtum iahyaih ^^ KapUam^* iti 
** Sruti-sdmdnya-mdtratvdd^* ^^ anyasya eha Kapikuya Sagara-putrdndm 
prataptur Vdsudeva-ndmnah smarandt \ anydrtha-darianasya ehaprdpti* 
rahitasya asddhakatvdt \ Bhavati eha anyd Manor mdhdtyam prakhyd* 
M Mlmfissa-satra i. 1, 81. See aboYe, j^. 78 1 


payanil hutir **yad vai kincha Manur avadat tad hheshajam^* ^ iti \ 
Mdnund ^^ (xii. 91) ** sarva-hhuteshu ehatmanafn aarvihbhiltdni ohdt' 
man* \ samam paiyann dtma^djl wdrdjyam adhufoehehhati" it* $arvdt^ 
matva-4arianam praiaiksatd KdpUam mataih nindyate it* gamy ate \ Ka- 
pHo hi na earvdtmatva^rianam anumanyate dtma-hheddhhyupagamdt \ 
. . • . atai eha dtma-hheda-kdlpanayd ^pi KdpiUuya tantrasya veda- 
tiruddhatvani veddnusdri-Manu^aehafUhvirudhatva^i eha na kevdlaih wo- 
tanira-prakf^ti-parikalpanayd eveti aiddham \ vedasya hi nirapeksha^ 
ivdrthe prdmanyaih raver iva rUpa-vishaye purueha^aehasdm tu tnnldn' 
tardpekihaffi evdrthe prdmdnyaih vaktri-emt^ti-vyavahitaih eha iti vipra' 
larehah | tasmdd veda-viruddhe vishaye emfity^anaeaikdia'praeango na 
doshah I 

*' Bat now the second chapter is commenced with the view of effect- 
ing the following objects, viz. (a) to refute, in onr own favour, the 
charge of contradicting the reasonings of the Sm^iti, to shew {I) that 
'the doctrines regarding Pradhana, etc., have nothing more than an ap- 
pearance of reason, and {e) that the manner in which the subjects of 
<sreation, etc., are treated in each of the Upanishads is unimpeachable. 
IFirst of all then the author states, and removes, the objection of con- 
"trariety to the Smfiti. Our opponents urge that it is incorrect to say 
-that the omniscient Brahma is the cause of the world. Why ? Because, 
^1) as they allege, that doctrine ' is chargeable with the objection of setting 
^iside the Smfiti as usele6s'(Br. Sutra, iL 1, 1). This term 'Smpiti' denotes 
a systematic treatise {tantra) composed by an eminent rishi, and received 
by the learned ; and there are other Sm^itis in conformity with it. And 
the alleged difftculty is that (on the theory that Brahma is the cause) all 
theso would be set aside as useless ; since they propound an unconscious 
Fradhana as the self-dependent cause of the world. The Sm^itis of 
Uana and others, indeed, which affirm that by means of the agnihotra 
and other enjoined ceremonies, the objects desired (by those who practise 
these rites) will bo accomplished, will still retain their use, viz. of pro- 
scribing tho objects to be pursued, viz. the various duties of the four 
castes and ordcr8,-*that such and such a caste shall be initiated at such 
ft time and by such a process, and shall follow such and such a mode of 
life, that tho Veda is to bo studied, that the cessation of study is to 
take place, and that union with a woman following the same rites is to 
^ 8m aboTO, p. 181, and the Fixit Yolome of thk work, pp. 188, and 510. 


celebrated, in such and such ways. But [on the hypothesis of Brahma 
being the creator] no such room is left for the Smfitis of Slapila and 
others, on the ground of any ceremonies to be performed [in conformity 
with their prescriptions] ; for they have been composed as embodying 
perfect systems affording the means of fuial liberation. If in this 
respect also no place be left for them the difficulty will arise that they 
are quite useless. And hence the conclusion is reached that the Upani- 
shads should be interpreted so as to harmonize with them. But, such 
being the case, how, it is again objected, have you determined on the 
strength of the reasons furnished by the texts about 'beholding,' etc., 
that it is the meaning of the Yeda that Brahma is the omniscient cause 
of the world, thus exposing yourself to the charge of leaving no place 
for the Smriti ? Although we hold that this charge ia harmless as regards 
those who think for themselves ; yet men have for the most part no 
independent opinion, and are unable by an unassisted act of their own 
judgment to determine the sense of the Yedas, and will consequently lean 
upon the Sm|*itis composed by renowned authors, and adopt the sense of 
the Yedas which they enforce : and from their lofty opinion of these authors 
they will have no confidence in our interpretations. And it is moreover 
urged (2) that Ejipila and the others are declared by the Smriti to have 
possessed an unobstructed intuitive {drsha^^) knowledge ; and there is 
also a Yedic text to the effect ' He who of old sustains with manifold 
knowledge Kapila when he is produced, and beholds him when bom,' etc 
(S^vetasv. Tip. v. 2). Consequently their doctrines cannot be imagined 
to be nntrue. And they further support their tenets by argument. On 
these grounds also, it is urged, the TJpanishads must be interpreted by 
the aid of the Smritis. The questions thus raised are settled by the con- 
cluding words of the Sutra, ' No ; for this conclusion is vitiated by the 
objection that other Smritis would in this way be rendered useless.' (1) 
If the doctrine that God^ the cause of the world is chargeable with 
the objection that it leaves no room for the Smfiti, in the same way the 
difficulty will arise (on the other theory) that other texts of the Smyiti 
which affirm that GK>d is the cause will be set aside. These we shall 
adduce." After quoting some passages, Siankara proceeds : " In the 
same manner in numerous texts of the Smfiti God is shewn to be both 
the instrumental and the material cause. I must answer on the 

1* See above, pp. US, 118, and 127. 


Btrength of the Smpti the person who opposes me on the same ground^ 
and so I just indicate this objection against his views as having the 
effect of setting aside other Smf itis. But it has been shown that the 
sense of the Yedic texts is in favour of the causality of God. And 
since, if the Smf itis are at variance with each other, we must of neces- 
sity accept the one set and reject the other, those of them which are con- 
formable to the Yeda will be authoritative, and the rest will deserve 
no attention : for it has been said in the section (of the Purva Mimansd) 
on proof (i. 3, 3), that ' if it (the Smfiti) be contrary (to the Veda) it 
must be disregarded ; but if there be no (contrariety) it must be in- 
f Tied (that the former is founded on the latter)/ And it is inconceiv« 
able that anyone should discover things beyond the reach of the senses 
without the aid of the Yeda, since the means of doing so are wanting. 
If it be urged that we can conceive such discovery (of imperceptible 
things without the help of the Yeda) as possible in the case of Kapila 
and other perfect persons (jnddhdndm)^ because there was nothing to 
obstruct their knowledge ; — ^we reply, No ; because perfection {siddhi) 
is dependent upon something else, viz. on the practice of duty. Now 
duty is defined as something which is enjoined. And the subject- 
matter of an injunction which was previously promulgated cannot be 
called into doubt on the strength of the words of a man who became 
perfect at a subsequent period. And even on the supposition that con- 
fidence could be placed in such 'perfect' persons, yet, as they are 
nomerous, and as such a mutual contradiction as we have already 
pointed out exists between the Smptis of different 'perfect' persons, 
there is no means left of determining the truth, but reliance on the Yeda. 
Causeless partiality to any particular Sm^iti, on the part even of a man 
who has no independent opinion, is improper ; but if anyone ever does 
exhibit such partiality, the charge of depriving truth of all fixity at- 
taches to his procedure, because the opinions of men (which he takes 
as the standard of his belief) assume all sorts of forms. Consequently 
his judgment also should be directed into the right path by indicating 
the mutual contradictions between the different Smfitis, and by dis- 
tinguishing those of them which are conformable to, from those which 
are at variance with, the Veda. And (2) the Yedic text which has been 
pointed out, showing the transoendent character of Eapila's knowledge, 
cannot be a warrant for believing the doctrine of Kapila, though con- 

■ V - 



w vuJk >iJi%.'« the word Eapila 'has, in this text^ a general 

. .^.^lo :v> jchcn besides the aathor of the Sankhya] (Mim. 

. . .uic juiother Kapila called YasudoTa, the consumer of 

. N. > il»u moQtioned in the Smpiti; and since the indication 

.. .:^ k .ucli had a ditfercnt object in view, and is therefore iirele- 
..^ .u^i.:tT:u iiuostion, can prove nothing.'^^ There is, besides, 
. V. . * '. iio \\\li which sets forth the eminent diginity of Manu in 
.« iwx ' ^^ ^utover Manu said is medicine.' ^^ And Manu — ^when 
^ ^.-vx .Iio words (xii. 91), 'He who, with impartial eye, beholds 
:l .ill Niujcs (UiJ cdl beings in himself, thus sacrificing his 
.. ^ v.<H,ujI:y, attains to self-rcfulgencc ; ' and, by saying this com- 

X ac -.vucc chat everything is one with the supreme Spirit — must 

\, ...^c&N4,v\vl ;i:» censuring Kapila*s doctrine. For Kapila does not 
....... c -iio identity of Brahma and the universe, since he holds a 

• v^ ,> oi .M.»uls.'* . . . (After quoting one passage from the Maha- 
>.'....«..., uiJ auother from the Yeda, to prove that Kapila is wrong, 

Vjk»A«:.« '.luvv-eds^ : ^'llence it is proved that Kapila's system is at 
« . ..;... c « Lih the ViHla and with the words of Manu, who follows the 
^.v..^ '.u*; oalv iu siip]H>8ing an independent Prakfiti (nature), but also 
u ,..^ .'v\>.u^ *4 diversity of souls. Now the Yeda has an independent 

K';ii\ iu n^^anl to its own contents, as the sun has (an inherent 

• ,, i«^ ; "^ K^i uuiuitesting forms ; whilst the words of men have, as regards 
AU..I .'^u »^*us(\ an authority which is dependent on another source 
•av \^\i;i\ ttud which is distinguished (from the authority of the 
\ v\.u.' ^\ the taet of their authors being remembered. Consequently 
-; '\,»iLUJk uo ebjtvtion to a doctrine that it sets aside a Smfiti on a point 
^ lA wntrary to the Yeda." 

•» itw ^v^ivU thus tranthtcd sre explained as follows in the Gloa of Qovinda 
Vu»*«kM4 .\:'ri«'\.* *'><i4 KitpHamj'maHair dibhtirtti tarn Wraram pas'yed" iti ridhiyaU 
^ i,^ ki jMf^i'-;V»y«i itrjra^pratipatti'Mhatya Kapila'isrrajnjtratya darianam 
..^.k^tMM siM^»4 «iKi*km/arrna ptapti'»unjfa*ya tr^rthA^iJtakatviiyogad na aHuvUdO' 
^mmi* 9»M^^jH^tf^^nJdAir fry uAif | ** And it u enjoined (in the text of the SVctfi* 
i^sM«k&A Vpaiu«had) : * Let him hohold that l»¥ara who nourishes KapHa with Tarious 
w.t.:>id|fc;' and to since this * indication* of, this reference to, the omniscience of 
<lljl^yi*, «hich has another objivt iu riew. and ends in the establishment of an la'Ta^^ 
^ ^;^*^ on other grounds is shewn to be iireletant, cannot prove its own meaning, 
«.j|l»«MN Inference doot not suffice to ennce Kapila's omniscience : — ^This is what 
*l^|gi^ MMans to say.** 
^5^H Um Fint Volame of this work, pp. 18S and 510. 


See also SIsLiikara's commentary on the TaittiiTya TTpanuhad, Bib. 
Ind. vii. pp. 136, 137, where he says : 

Kdpila-kdnddddi'tarJta'Sdstra'vinMai^ iti ehet | na \ teihdm muld- 
hhdve vedcHnrodhe eha hhrdwtyopapatUh \ 

" If it be objected that this is contrary to the rationalistio doctrines 
of Eapila and Kanada [and therefore wrong], I answer no, since these 
doctrines are proyed to be erroneous, as haying no foundation, and as 
being in opposition to the Yeda." 

His remarks on a passage of the Pra^na Upanishad, which are aa 
follows, afford a cnrioos specimen of the contemptaoos manner in which 
this orthodox Yedantist treats the heretical Sankhyas, etc (Praina Tip. 
yi. 4 ; Bib. Ind. yiii. 244) : 

Sankhyas iu avidyd-dhyaropitamwapurwhe harttfitvam knyd-idrO' 
ham phalaih cha iti kalpayitvd dyanuhvdhyatvdt punas tatas trasyanta^ 
paramdrthatah eva hhoktritvam purushasya iehehkanti \ tatUdntarafh cha 
pradhdnam purushdt paramdrtha^astu-hhiktam eva kalpayanto ^nya-tdr- 
kika-kfita-huddhi-vishaydJ^ santo vihanyante \ Tathd itare tdrkikdh sdr^ 
khyair ity ecam paraspara^ruddhdriha-kalpandta^ dmishdrthinaJ^ iva 
prdnino ^nyonyam viruddhamdndh artha-dariitvdt paramdriha-tattcdt 
tad-dUram eta apdkrishyanU \ atas tan-matam anddfitya veddntdrtha- 
tattvam ekatva-darianam prati ddaravanto mumukshavah syur iti tdrkika- 
mate dosha-darianam kinchid uchyate 'stndhhir na tu tdrkika-tdtparyyena \ 
'' The fbllowers of the Sankhya imagine that the functions of action^ 
and the enjoyment of reward which causes action, become erroneously 
attributed to the soul (purusha) in consequence of superyening ignorance ; 
but as this doctrine differs from that of Scripture, they become afraid of 
it, and seek to ascribe to the soul enjoyment in the proper sense. And 
supposing another principle distinct firom soul, yiz. Fradhana (or na- 
ture), which they regard as substance in the piroper sense, they become 
the objects of correction by other rationalists, and are crushed. Thus, 
in consequence of the contrariety between the Conceptions of the San- 
khyas and those of other freethinkers, the two parties quarrel with 
each other like animals fighting for flesh ; and thus, from their haying 
an (exclusiye) regard to (their own) yiews, they are all drawn away 
to a distance from the essential truth. Wherefore let men, disregarding 
their tenets, seek for final liberation by paying honour to the principles 
of the Yedantic doctrine, which maintains the unity of all being. We 


hare thus pointed out something of the errors of the rationalists^ and 
have said nothing in accordance with their yiews." 

lY. — ^In thus depreciating Kapila, Sknkara is in direct opposition to 
the Bhagavata Purana (which, however, may be a work of later date 
than his^*), in which the author of the Sankhya is spoken of with the 
greatest reverence. Thus in Bhag. Pur. i. 8, 10, he is described as 
the fifth incarnation of Vishnu : 

Panehamah Kqpilo ndma siddheSah kdla-viplutam \ pravdchdsuraye 
B&nkhyam taUva-granuHfinirnayam \ 

'' In his fifth manifestation, he [in the form of] Kapila, and lord of 
saints, declared to Asuri the Sankhya which defines the series of prin- 
ciples, and which had been lost through the lapse of time." 

And again, in Bhag. Pur. ix. 8, 12, 13, Kapila is made the subject 
of eulogy. A legend narrates that the sixty thousand sons of king 
Sagara, conceiving £apila to be the robber of a horse which had been 
carried away from their sacrifice, advanced to slay him, when they 
were burnt up by fire issuing from his body. The author of the 
Purana, however, denies that this was in any degree owing to passion 
on the part of the sage : 

Na sddhu-vddo muni-kopa-hharjital^ nrtpendra-putrd^ iti iattva-^OUL' 
mani \ katharh tamo roshamayaih vihhdvyaU jagat-paviirdtmani khe rajo 
hhuvah \ yasyeritd sdnkhyamayl dridheha naur yayd mumulshua taraU 
duratyayam | hhavdriuivam mfityu^atha^ vipaSehita^ pardtnuhbhiiUuya 
katham p-fithanmatih \ 

'' It is not an assertion befitting a good man to say that the king's 
sons were burnt up by the wrath of the sage ; for how is it conceivable 
that the darkness {UmoB) of anger should reside in the abode of good- 
ness {BaUva\ or that the dust (or passion, r<i^ja%) of the earth should 
ascend into the sky, the region of purity? How could that sage, one 
with the supreme Spirit, by whom the strong ship of the Sankhya was 
launched, on which the man seeking emancipation crosses the ocean 
of existence, hard to be traversed, and leading to death, — ^how could he 
entertain the idea of any distinction between himself and others [and 
so treat any one as an enemy] ?" 

It is not necessary for me to quote any further passages in praise of 
the author of the Sankhya. There is a great deal about this system 

>M See Wilioif B Yiflh. Par., preface, pp. zUt. and li 


in the Mahabharata, SUntiparvaiiy venes 11,037 ff. See Colebrooke's 
Essays, i. 236 (p. 149 of Williams and Norgate's ed.) ; Wilson's YishQU 
Parana, pref. p. xciv. and text, pp. 18 ff. with notes; Bhagavata Pnrana, 
ilL chapters 24-30 ; Weber's Ind. Stud, passim ; Dr. Boer's Introduc- 
tion to ffyetaivatara TJpanishad, Dibl. Ind. X7. 35 ff. ; and Dr. Hall's 
preface to the Sankhya-sara in the Bibl. Ind. p. 19, note. 

We have thus seen that a distinct line of demarcation is drawn by 
the most accurate and critical of the Indian writers, between the Shiti, 
which they define to be superhuman and independent, and the Smpiti, 
which they regard as of human origin, and as dependent for its author- 
ity on its conformity with the Shiti. SSmkara, indeed, as we have also 
observed (above, p. 183 f.), goes very nearly^ if not altogether, so far as 
to assign an independent foundation to the Smfitis; but he confines this 
distinction to such of these works as coincide in doctrine with the S^ruti 
or Yeda, according to his own Yedantio interpretation of its principles, 
while all other speculators are denounced by him as heterodox. It is, 
however, dear from the Sveta^vatara TJpanishad, the Mahabharata, the 
Bhagavad Gita, the Vishnu, and the Bhagavata Pura^as, etc., that the 
loctrines of the Sankhya must have been very prevalent in ancient 
mes, and that Sknkara, when he condemned them as erroneous, must 
ive done so in the face of many powerful opponents.^^ 

^^ I quote the following passage from Dr. Boer's Introduction to the S'YetSsyatara 

anishad, pp. 36 f. : **At the time of the composition of the S'wetaswatara, the 

khja was not a new system, which had to overcome the resistance of old received 

lions, and the prejudices of men in power, whose interest might he opposed to the 

Mluction of a doctrine hj which their authority could he questioned. It had 

d many adherents; it was the doctrine of Manu, of some parts of the Mahft- 

ita, and to its founder divine honour had been assigned by general consent It 

V doctrine whose argumentative portion demanded respect, and as it was admitted 

iny Br£mhans {sic)^ distinguished for their knowledge of the Vedas, it could not 

ated as a heresy. The most learned and eminent of the Bramhans were evidently 

i among themselves with reference to the truth of the Sankhya and Yedftnta, 

is must have afforded to the opponents of the Yedaic system a most powerftil 

I for attacking the Vedas themselves. If both the Sfinkhya and Yed&nta are 

•evelations, both must be true ; but if the doctrine of the one is true, the doo- 

the other is wrong ; for they are contradictory among themselves. Further, 

vre derived from the Vedas, it is evident that also the latter cannot reveal the 

*causc they would teach opposite opinions about one and the same point. Such 

s to the Vedas bad been made already in ancient times, as is dear from the 

da, from several passages of Manu, from Yaska, etc. ; and under these cir- 

^a it cannot be wondered at, if early attempts were made to reconcile the 



Il U Bot necessary for me here to inquire with any accuracy what 
Otxf relation was in which the different philosophical systems stood to 
^>Kh other in former ages. It may suffice to say that the more thorough- 
^>iu^ adherents of each — of the Vedanta, the Sankhya, the Nyaya, 
rCv\— musty according to all appearance, have maintained their respec- 
UY« luriuoiplos with the utmost earnestness and tenacity, and could not 
hs^ve admitted that any of the rival systems was superior to their own 
in any particular. It is impossihle to study the Sutras of the several 
^'hoi>]s, and como to any other conclusion. The more popular systems 
i>i the PurunaSy on the other hand, hlcnded various tenets of the dif- 
fen^nt systems syncretically together. In modem times the superior 
orthinloxy of the Vedanta seems to he generally admitted. But even 
ik^mo who hold this opinion refuse to follow the example of Sknkara in 
denouncing the founders of the rival schools as heretical. On the con- 
trary, they regard them all as inspired Munis, who, hy adapting their 
doctrines to the capacities or tendencies of different students, have 
paved the way for the ultimate reception of the Vedantic system. 
Such is the view taken in the Prosthana-hheda of Madhusiidana Saras- 
vatl, who gives the following lucid summary of the leading principles 
of the different schools of speculation (Weber's Indische Studien, i. 23) : 

Sanrshihli cha sanlshepena trividhah eva prasthuna-hhedah \ tatra 
araMhhu'Vddah ekuh \ pannrnna-i'ddo diitlyah \ vivartta-vadas iritiyah \ 
^Irthm'ijn/a-faiJaiia'Vat/avlyds chaturcidhdh paramdnavo dvy-amuiddi- 
kt\tmem9 hrahmdtida'paryantittti jagad drambhanU \ tuad eva hdryyam 
kHraka'Vydpdrdd ntpadyate Hi prathamas tdrkikdndm tnimdmnk' 
kdHdth cha I Mttva ' rajas - tamo - gundtmakam pradhdnam eta fmikad* 
ahankdrddi - kramrna jagad-dkdrena parinamate \ pUrvam api Biikshma- 
rUprna sad era kdrgaw kdrana-vgdpdrena ahhiryajyaU iti dtitlyah 
pakshah Sdnkhya -Yoga - Pdtanjala - Pdiupatdndm \ Brahmana^ pari" 
ndmo jagad iti Vaishnavdndm \ sva-prakasa-paramdnaridddvitlyam Brahf 
ma sva-mdyd'Vasdd mithyaira jagad-dkdrena kalpate iti tfitfyah jpaksko 

tenets of the Tcdunta a :d Sunkbya to save the anifonnity of the doctrine, and 
thorcbv the sacrcdness of the Vixias as the Scriptures derived from the immediate 
TVTolation of God. So, for instance, it is recorded that Vvusa, the reputed author of 
the Ih^mha SQtras, wrote also a commentary to Patjinjjili*s Yoga-sastra, which is still 
eitaut under his name. In the same manner composed Gau^apada, the eminent 
AVUntist, and teacher of S'ankara's teacher, Gorinda, a commentary to li'vu* 
KriahiVt Sankhya KftriU i and the Bhagarad Gita has also the nae diject." 



jBrahnuhv&dindm \ sarveshdm prastMna-karttfinam munlndiih vtvartta- 
vdda-paryavasdnena advitiye Paramehare eva pratipddye tdtparyam \ na 
hi te munayo hhrdntdh sarvajnatvdt teshdm j kintu vahir-vishaya-pravO' 
ndndm dpdtatah purtuhdrthe praveio na sambhavati iti ndstikya-vdrO' 
ndya taih prakdra-hheddk pradariitd^ \ tatra teshdfh tdtparyam abuddhvd 
veda-viruddhe ^py arthe tdtparyam utprekshamdnds tan-matam eva upd- 
deyatvena gfihnanto jandh ndnd-patha-^'usho bhavanti \ iti sarvam ana^ 
vadyam \ 

*' The difference in principle between these various schools is, when 
briefly stated, three-fold. The first doctrine is that of a commencement 
of the world ; the second is that of an eyolution ; the third is that of 
an illusion. Atoms of four descriptions — earthy, aqueous, igneous, and 
aerial — ^beginning with compounds of two atoms, and ending in the 
egg of Brahma (the world), originate the universe : and effects, pre- 
viously non-existent, come into being from the action of a causer. This 
is the first theory, that of the Logicians and Mlmansakas. The second 
theory, that of the 8&nkhyas, Yogas, Patanjalas, and Pa^upatas, is that 
Pradkdna (or Prakriti = nature), consistmg of the three gunas (quali- 
tiefl), Boitva, rajas^ and tamos, is evolved, through the successive stages 
of mahat (intellect), and ahankdra (consciousness), etc., in the form of 
the world ; and that efiects, which had previously existed in a subtile 
form, are [merely] manifested by the action of their cause. Another 
form of this theory is that of the Yaishnavas [the Eamanujas], who 
hold the universe to be an evolution of Brahma. The third view, that 
of the Brahma-vadins (Yedantists), is, that Brahma, the self-resplen- 
dent, the supremely happy, and the one sole essence, assumes, unreally, 
the form of the world through the influence of his own illusion (Maya). 
The ultimate scope of all the Munis, authors of these different sys" 
terns, is to support the theory of illusion, and their only design is to 
establish the existence of one Supreme God, the sole essence ; for these 
Monifl could not be mistaken [as some of them must have been, if 
they were not all of one opinion, or, as those of them must have been 
who did not hold Yedantic principles], since they were omniscient. 
Bat as they saw that men, addicted to the pursuit of external objects, 
oomld not all at once penetrate into the highest truth, they held out to 
fhem a variety of theories, in order that they might not fall into atheism. 
Ifuondentanding the object which the Munis thus had in view, and 


representmg that they even designed to propound doctrines contray 
to the Yedas, men have come to regard the specific doctrines of tiiese 
several schools with preference, and thus hecome adherents of a variety 
of systems. Thus all has been satisfactorily stated." 

I find that Yijnana Bhikshu, the commentator on the Sankhya aphor- 
isms, takes very nearly the same view as is here quoted from Madhu- 
sudana Sarasvati, in regard to the superiority of the Brahma Mlmansa 
or Yedanta over the other Dar^anas. 

In his Sankhya-pravachana-bhashya (Bibliotheca Indica, pp. 3 f£.), 
he thus writes : 

Sydd etat \ Nydya-vaUehikdhhydm atra avirodho hhavatu \ hrahma- 
mimdihsa-yogdhhydm tu virodho 'sty eva \ tahhydih nityeivara-sddhandt \ 
atra eha livarasya pratishidhyamdnatvdt \ na cha atrdpi vydvahdrika- 
pdramdrthika^hhedena sehara-nirlivara'Vddayar avirodho ^stu sehara- 
vddasya updsand-paratva-samhhavdd itx vdchyam \ vinigamakdhhdvdt \ 
isvaro hi durjneyah iti niriivaratvam api loka-vyavahdrO'Siddham aOva^ 
ryya-vairdgydya anuvaditum Sakyate dimanah sayunatvam iva \ na tu 
kvdpi iruty-dddv tivarah spliufam pratishidhyate yena aeivara^ddasyaiva 
vydvahdrikatvam avadhdryeta iti \ atra uchyate \ atrdpi vydvahdrika^ 
pdramdrthika ' bhdvo hhavati \ **a8atyam apratish(ham te jagad dhur 
aniivaram*' iiyddi-idstrair nirUvara-vddasya ninditatvdt \ asminn jva 
idstre vydvahdrikasyaira pratishedhasya aiSvaryya'Vairdgyddy-artham 
anuvddatvauchitydt \ yadi hi lauhdyatika-matdnwdrena nityaisvaryyam 
na pratishidhyeta iadd paripHrna-nitya-nirdoshaikaryya-darsanena tatra 
chittdveiato vivckdhhydsa * pratihandhal^ sydd iti sdnkhydohdryydn&m 
diayah \ sehara-vddasya na kvdpi nindddikam asti yena updsanddhpara- 
tayd tat idstrafa sanhochyeta \ yat tu " ndsti adnkhya-aamaih jndnaik 
ndsti yoga-samam haHam \ atra vah saniiayo md hhuj jndnam ednkhyam 
param smfitam'^ ityddi vdkyam tad-vivekdMe eva sdnkhya-jndnasya dar^ 
iandiUarehhyah utkarsham pratipddayati na tv iSvara-pratisheddmde *pi | 
tathd Pardiarddy'akhila'iishta-sathvdddd api eehara-^ddasyaiva pdrO' 
mdrthikatvam avadhdryate \ api eha '^Akshapdda-pramte cha Kdnade 
adnkhya-yogayoh \ tydjya^ h^ti-virudho ^miah iruty-eka-iaranair njri" 
hhih I Jaiminlye cha Vaiydse virudhdmio na kakchana \ hnityd veddrtha- 
vijndne iruti-pdrafh gatau hi tdv" iti Fardiaropapurdnddihhyo *pi 
hrahmarmimdrnsuydh livardmie halavattvam \ yathd j ** nydya-tantrdny 
anekdni tais tair uktdni vddihhi^ \ hetv-dgama-saddchdrair yad yuktam 

.N AUTHORS. 197 

tfly-uktah Ihara-sHdhaka' 
. >im na paiyanti yoglndrah 
■i hrahnia tarn eva iaranarh 
ui livarujndnasyaiva ndrdya- 
Klmsdydh Uvarah eva tnukhyo 
■umse tasya hddhe idstrasyaha 
! SahddrthaJ^ *' tti nydydt \ sdw 
• fna'praljiti-purtishchvivekdv eva 
• uMsa-hddhe *pi na aprdmdnyam \ 
i nydydt \ atah sdvakdSatayd sdn^ 
'(dam iti \ na cJia hrahma-mimdm' 
ayo na tu nityaisvaryam iti vaktw7i 
/frasanya^-rupa-p urva-^akshasya an m- 
fha eva hrahma'mimdmsd'vishayatvdva' 
-hrahmany eva mukhyatayd tu *^atkdtah 
iritani iti \ etena Bdnkhya^irodhdd hrah- 
a-2>aratvam api na idnkan'iyam \ prakrlti- 
•(fpattei cha na anumdnam '' ityddi hrahma- 
vha I tathd *^ sa purveshdm api guriih kdlcna 
ra-tadlya-vydsO'hhdshydbhydm sphufam isa- 
nnmdd ahhyupagama-vdda'praiMi-vddddind 
kara-pratishedha'paratayd hrakma-mlmdfiisd' 
hah I abhyupayanuhvddai cha sdstre drUhfah \ 
17, 54) I ^*Et$ hhinna-driidm daitydh vikalpdh 
■.yupayamaffi tatrasankshspah snlyatdm mama " \ 
. jndna'pratibandhdrtham dstika-darianeshv apy 
urtha'Vyavasthdpanath teshu teshv amseahv apra- 
smfity - avinuidheshu tu mukhya - vishayethu prd^ 
af.a^ eva Padma-purdne hrahma- yoga -darsandti* 
m nindd ^py upapadyate j Yathd tatra Fdrvatlm 
I *' Srinu devi pravakshydmi tdmasdni yathd-kra- 
'fja-matrena pdtityam jndnindm api \ prathamam hi 
f/i Pdhtpatddikam \ mach-chhakty-dvesiiair vipraih sam^ 
.am I Kanddena tu samproktam idstraih taiieshika/n 
a tathd nydyam sdnJchyam tu Kapilena vai \ dvijau' 
parvaM vedamaydrthata^ , niriivarena vddena kfiiam 


iAj^M m^J^it4Hram \ Dhishanena tathd proktam chdrvdl-am att-garhi" J 
Um I Mt^andiik nUkandrthdya Vishnund Buddha-riipind \ hauddha-idi' \ 
imm a$at proktam nagna-n^la-patddikam \ mdyd-vddam asach-chhustrm 
prachehhannam bauddham eva cha \ mayaiva kathitam devi kalau Mk- 
maJM-rupind \ apdrtham iruti-vdhydndrh dariayat loka-garhitam \ hat- 
tna-gvarupa-tyajyatvam atra cha pratipddyaU \ sarva-karma^aribhraih 
idd naUhkarmyam tatra ehochyate \ pardtma-jlvayor aikyam mayd *tra 
pratipddyate \ hrahmano ^iya param rUpam nirgunam dariitam mayd \ 
Barvasya jagato ^py asya ndsandrtham kalau yttge \ veddrthavad mahdidi' 
tram mdyd-vddam avaidikam \ mayaiva kathitam devijagatdm ndia-kdnh 
ndd '' iti \ adhikam tu hrahma^^nlmdihsd'hhdihyB prapanchitam asmdhhir 
iti I tasmdd dstika-sdstrasya 9ia kasydpy aprdmdnyam virodho vd «9«- 
9va-ms?Myeshu sarveshdm ahddhdt avirodhdch cha iti \ nanv evam puru^uh 
hahutvdmie *py asya idstrasya dbhyupagama-vadatvafh sydt \ na 9ydt \ 
avirodhdt \ hrahma-mlmdmsdydm apy ^^amio ndnd-vyapadeidd^^ ityddi-^ 
sUtra'jdtairjlvdtma'bahutvasyaiva nirnaydt \ sdnkhya-siddha-puruehdndm 
dtmatvam tu brahma-mimdmsayd bdahyats eva \ ^^dtmd iti tu upayanii** 
iti tat-sUtrena paramdtmanaf^ eva paramdrtha-bhUmdv dtmatvdvadhd- 
randt \ tathdpi cha ednkhyasya na aprdmdnyam \ vydvahdrikdtmano 
jlvasya itara-vivelca-jnunasya moksha-sddhanatve vivakshitdrthe bddhd" 
bhdvdt I etena Sruti-smfiti-prasiddhayor ndndtmaikdtmatvayor vydvahd' 
rika-pdramdrthikorbhedena avirodhah \ 

''Be it so: let there be here no discrepancy with the Nj&ya and 
Yaiieshika. But it will be said that the Sankhya is really opposed to 
the Brahma-mlmansa (the Yedanta) and the Yoga [of Patanjali] ; since 
both of these systems assert an eternal I^yara (God), while the Sankhya 
denies such an I^vara. And it must not be said (the same persons 
urge) that here also [as in the former case of the Nyaya and Yai^e- 
shika], owing to the dbtinction between practical [or conventional, or 
regulative] and essential truths, there may be no [real] contrariety 
between the theistic and the atheistic theories, inasmuch as the theistio 
theory may possibly have a view to devotion [and may therefore have 
nothing more than a practical end in view] ; — ^you are not, it will be 
said, to assert this, as there is nothing to lead to this conclusion [or, 
distinction]. For asl^vara is difficult to be known, the atheistic theory 
also, which is fi)unded on popular opinion, may, indeed, be adverted to 
for the purpose of inspiring indifference to the conception of a Deity, 


(just as it is [conyentionally] asserted that sonl has qualities) ; but 

neither the Yeda, nor any other i^tra contains a distinct denial of 

an Xiyara, by which the merely practical [or conventional] character of 

the theistic theory could be shewn. [Consequently the theistio theory 

is not a mere oonyentional one, but true, and the contradiction between 

the atheistic Sankhya and the theistic systems is real and irreconcilable]. 

** To this we reply : in this case also the distinction of practical and 

tnential truths holds. For although the atheistic theory is censured by 

8Qch texts as the following : * They declare a world without an i^vara to 

be false and baseless ; ' yet it was proper that in this system (the San- 

ihya), the merely practical (or conventional) denial [of I^vara] should 

be inculcated for the purpose of inspiring indifference to the conception 

of a Deity, and so forth. Because the idea of the author of the San- 

^Ii^a was this, that if the eiistence of an eternal I^vara were not 

<2exiied, in conformity with the doctrine of the Laukayatikas, men would 

l^G prevented by the contemplation of a perfect, eternal, and faultless 

ffo^ead, and by Exing their hearts upon it, from studying to discri- 

ii^ximte [between spirit and matter]. But no censure on the tlieistic 

^^«ory is to be found in any work, whereby [the scope of] that 

■yctem might be restricted, as having devotion, etc., in view as its 

oixly end. And as regards such texts as the following : * There is 

knowledge like the Sankhya, no power like the Yoga ; doubt not 

this, the knowledge of the Sankhya is considered to be the highest,' 

^^ey [are to be understood as] proving the su;)eriority of the Sankhya 

doctrine over other systems, not in respect of its atheism, but only of 

its discrimination [between different principles]. It is, moreover, estab- 

l^ed by the concurrence of Farasara, and all other well instructed 

penons, that the theistio theory is that which represents the essential 

troth. Eurther, such texts as the following of the Para^ara Upapurana, 

ttid other works, shew that the strength of the Brahma-mimansa lies 

on the side of its theism, viz., ^In the systems of Akshapada (Gotama) 

nd Ean§da, and in the Sankhya and Toga, that part which is opposed 

to the Yeda should be rejected by all persons who regard the Yeda as 

the sole authority. In the systems of Jaimini and Yyasa (the Yedanta) 

there is no portion contrary to the Yeda, since both these sages have 

attained to a perfect comprehension of its true meaning. In the same 

way it results from this text of the Moksha-dharma (a part of the 


S^anti-parran of the Mahabharata), viz. : ' Many systems of reasoning 
have been promulgated by different aathors; [in these] whatever is 
established on grounds of reason, of scripture and of approved custom, 
is to be respected;' [from this text also, I say, it results] that the 
theory,^-deolared in the Brahma-mimansa, the Nyaya, the YaiSeshika, 
etc., in consonance with the tradition of Para^ara and all other well- 
instructed men, — which asserts an I^vara, is alone to be received, in 
consequence of its strength ; and [the same thing follows] from the 
fact that in such passages as this of the Kaurma-purana, etc., viz. — 
* Take refuge with that Mahe^vara, that Brahma without beginning 
or end, whom the most eminent Yogins, and the Sankhyas do not 
behold,' — Narayana (Vishnu) and others assert that the Sankhyas are 
ignorant of I^vara. 

<< Moreover, I^vara is determined to be the principal subject of the 
Brahma-mimansa by the introductory statement, etc., of that system. 
If it were open to objection on that side [i,e, on the side of its principal 
subject], the entire system would' be without authority. For it is a 
rule that ' the sense of a word is that which it is intended to denote.' 
Whereas the principal subjects of the Sankhya are — (1) the grand 
object of human pursuit, and (2) the distinction between nature {prO' 
kjriti) and spirit {puruBha\ which is the instrument of attaining that 
grand object. Thus this system does not lose its authority, even 
though it be erroneous in so far as it denies an I^vara. For it is a rule 
that 'the sense of a word is that which it is intended to denote.' 
Hence, as the Sankhya has a certain applicability of its own, it is weak 
only in so far as it denies an Kvara. 

'' For can it be alleged that it is livara only, and not the eternity of 
Us existence, that is the principal subject of the Brahma-mimansa; 
since, through the disproof of the objection {pnrva^t^ha) that the 
theistic theory ' is chargable with the defect of rendering the Smfiti 
inapplicable,' "° it is ascertained that the assertion of an eternal I^vara 
is the main object of the Brahma-mimansa. But as tiie word 'Brahma' 
is properly employed to denote the supreme Brahma, the first aphor- 
ism of the Brahma-mimansa does not run thus, ' Kow follows the en- 
quiiy regarding the supreme Brahma ; ' [but thus, ' Now follows the 

^7<> The aphorism here referred to (Brahma SCItras ii. 1, 1), with moet of S'ankara's 
comment on it, has been already quoted above, pp. 186 ff. 


enqniry regarding Brahma.'] Hence we are not to surmise that, as they 
[would otherwise] contradict the Sankhya, the Brahma-mimansa and 
Yoga systems must aim at estahlishing [not an eternal Deity] hut a 
[secondary] I^vara, who is merely an effect. For this is disproved (1) 
by the series of Brahma Sutras (iL 2, Iff.) which affirm that ' an un- 
intelligent cause of the world cannot be inferred, as it is not conceiv- 
able that such a cause should frame anything,' and which would be 
rendered inconclusive by the assumption of the independent action of 
Prakfiti ; and (2) by the fact that the eternity of God is clearly under- 
stood from the Yoga aphorism [i. 26], viz. ' He is also the instructor 
of the ancients, as he is not circumscribed by time,' as well as from 
the commentary of Yyasa thereon.^^ Hence, as the Sankhya, arguing 
on its own special principles, and at the same time making a great dis- 
play of ingenuity ^^ and so forth, has in view a merely practical denial 
of an Kvara, it does not contradict the Brahma-mimansa or the Yoga. 
The method of reasoning on special principles is referred to in the 
Bastra. Thus it is said in the Yishnu Furana [i. 17, 54, Wilson, 
voL iL p. 44], ' These notions, Daityas, which I have described, are 
the guesses of persons who look on the Deity as distinct from them- 
selves. Accepting them as partially correct, hear from me a summary 
(of transcendental truth). 

'' Or let it be [supposed] that even orthodox systems, with the view 
of preventing sinners from attaining knowledge, lay down doctrines 
which are partially opposed to the Yeda ; and that in. those particular 
portions they are not authoritative. Still in their principal contents, 

171 I quote the commentary of Bhoja-rajS on this Satra, as given by Dr. Ballantyne 
(Aphorisms of the Yoga, part first, p. 32) : Purveaham \ adyanam Brahmddinam apt 
ta gttrur upadeshfa yatah §a kalena navaehehhidyaU anaditvat \ tetham punar adi^ 
mattvad omU kalena avaehchhedah \ ** Of the ancients, that is, of the earliest [beings], 
Brahma and the rest, he is the guru, t.^., the instructor, because He, as haying no 
beginning, is not circumscribed by time ; while they, on the other hand, hitVing had 
a beginning, are circumscribed by time.** 

173 I am indebted to Professor Cowell for a satisfactory interpretation of the first of 
these two phrases, ahhyupagama-vada and prau4hi'Vada, as well as for various other 
improvements in my translation of this passage. The phrase abhyupagama^iddhanta 
is rendered by Dr. Ballantyne "Implied dogma" (Nyaya aphorisms, i. 31, p. 30, as 
corrected in MS.). Professor Groldstiicker «.v. renders it by "implied axiom." In 
fiohtlingk and Roth's Lexicon the phrase abhyupagama-vada is rendered "a dis- 
cussion in a coociliatoiy spirit" In regard to the sense of prawfhuvada see above, 
p. 172. 


which are consonant to the Shxti and the Smfiti, they possess authority. 
Accordingly, in the Padma Parana we find a censnre passed even upon 
the several philosophical systems {Larianiu)^ with the exception of the 
Brahma (the Yedanta) and the Yoga. For in that work ISvara (Maha- 
deva) says to Parvatl, 'Listen, goddess, while I declare to you the 
Tamasa works (the works characterised by tamaSf or the quality of 
darkness) in order ; works by the mere hearing of which even wise 
men become fallen. First of all, the S^aiva systems, called Paiupata, 
etc., were delivered by myself. Then the following were uttered by 
Brahmans penetrated by my power, viz. the great Yai^eshika system 
by Kanada, and the Nyaya, and Sankhya, by Gotama and Kapila re- 
spectively. Then the great system, the Purya-[mlman8a], was com- 
posed by the Brahman Jaimini on Yedio subjects, but on atheiatio 
principles. So too the abominable Charvaka doctrine was declared by 
Dhishana,^'' while Yishnu, in the form of Buddha, with a view to the 
destruction of the Daityas,^^* promulgated the false system of the Baud- 
dhas, who go about naked, or wear blue garments. I myself, goddess, 
assuming the form of a Brahman, uttered in the Kali age, the false 
doctrine of Maya [illusion, the more modem form of the Yedanta], 
which is covert Buddhism, which imputes a perverted and generally 
censured signification to the words of the Yeda, and inculcates the 
abandonment of ceremonial works, and an inactivity consequent on aach 
cessation. In that system I propound the identity of the supreme and 
the embodied soul, and show that the highest form of this Brahma is 
that in which he is devoid of the [three] qualities. It was I myself, 
goddess, by whom this great Nostra, which, composed of Yedio materials 
and inculcating the theory of illusion, is yet un-Yedic, was declared in 
the Kali age for the destruction of this entire universe.' We have 
entered into fuller explanations on this subject in the Brahma-mlmans&- 
bhashya. There is, therefore, no wont of authority, nor any contra- 
diction, in any orthodox system, for they are all incapable of refutation 
in their own especial subjects, and are not mutually discrepant. Does, 
then, this system (the Sankhya) lay down a theory based only on its 
own assumptions in respect of the multitude of souls also ? It does not. 
For in the Brohma-mlmansa also it is determined by such a kind of texts 

^^ A name of Vrihaspati, according to Wilaon'a dictionary. 
1T4 See Wilson*8 Viahgu PurS^ pp. 834 ff. 


as the following (Bralima Sutras, ii. 3, 43), viz. ' the embodied spirit is 
a portion ^^ of the supreme soul, from the variety of appellations/ that 
there is a multitude of embodied spirits. But it is denied by the Brahma- 
mlmansa that the spirits {^rutihd) asserted by the Sankhya have the 
character of Soul ; for it is determined by the Brahma Sutra (iv. 1, 3), 
' they approach Him as one with themselves/ ^^ that, on the ground of 
transcendental truth, the supreme Soul alone has the character of Soul. 
Bat, nevertheless, the Sankhya is not unauthoritative ; for as the know- 
ledge of its own distinctness from other things, obtained by the em- 
bodied spirit in its worldly condition, is instrumental to final liberation, 
this system is not erroneous in the particular subject matter which it 
aims at propounding. In this way it results from the distinction of 
practical and real, that there is no contradiction between the two 
theories (made known by the Sruti and Sm]*iti), of a multitude of 
souls, and the unity of all soul. 

The view taken by Madhusudana, as quoted above, and partially 
confirmed by Yijnana Bhikshu, of the ultimate coincidence in principle 
of all the different schools of Hindu philosophy, however mutually 
hostile in appearance, seems, as I have remarked, to be that which is 
commonly entertained by modem Pandits. (See Dr. Ballantyne's Sy- 
nopsis of Science, advertisement, p. iv.) This system of compromise, 
hwoever, is clearly a deviation from the older doctrine ; and it practi- 
cally abolishes the distinction in point of authority between the Yedas 
and the Smjitis, Dar^anas, etc. For if the Munis, authors of the six 
Dar^nas, were omniscient and infallible, they must stand on the same 
level with the Yedas, which can be nothing more. 

I return, however, from this digression regarding the hostility of 
Sankara to the adherents of the Sankhya and other rationalistic schools, 

17* On this, however, S'ankara (in loet^ remarks as follows : Jlvah livarasya athio 
hkavitum arhati yatha* gner visphulingah \ aniaahivaanisaft ) na hi niravayavasya mu' 
Mihyo *msah sambhavati \ kasmat punar niravayavatvat sa eva na bhavati \ '*fiana- 
vyapaikiai | '* The embodied soul must be * a portion ' of Isvara, as a spark is of fire 
(and not merely dependent upon him as a servant on his master). * A portion ' means, 
* as it were a portion ; ' for nothing can be, in the proper sense, * a portion ' of that 
which has no parts. Why, then, as TsVara has no parts, is not the embodied soul the 
very same as he ? *■ From the variety of appellations,' etc., etc." 

17* The original SQtra runs thus : Atma iti tu upagaehchhanii grahayanii eha \ 
** They approach Him as one with themselves, and [certain texts] cause them to 
receive Him as one witK themselves." This refers to certain texts wnioh S'ankara 
addnees from one of the Upanishads, apparently. 


and tlie opinions of later authors concerning the founders of those 
seycral systems. The distinction drawn by the Indian commentaton 
quoted in this section between the superhuman Yeda and its human 
appendages, the Kalpa Sutras, etc., as well as the other Smfitis, is not 
borne out by the texts which I have cited above (pp. 8, 31) from the 
Bfihad Aranyaka (= Siatapatha Brahmana), and Mun^aka TJpanishads. 
By classing together the Yedic Sanhitas, and the other works enume- 
rated in the same passages, the authors of both the Upanishads seem 
to place them all upon an equal footing ; and the former of the two 
authorities speaks of them all as having proceeded from the breathing 
of the Great Being. If the one set of works are superhuman, it may 
fairly be argued that the others are so likewise. According to the 
Mundaka Upanishad, neither of them (if we except only the Yedantas 
or Upanishads) can be placed in the highest rank, as they equally in- 
culcate a science which is only of secondary importance. 

As, however, Siankara (who, no doubt, perceived that it would be 
inconsistent with modem theories to admit that any of the works 
usually classed under the head of Smfiti had been really breathed forth 
by the Creator, and that such a directly divine origin could, on ortho- 
dox principles, be assigned only to writings coming under the desig- 
nation of S'ruti), maintains in his comment on the text of the B^ihad 
Aranyaka Upanishad that the whole of the works there enumerated, 
excepting the Sanhitas of the four Yedas, are in reality portions of the 
Brahmanas, it will be necessary to quote his remarks, which are as 
foUows (Bibl. Ind. ii. 855 ff.): 

. . . Nikasitam iva niSvasttam \ yathd aprayatnenaiva purwiha-niivd^o 
hhavaty ^aih vd \ are kirn tad niSvasitam tato jdtam ity uchyate \ Tad 
figv^do yajurvedah sdmavedo Hharvangirasai chaturvidham fnantra-jdtam \ 
tUhdsah ity UrvaiUPururavasor safhvddddir " UhaSl ha apsard^ " ityddU- 
hrdhmanam eva \ purdnam *^ asad vd idam ogre dsld^* ityddi \ vidyd 
devajana-vidyd **vedah so *yam** ityddih \ upanishada^ "priyam ity etad 
updalta** ityddydh \ Hokdh '* hrdhmaiuhprahhavdh mantrds tad ete 
ilokdh " ity ddayah \ sutrdni voBtU'Sangraha-vdkydni vede yathd '' dtmd 
ity eva updsita^^ ityddini \ anuvydkhydndni mantra-vivarandni | vydkhyd-- 
ndni arthavdddh | . . . . evam ashfavidham hrdhmanam \ evam mantra-' 
Irdhmanayor eva grahanam \ niyata-rachandvato vidyamdnasyaiva vedaeya 
Mivyakti^ purtMha-nihasa-vat | tm cha purusha-htddhi-prayatfUhpiUr^ 


Takah I ata^ pramdnam nirapehha^ eva tvdrthe | . . • • Una vedasya 
aprdmdnyam diankaU \ tad-diankd-nivfitty-artham idam vktam \ puru" 
sha^iivdsa-vad aprayatnotthitatvdt pramdnaih vedo na yathd ^nyo gran- 
thai iti I 

'' 'His breathing ' means, ' as it were, his breathing/ or it denotes the 
absence of effort, as in the case of a man's breathing. We are now 
told what that breathing was which was produced from him. It was 
the four classes of mantras (hymns), those of the Eich, Ti^'ush, Saman 
and Atharvangirases (AtharvaQa) ; Itihasa (or narrative), sach as the 
dialogue between Urya^I and Pururavas, viz. the passage in the Brah- 
maoa beginning 'Urya^I the Apsaras,' etc. [SI P. Br. p. 855] ; Furai^a, 
such as, ' This was originally non-existent,' etc. ; Yidya (knowledge), 
the knowledge of the gods, as, ' This is the Yeda,' etc. ; TJpanishads, 
such as, ' Let him reverence this, as beloved,' etc. ; S^lokas, such as 
those here mentioned, ' The mantras are the sources of the Brahmaiias, 
on which subject there are these ^lokas,' etc. ; Sutras (aphorisms) oc- 
curring in the Yeda which condense the substance of doctrines, as, 
* Let him adore this as Soul,' etc. ; Anuvyakhyanas, or interpretations 
of the mantras ; Yyakhyanas, or illustrative remarks." The commen- 
tator adds alternative explanations of the two last terms, and then pro- 
ceeds: '' Here, therefore, eight sorts of texts occurring in the Brohmanas 
are referred to ; and consequently the passage before us embraces merely 
mantras and Brahmanas. The manifestation of the Yeda, which already 
existed in a fixed form of composition, is compared to the breathing of 
a person. The Yeda was not the result of an effort of the intelligence 
of any person.^'^ Consequently, as proof in respect of its own contents, 
it is independent of everything else." 

Suikara terminates his remarks on this passage by intimating, aa 
one Buppofiition, that the author of the Upanishad means, in the words 

1T7 Compare S'ankara's Comment on Brahma SQtra, i. 1, 3, as quoted above in 
p. 106, where this same text of the Brih. Ar. Up. is referred to. As the fact of 
Brahma being the author of the Yedas is there adduced to prove the transcendent 
character of his knowledge, and of his power, we must, apparently (unless we are to 
charge the great commentator with laying down inconsistent doctrines in the two 
passages), suppose that in the text before us he does not mean to deny that Brahma 
was conscious of the procession of the Vedos, etc., from himself, and cognizant of their 
sense (as the author of the Siinkhya aphorisms and his commentator seem to have 
imderstood, see above p. 135), but merely that his consciousness and cognizance were 
Bot the result of any effort on his part. 


on which he commentB, to remove a doubt regarding the aathority of 
the Yeda, arising from some words which had preceded, and therefore 
affirms that " the Veda is authoritative, because it was produced with- 
out any effort of will, like a man's breathing, and not in the same 
manner as other books." (See Sankhya Sutras, v. 50; above, p. 135.) 
This attempt to explain the whole of the eight classes of works enu- 
merated in the Upanishad as nothing else than parts of the Brahmanas, 
cannot be regarded as altogether satisfactory, since some of them, such 
as the Sutras, have always been referred to a distinct class of writings, 
which are regarded as uninspired (see Miiller's Anc. Ind. Lit, pp. 75, 
86) ; and the Itihasas and Furanas had in all probability become a 
distinct class of writings at the period when the Upanishad was com- 
posed. And S'ankara's explanation is rendered more improbable if we 
compare with this passage the other from the Mun^aka Upanishad, L 
1, 5, already quoted above (p. 31), where it is said, "The inferior 
science consists of the Bich, Yajush, Saman, and Atharvan Yedas, ac- 
centuation {itkshd), ritual prescriptions {kalpa), grammar, commentary 
(nirukta), prosody {e?ihandas), and astronomy."^ Here various ap- 
pendages of the Yedas, which later writers expressly distinguish from 
the Yedas themselves, and distinctly declare to have no superhuman 
authority, are yet mentioned in the same category with the four San- 
hitas, or collections of the hymns, as constituting the inferior science 
(in opposition to the knowledge of the supreme Spirit). From this we 
may reasonably infer that the author of the B|*ihad Aranyaka Upani- 
shad also, when he specifies the Sutras and some of the other worics 

^''^ I take the opportnnity of introducing here Sayana's remarks on this passage in 
his Commentary on the Rig-veda, vol. i., p. 33 : Atigambhtr€uya vtdtuya ortMam 
avabodhayitum aikshadTni thad-anpani pravfittani \ ata eva t9tham apartt-vufya- 
rupatvam Mundakopanithady Aiharvanikah anutnanti \ **dve vidye'* itycuU | . . • • 
Badhana-bhuta-dharma'jmna'hetutvat shad-anya'sahitanamkarma'kandanam aparo' 
i^yatvam \ parama-pttnuhartho'bhuta'brahma'jnana-hettftvad upaniahadam ptam^ 
vidyatvam \ ** The S'iksha and other fiyo appendages are intended to promote the com- 
prehension of the sense of the very deep Veda. Hence, in the Mun^aka Upanishad, 
the followers of the Athanra-yeda declare that these works helong to the class of 
inferior sciences, thus: * There are two sciences/ etc. [see the entire passage in p. 31.] 
Since the sections of the Veda which relate to ceremonies [including, of course, the 
hymns], as well as the six appendages, lead to a knowledge of duty, which is an in- 
strument [of something further], they are ranked as an inferior science. On the other 
hand the Upanishads, which conduct to a knowledge of Brahma, the supreme object 
of man, constitute the highest soienoe." 


which he enTunerates, intended to speak of the Yedangas or appendages 
of the Yedas, and perhaps the Sm^itis also, as heing the breathing of 
Brahma. The works which in the passage from the Mun^aka are 
called Kalpa, are also commonly designated as the Kalpa Sutras. 

This conclasion is in some degree confirmed by referring to the pas- 
sage from the Mahabharata, S^anti-parvan, 7,660| which has been cited 
in p. 105, where it is said that the '' great rishis, empowered by Sva- 
yambhu, obtained by devotion the Yedas, and the Itihasas, which had 
disappeared at the end of the preceding Yuga." Whatever may be 
the sense of the word Itihasa in a Yedic work, there can be no doubt 
that in the Mahabharata, which is itself an Itihasa, the word refers to 
that class of metrical histories. And in this text we see these Itihasas 
placed on a footing of equality witb the Yedas, and regarded as having 
been, like them, pre-existent and supernatural. See also the passage 
from the Chhandogya TJpanishad, vii. 1, 1 ff. (Bibl. Ind., vol. iii. pp. 
473 ff.), quoted above (p. 33), where the Itihasas and Puranas are spoken 
of as " the fifth Yeda of the Yedas." The same title of " fifth Yeda*' 
is applied to them in the Bhag. Fur. iu. 12, 39 : Itihdsa-puranani pan- 
ehamafk vedam Isvara^ \ 9arvebhyah eva mukhebhyah sasfife aarva-dar' 
ianah \ ** The omniscient I^vara (God) created from all his mouths the 
Itihasas and Puranas, as a fifth Yeda." See also tbe passages quoted 
above in pp. 27-30, from the Puranas and Mahabharata, where the 
Itihasas and Puranas themselves are placed on an equality with, if not 
in a higher rank, than the Yedas. The claims put forward by these 
popular works on their own behalf are not, indeed, recognized as valid 
by more critical and scientific authors, who, as we have seen at the 
beginning of this section, draw a distinct line of demarcation between 
the Yedas and all other works ; but it would appear from the passages 
I have quoted frx)m the Upanishads that at one time the Yedas were, 
at least, not so strictly discriminated from the other Sastras as they 
afterwards were. 

Sect. XII. — Reeapitulatitm of the ArgummU urged in the Darianas, 
and by Commentators, in support of the Authority of the Vedae, with 
ame remarks on these reasonings. 

As in the preceding sections I have entered at some length into the 
vgoments urged by the authors of the philosopical systems and their 


commentators, in proof of the etemitj and infallibility of the Yedas, it 
may be conyenient to recapitulate the most important points in these 
reasonings ; and I shall then add such observations as the consideration 
of them may suggest. 

The grounds on which the apologists of the Yedas rest their authority 
are briefly these : First, it is urged that, like the sun, they shine by 
their own light, and evince an inherent power both of revealing their 
own perfection, and of elucidating all other things, past and future, 
great and small, near and remote (Sayana, as quoted above, p. 62 ; 
Sbnkara on Brahma Sutras i. 1, 3, above, p. 190). This is the view 
taken by the author of the Sankhya Sutras also, who, however^ 
expressly denies that the Yedas originated from the consdoua e£Ebrt 
of any divine being (see p. 135). Second, it is asserted that the Yeda 
^could have had no (human) personal author, as no such composer is 
recollected (Madhava, above, pp. 83 ff), and cannot therefore be sus- 
pected of any such imperfection as would arise from the fallibility of 
such an author (pp. 69 f. ; Sayana p. 106). Third, the Furva-munansa 
adds to this that the words of which the Yedas are composed are eternal, 
and have an eternal connection (not an arbitrary relation depending upon 
the human will) with their meanings, and that therefore the Yedas are 
eternal, and consequently perfect and infallible ^'^ (Mimansa Sutras and 
Commentary, above, pp.71 ff.,andSarva-dar^ana-sangraha, above, pp.91f.) 
Fourth, the preceding view is either explained or modified by the com- 
mentator on the Taittirlya Sanhita (above, p. 69), as well as by Sa3rana in 
his Introduction to the Eig-veda (above, p. 106), who say that, like time^ 
SBthcr, etc., the Yeda is only eternal in a qualified sense, i,e. during the 
continuance of the existing mundane system; and that in reality it sprang 
from Brahma at the beginning of the creation. But this origin cannot 
according to their view affect the perfection of the Yeda, which in con- 
sequence of the faultlessness of its author possesses a self-demonstrating 
authority. Fifth, although the Yedanta, too, speaks of the eternity of the 
Yeda (above, p. 105), it also in the same passage makes mention of its 
self-dependent author ; while in another passage (p. 106) it distinctly 
ascribes the origin of the Indian Scripture to Brahma as its source or 

!''> In the Bphad Aranyaka Upanishad (p. 688 of Dr. Kocr's ed.) it is said : Va» 
ehaiva samrad Brahma jnayaie vag vai samraf paramam Brahma \ " By speech, O 
monarch, Brahma is known. Speech is the supreme Brahma.*' 


cause. Brahma here must be taken as neuter, doiioliiig t].e siipicnie 
Spirit, and not masculine, designating the personal creator, aa tijuIit 
the fourth head.^ Sixth, according to the Naiyiiyika doclriiie the au- 
thority of the Veda is established b.y the fact of its having emanated 
from competent persons who had an intuitive perception of duty, and 
whose competence is proved by their injunctions being attended with 
the desired results in all cases which come within the cognizance of our 
senses and experience (Nyaya Sutras, above, pp. 11 C). Seventh, agree- 
ably to the Yaiieshika doctrine, and that, of the Kusumanjidi, the in- 
fallibility of the Veda results from the omniscience of its author, who 
is God (Yai.4eshika Sutras, Tarka Sangraha, and Kusumanjali, pp. 119 ff., 
127, and 129 ff., above). 

These argument^, as the reader who has studied all their details will 
have noticed, are sometimes indirect opposition to each other in their lead- 
ing principles ; and they are not likely to seem convincing to any persons 
but the adherents of the schools from which they have severally emanated. 
The European student (unless be has some ulterior practical object in 
view) can only look upon these opinions as matters of historical interest, 
as illustrations of the course of religious thought among a highly acute 
and speculative people. But they may be expected to possess a greater 
importance in the eyes of any Indian readers into whose hands this book 
may fall ; and as such readers may desire to learn in what light these 
arguments are regarded by Western scholars, I shall offer a few remarks 
on the subject. 

In regard to the first ground in support of the infallibility of the 
Veda, viz. the evidence which radiates from itself, or its internal evi- 
dence, I may observe first, that this is a species of proof which can 
only be estimated by those who have made the Indian Scripture the 
object of careful study; and, second, that it must be judged by the 
reason and conscience of each individual student. This evidence mav 
appear conclusive to men in a certain stage of their national and per- 
sonal culture, and especially to those who have been accustomed from 
their infancy to regard the Vedas with a hereditary veneration ; whilst 
to persons in a different state of mental progress, and living under dif- 
ferent influences, it will appear perfectly futile. It is quite clear that, 
even in India itself^ there existed in former ages multitudes of learned 

^^ See note iu p. 205, above. 



and virtuous men who were unable to aee tlie force of this argument, 
and who consequently rejected the authority of the Yedas. I allude ot 
course to Buddha and his followers. And we have even found that 
some of those writers who are admitted to have been orthodox, such as 
the authors of the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, and the Bhagavata 
PuraQdi while they attach the highest value to the divine knowledge con- 
veyed by the latest portions of the Veda, depreciate, if they do not actu- 
ally despise, the hymns and the ceremonial worship connected with them. 
In regard to the second argument, viz. that the Yedas must be ot 
supernatural origin, and infallible authority, as they are not known to 
have had any human author, I observe as follows. The Greek historiani 
Herodotus, remarks (ii. .23) of a geographer of his own day who ex- 
plained the annual inundations of the river Nile by supposing its stream 
to be derived from an imaginary ocean flowing round the earth, which 
no one had ever seen, that his opinion did not admit of confutation, 
because he carried the discussion back into the region of the unap- 

parent (69 a^ai/69 tov fivOov avevelxa^ ovk Ip^et i\€rp(pv). The same 
might bo said of tho Indian speculators, who argue that the Yeda must 
have had a supernatural origin, because it was never observed to have 
had a human author like other books j — that by thus removing the 
negative grounds on which they rest their case into tho unknown 
depths of antiquity, they do their utmost to place themselves beyond 
the reach of direct refutation. But it is to be observed (1) that, even 
if it were to bo admitted that no human authors of the Yedas were 
remembered in later ages, this would prove nothing more than their 
antiquity, and that it would still be incumbent on their apologists to 
show that this circumstance necessarily involved their supernatural 
character ; and (2) that, in point of fact, Indian tradition does point to 
certain rishis or bards as the authors of the Yedic hymns. It is true, 
indeed, as has been already noticed (p. 85), that these rishis are said to 
have only "seen" the hymns, which (it is alleged) were eternally pre- 
existent, and that they were not their authors. But as tradition de- 
clares that the hymns were uttered by such and such rishis, how is it 
proved that the rishis to whom they are ascribed, or those, whoever 
they were, from whom they actually proceeded, were not uttering the 
mere productions of their own minds ? The whole character of these 
compositions, and the circumstances under which, from internal evi- 


dence, they appear to haye arisen, are in harmony with the supposition 
that they were nothing more than the natural expression of the per- 
sonal hopes and feelings of those ancient hards by whom they were 
first recited. In these songs the Aryan sages celebrated the praises of 
their ancestral gods (while at the same time they sought to conciliate 
their goodwill by a variety of oblations supposed to bo acceptable to 
them), and besought of them all the blessings which men in general 
desire — ^health, wealth, long life, cattle, offspring, victory over their 
enemies, forgiveness of sin, and in some cases also celestial felicity. 

The scope of these hymns is well summed up in the passage which 
I have already quoted (from Colebrooke's Misc. Essays i. 26) in the 
Second Volume, p. 206 : ArtTiepsavah rishai/o devatai chhandohhir dbhya' 
dhavan \ '* The rishis desiring [various] objects, hastened to the gods 
with metrical prayers." The Nirukta, vii. 1, quoted in the same place, 
says : TaUkdmah rUhir yasydm devataydm arthapatyam ichhan stutim 
prayunkU tad-devatah sa manfro hJutvati \ "Each particular hymn has 
for its deity the god to whom the rishi, seeking to obtain any object of 
desire which he longs for, addresses his prayer." And in the sequel 
of the same passage &om the Nirukta (vii. 3), the fact that the 
hymns express the different feelings or objects of the rishis is distinctly 

Parokshorkritdh pratyaksha-kritdS clia mantrdh hhuyishthdh alpaiah 
ddhydtmikdh \ athdpi stutir eva hhavati na dslrvddah '^Indrasya nu vJr- 
ydni prjavocham " Hi yafhd etasmin sUkte \ athdpi dsir eva na stutih 
** iuehakshdh aham ahhihhydm hhuydsath 8Uvarc?uiJ^ muhhena suSrut 
karn&hhydm hhuydsam " iti \ tad etad hahidam ddhvaryave ydjneshu cha 
mantreihu \ athdpi iapathdhhiidpau \ '*adya tnurlya^* ityddi . . . athdpi 
huyachid hhdvasya dchihhydsd \ *^na mrityur dsid^^ ityddi . . . | athdpi 
paridevand l-asmdchcht'd hhdvdt \ '' sttdevo adyaprapated andvfid^* ityddi \ 
aihdjn nindd'prakamse \ ^'kevaldyho hhavati hevalddV^ ityddi \ evam 
ahha-ivMe dyufa-nindd cha hfishi-praiaihsd cha \ evam uchchdvachair 
ahhiprdyair jrishlndm mantra-drishfayo Ihavanti \ 

**[0f the four kinds of verses specified in the preceding section], 
(tf) those which address a god as absent, ijb) those which address him 
as present, and {c) those which address the worshippers as present 
and the god as absent, are the most numerous, while those {d) which 
refer to the speaker himself are rare. It happens also that a god is 


praised without any blessing being invoked, as in the hymn (E. V. i. !i^ 
' I declare the heroic deeds of Indra/ etc. Again, blessings «e m- 
Toked without any praise being offered, as in the words, 'May I see well 
with my eyes, be resplendent in my face, and hear well with my ears.' 
This frequently occurs in the Adhvaryava (Tajur) Veda, and in the 
sacrificial formulas. Then again we find oaths and curses, as in the 
words (B.y. yii. 104, 15), 'May I die to-day, if I am a Yatudhana,' 
etc. (See Vol. I. p. 327.) Further, we observe the desire to describe 
some particular state of things, as in the verse (H.Y. x. 129, 2), * Death 
was not then, nor immortality,' etc. Then there is lamentation, arising 
out of a certain state of things, as in the verse (R.V. x. 95, 14), *The 
beautiful god will disappear and never return,' etc. Again, we have 
blame and praise, as in the words (B.y. x. 117, 6), 'The man who eats 
alone, sins alone,' etc. So, too, in the hymn to dice (II.Y. x. 34, 13) 
there is a censure upon dice, and a commendation of agriculture. Thus 
the objects for which the hymns were seen by the rishis were veiy 
various." ^ 

It is to be observed, however, that although in this passage the 
author, Yaska, speaks of the various desires which the rishis expressed 
in different hymns, he nevertheless adheres to the idea which was re- 
cognized in his age, and in which he doubtless participated, that the 
rishis "saw" the hymns. 

In the Nirukta, x. 42, the form of the metre in particular hymns 
is ascribed to the peculiar genius of the rishi Paruchhepa : ^ Ahhydm 

^^^ In Nimkta, iv. 6, allnBion Ib made to a risM Trita perceiving a particular hymn 
wben he had been thrown into a well {Tritam kupe 'vahitam etat auktam prwH 

^^ A Paruchhepa Ib mentioned in the Taittiriya Sanhitu, ii. 5, 8, 3, as followi: 
Nfimedhaa eha Paruehhepai eha brahmavadyam avadetam ** atmin darav ardre '^mm 
janayava yataro nau brahmTpan" Hi \ Nfimedho 'bhyavadat $a dhumam t^anayM \ 
Faruehh^*hhyavadat 8o*gnim ajatiayat \ *'ri8he** ity abravTd"yat samavadvidfM 
kaikd tvam agnim qftjano naham^* iti \ ^* tamidhcnJnam tva aham varnam veda" iiy 
abravlt \ " yad yhfUavat padam anueJiyate sa aaam varneu^tam tva tatnidbhir JU^ 
girah* ity aha Bamidhenlthv eva toj jyotir janayati** \ '^Nfimcdha and Parochhepa 
had a discossion concerning sacred knowledge. They said, *Lct us kindle fire* in this 
moist wood, in order to see which of us has most sacnni knowledge.' ' N|imcdha pro> 
nounced (a text) ; but produced only smoke. Paruchhepa pronounced (a text) and 
generated fire. Nrimedha said, * Bishi, since our knowledge is equal, how is it that 
thou hast generated fire, while I have not.' Paruchhepa replied, ' I know the Initn 

1 w Without friction."— <3omni. 

* ** In regard to the Simidhenl formulaf.'*->Comm. 


hhHydmsam artham many ante yathd "aho darianlya aho darSaniya** Hi \ 
iat Paruchchhepasya iilatri \ '* Men consider that by repetition the sense 
IB intensified, as in the words ' o beautiful, o beautiful.' This is Paru- 
chhepa's habit." 

In Nirukta, iiL 11, the rishi Kutsa is mentioned as being thus de- 
Bcsribed by the interpreter Aupamanyava : J^ishih EuUo hhavati karttd 
iiomdndm ity Aupamanyavah \ *' * Kutsa is the name of a rishi, a maker 
of hymns,' according to Aupamanyava." 

So too the same work, x. 32, says of the rishi Hiranyastupa that '' he 
declared this hymn " {HtranyaatHpah fishir idam suktam provdcha), 

I do not, as I have already intimated, adduce these passages of tho 
Nirokta to show that tho author regarded the hymns as the ordinary 
productions of the rishis' own minds, for this would be at variance with 
the expression ^* seeing," which he applies to the mental act by which 
they were produced. It appears also from the terms in which he 
speaks of the rishis in the passage (Nirukta, i. 20) quoted above, p. 120, 
where they are described as having an intuitive insight into duty, that 
he placed them on a fkr higher level than the inferior men of later 
ages. But it is clear from the instances I have adduced that Yaska 
recognizes the hymns as being applicable to the particular circum- 
stances in which the rishis were placed, and as being the bona fide ex- 
pression of their individual emotions and desires. (See also the pas- 
sages from the Nirukta, ii. 10 and 24, quoted in Vol. I. pp. 2Gd 
and 338, which establish the same point.) But if this be true, tho 
supposition that these hymns, i,e. hymns specifically suited to express 
the various feelings and wishes of all the different rishis, were eternally 
pre-existent, and were perceived by them at the precise conjunctures 
when they were required to give utterance to their several aims, is per- 
fectly gratuitous and unnecessary. It might be asserted with nearly 
the same shew of reason that the entire stock of ordinary language 
employed by human beings to express their ideas had existed from 

of the Samidhenls. The sentence which contains the word ghrita (batter) farms thetr 
luatre. When any one repeats the words, ^* We augment thee, o Angiras (Agni) with 
fuel and with butter," he then generates that lustre in the Samidhenls.' " 

ui j^ difficulty of the same nature as that here urged, vii. that men and objeots 
which existed in time are mentioned in the Vedas which are yet said to be eternal, was 
felt by Jaimini, as we have already seen (pp. 77ff.)< I recur to thia subject in p. 215. 


In regard to the third argnment for the authority of the Yedai^ fis. 
that they are eternal, because the words of which they are composed 
are eternal, and because these words have an inherent and eternal (and 
not a merely conventional) connection with the significations or objects, 
or the species of objects, which they represent, it is to be observed that 
it is rejected both by the Nyaya and Sankhya schools.^ And I am 
unable (if I rightly comprehend this orthodox reasoning) to see how it 
proves the authority of the Veda more than that of any other book. 
If the words of the Yeda are eternal, so must those of the Bauddha 
books be eternal, and consequently, if eternal pre-ezistence is a pnxtf 
of perfection, the infallibility of these heretical works must be as much 
proved by this argument as the divine origin of the Vedas, whose pre- 
tensions they reject and oppose. Or if the meaning is that the words 
of the Veda alone are eternal and infallible, this is an assumption which 
requires proof. If their reception by great risliis be alleged as evidence, 
it must be remarked that the authority of these rishis is itself a point 
which cannot be admitted until it has been established. 

In regard to the fourth, fifth) sixth, and seventh of the argumenta 
above stated, as put forward by the representatives of different schools 
or opinions in favour of the authority of the Veda, it may suffice to 
say that they for the most part assume the point to be proved, viz. that 
the Yeda did proceed from an omniscient, or at least a competent, 
author. The only exception to this remark is to be found in the reason- 
ing of the Nyaya and Sankhya aphorisms that the infallibility of the 
Yedas is shown by the fact that the employment of the formulas or 
prescriptions of those parts of them which deal with temporal results, 
such as can be tested by experience, is always found to be effica- 
cacious ; a premiss from which the conclusion is drawn that those other 
parts of the Yeda, which relate to the unseen world, must be equally 
authoritative, as the authors of these different parts are the same per- 
sons. This argument cannot appear convincing to any but those who 
admit first, the invariable efficacy of all the formulas and prescriptions 

See. however, the comment on Brahma SQtra, i. 3, 30, regarding the perpetual recur- 
rcnce of the same things in successiYe creations from, and to, all eternity, which will 
be quoted in the Appendix. 

^ See Dr. Ballantjne*8 remarks on this controversy, in pp. 186, 189, 191, and 193 
of hu '* Christianity contrasted with Hindu Philosophy." 


of the Yeda which relate to such matters as can be tested bj experience, 
and secondly, the identity of the authors of the parts of the Yeda whiob 
contain these formulas and prescriptions with the authors of the other 
parts. It would be impossible to prove the former point, and next to 
impossible to prove the latter. 

Against the eternity of the Yedas an objection has been raised, which 
Jaimini considers it necessary to notice, viz. that various historical per- 
sonages are named in their pages, and that as these works could not 
have existed before the persons whose doings they record, they must 
have commenced to exist in time. This difficulty Jaimini attempts, as 
we have seen above (pp. 77 ff.), to meet by explaining away the names 
of the historical personages in question. Thus Babara Pravahini is 
said to be nothing else than an appellation of the wind, which is 
ctemaL And this method, it is said, is to be applied in all similar 
CAscs. Another of the passages mentioned by an objector (see above, 
p. 79) as referring to non-eternal objects is R.Y. iii. 53, 14, "What 
are the cows doing for thee among the Klka^as ? " etc. The author of the 
Mimansa Sutras would no doubt have attempted to show that by theso 
Kikatos we are to understand some eternally pre-existing beings. But 
Yaska, the author of the Kirukta, who had not been instructed in any 
any such subleties, speaks of the Klkafas as a non- Aryan nation. 
(Yol. I. p. 342, and Yol. II. p. 362.) It is difficult to suppose that 
Jaimini — unless he was an enthusiast, and not the cool and acute 
reasoner he has commonly proved himself to be — coxdd have seriously 
imagined that his rule of interpretation could ever be generally re- 
ceived or carried out.^ The Brahmanas evidently intend to represent 
the numerous occurrences which they narrate, as having actually taken 
place in time, and the actors in them as having been real historical 
personages. See, for instance, the legends from the SUtapatha and Ai- 
tarcya Brahmanas, the Taittariya Sanhita, etc., quoted in the First 

itt In Sayana's Introduction to R.y. vol. i. p. 23, it is said : Manmhya^vjittanta* 
pratipadakah ficho ndrdiam$yah \ ** The NurasamsTs are verses which set forth tho 
histories of men." Yaska's definition is the same in substance, Nir. iz. 9. If theso 
Kur^amsis are, as Sayana says, verses of the hymns {richaK)^ and if according to 
bis definition their object is to record events in human history, it follows that they 
must refer to non-eternal objects. See also the explanation of the words naraiamiena 
ttomena in Vujasaneyi Sanhita, 3, 63, given by the ConimentatoikMahldhara, which 
will be quoted farther on. 


Volume of this work, pp. 182, 192, 194, 328, 355, etc. And it is 
impossible to peruse the Vedic hymns without coming to the conclusion 
that they also record a multitude of events, which the writers believed 
to have been transacted by men on earth in former ages. (See the pas- 
sages quoted from the Hig-veda in the First and Second Yolomes of this 
work, passim; those, for example, in Yol. I. pp. 162 ff., 318 ff., 339 £, 
and Vol. II. p. 208.) 

We shall, no doubt, be assisted in arriving at a correct condnsion i 
regard to the real origin and character of the hymns of the Veda, 
we enquire what opinion the rishis, by whom they were confessedly' 
spoken, entertained of their own utterances ; and this I propose to in* 
vestigate in the following chapter. 





I HATE already shewn, in the preceding pages, as well as in the Second 
Yolume of this work, that the hymns of the Eig-veda themselyes sup- 
ply ns with numerous data hy which we can judge of the circum- 
stances to which they owed their origin, and of the manner in which 
they were created. We have seen that they were the natural product 
and expression of the particular state of society, of the peculiar religious 
conceptions, and of all those other influences, physical and moral, which 
prevailed at the period when they were composed, and acted upon 
the minds of their authors. (Vol. I. pp. 161 f., Yol. II. pp. 205 ff.; and 
above, pp. 211 f.) We And in them ideas, a language, a spirit, and a 
colouring totally different firom those which characterize the religious 
writiDgs of the Hindus of a later era. They frequently discover to us 
the simple germs from which the mythological conceptions current in 
subsequent ages were derived, — germs which in many cases were dc- 
Teloped in so fanciful and extravagant a manner as to shew that the 
simplicity of ancient times had long since disappeared, to make way for 
a rank and wild luxuriance of imagination. They afford us very dis- 
tinct indications of the locality in which they were composed (Vol. II. 
pp. 354-372) ; they shew us the Aryan tribes living in a state of war- 
fare with surrounding enemies (some of them, probably, alien in race 
and language), and gradually, as we may infer, forcing their way on- 
ward to the east and south (Vol. 11. pp. 374 ff., 384 ff., 414 ff.); they 
supply us with numerous specimens of the particular sorts of prayers, 
viz. for protection and victory, which men so circumstanced would na- 
turally address to the gods whom they worshipped, as well as of those 


more common supplications wliich men in general offer up for the 
various blessings which constitute the sum of human welfare ; and they 
bring before us as the objects of existing yeneration a class of deities 
(principally, if not exclusively, personifications of the elements, and of 
the powers cither of nature, or of reason) who gradually lost their im- 
portance in the estimation of the later Indians, and made way for gods 
of a different description, invested with new attributes, and in many 
cases bearing new appellations. 

These peculiarities of the hymns abundantly justify us in regarding 
them as the natural product and spontaneous representation of the 
ideas, feelings, and aspirations of the bards with whoso names they are 
connected, or of other ancient authors, while the archaic forms of the 
dialect in which they are composed, and the references which are made 
to them, as pre-existent, in the liturgical works by which they are ex- 
pounded and applied, leave no reason for doubt that they are the most 
ancient of all the Indian Scriptures. 

We can also, as I have shewn, discover from the Ycdic hymns them- 
selves, that some of them were newer and others older, that they were 
the works of many successive generations of poets, that their com- 
position probably extended over several centuries, and that in some 
places their authors represent them as being the productions of their 
own minds, while in other passages they appear to ascribe to their own 
words a certain divine character, or attribute their composition to some 
supernatural assistance. (Vol. I. p. 4, and II. pp. 206 ff., 219 ff.) 

I shall now proceed to adduce further proofs from the hymns of the 
Big-vcda in support of these last mentioned positions ; repeating, at the 
same time, for the sake of completeness, the texts which I have already 
cited in the Second Yolume. 

Sect. I. — Passages from the Hymns of the Veda which distinguish 
between the Rishis as Ancient and Modern. 

The appellations or epithets applied by the authors of the hymns to 
themselves, and to the sages who in former times had instituted, as 
well as to their contemporaries who continued to conduct, the different 
rites of divine worship, are the following : rishij kavt, medhdvin, tiprOf 


t^aSehitf vedhasy mtini, etc. The rishifl are defined in Bohtlingk and 
Eoth's Lexicon, to be persons ''who, whether singly or in chorus, either 
on their own behalf or on behalf of others, invoked the gods in artificial 
langoage, and in song;" and the word is said to denote especially '' the 
priestly bards who made this art their profession." The word kavi 
means ''wise," or "a poet," and has ordinarily the latter sense in 
modem Sanskrit. V^a means " wise," and, in later Sanskrit, a "Brah- 
man ; " tnedhUvin means " intelligent; " vipaiehit and vedhaa, " wise " 
or ''learned." Muni signifies in modem Sanskrit. a "sage" or "doYO- 
tee." It is not much used in the Eig-Tcda, but occurs in viiL 17, 13 
(Vol. II. p. 397). 

The following passages from the Big-yeda either expressly distinguish 
between contemporary rishis and those of a more ancient date, or, at 
any rate, make reference to the one or the other class. This recognition 
of a succession of rishis constitutes one of the historical elements in the 
Yeda. It is an acknowledgment on the part of the rishis themselves 
that numerous persons had existed, and events occurred, anterior to 
their own age, and, consequently, in time ; and it therefore refutes, by 
the testimony of the Veda itself, the assertion of Jaimini (above, pp. 
77 ff.) that none but eternally pre-existing objects are mentioned in 
that book. 

If, under this and other heads of my inquiry, I have cited a larger 
number of passages than might have appeared to be necessary, it has 
been done with the intention of showing that abundant evidence of my 
various positions can be adduced from all parts of the Kymn-coUection.^ 

B. Y. i. 1, 2. Agnih purvehhtr rishibhir Idyo nUtanair uia \ sa devan 
ika vakshati | 

" Agni, who is worthy to be celebrated by former, as well as modem 
rishisy will bring the gods hither." 

The word pUrvebhil^ is explained by Sayana thus : Pur&tanair Bh^igv- 
tmgirah-prabhrtUbhir rUhihhih \ " By the ancient rishis, Bhfigu, An- 
girasi" etc. ; and niii<ma%h is inteipreted by id&nlntanair Mmabhir api^ 
"by us of the present day also." See also Nirukta, vii. 16. 

^ I hATe to acknowledge the assistance Idndly rendered to me by Prof. Aufirecht 
in (he rerinon of my translation of the passages quoted in this and the following 
sections. As, howerer, the texts are mostly quite clear in so far as regards the points 
which they are adduced to proTC, any inaccuracies with which I may be chargeable 
ti other respects ore of comparatively little importance. 


i. 45, 3. FriyamedJuhvad Atri-vaj Jdtavedo VirHpihViU | Angtroi-vad 
mahi-vrata PrMhtfivtuya irudhi havam \ 4. Mahi-keravah iitay$ Priya- 
medhdh ahushata | 

** (god) of great po^er, listen to the invocation of Praakan^a, as 
thou didst listen to Priyamedha, Atri| Yirupa, and Angiras. 4. The 
Priyamedhas, skilled in singing praises, have invoked thee." 

Here Praskanva is referred to, in verse 3, as alive, whilst Priyamedha, 
Atri, Yirupa, and Angiras belong to the past. In verse 4 ihe descend- 
ants of Priyamedha are however allnded to as existing. The three 
other names are also, no donbt, those of families. In E.Y. iii. 58, 7, 
(see Vol. I. p. 341) the Yirupas appear to be referred to ; while in viii. 
64, 6 (which will be quoted below), a Yirupa is addressed. In v. 22, 4, 
the Atris are spoken of. 

i. 48, 14. Ye chid hi tvam riahayah pUrve utaye juh&re ityddi \ 

** The former rishis who invoked thee for succour," etc. 

i. 80, 16. Ydm Atharvd Manush pitd Dadhyan dhiyam atnata \ toi" 
min hrahmdni purvathd Indre ukthd Mmagtnata ityddi \ 

** In the ceremony [or hymn] which Atharvan, or our fiather Mann, 
or Dadhyanch performed, the prayers and praises were, as of old, con- 
gregated in that Indra," etc. 

i. 118, 3 (repeated in iii. 58, 3). Ahur viprdsah Akind purdja^ | 

** A^vins, the ancient sages say," etc. 

i. 131, 6. ^ iTttf asya vedhaso navlyaso manma irudhi navlyasaii \ 

** Hear the hymn of me this modem sage, of this modem [sage]." 

i. 139, 9. Dadhyan ha mejanwham pUrvo Anyird^ Pnyamedhah Ednvo 
Atrir Manur vidur ityddi \ 

** The ancient Dadhyanch, Angiras, Priyamedha, Kanva, Atri, and 
Manu know my birth.'' 

i. 175, 6. Yathd purvebhyo jaritfibhyah Indra mayai^ wa dpo na tfi' 
shy ate hahhutha \ Tdm anu tvd nividaih johdvlmi ityddi \ 

^' Indra, as thou hast been like a joy to former worshippers who 
praised thee, like waters to the thirsty, I invoke thee again and again 
with this hymn," etc. 

iv. 20, 5. Vi yo rarapie jrishibhir navehhir vfihho na pakvah srinyo 
na jetd \ maryo na yoahdm ahhi manyamdno achhd vivakmi puruhuiam 
Indram \ 

"Like a man desiring a woman, I call hither that Indra, invoked by 


many, who, like a ripe tree, Hke a conqaeror expert in arms,' has 
been celebrated by recent rishis." 

It. 50, 1. Tarn pratndsah fishayo dldhyandh puro vipruj^ dadhire 
mandra-jihvam \ 

''The ancient rishis, resplendent and sage, have placed in front cf 
them [Brihaspati] with gladdening tongue." 

V. 42, 6 iVa tepurve Maghavan na aparaso na vlryam nutana^ 

hiichana apa \ 

" Neither the ancients nor later men, nor any modem man, has at- 
tained to [conceived] thy prowess, o Maghavan." 

X. 54, Zn Ke u nu te mahimanah samasya asmat purve ruJiayo antam 
aptih I yad mdtaraffi chapitaram cha adkam ajanayathds tanvdh wdydlf, \ 

" Who among the rishis who were before us have attained to the 
end of all thy greatness ? for thou didst at once produce from thy own 
body both the mother and the father (earth and heaven)." 

yL 19, 4. Tathd chit purve jaritdrah dsur anedydh anavadydh an'shfdh \ 

•* As [Indra's] former worshippers were, [may we be] blameless, 
irreproachable, and unharmed." 

vi. 21, 5. Ida hi U vemJuitah purdjdh pratndsah diuh purukrit sakhd* 
if ah I Ye madhyamdsah uta nUtandsah utdvamasya puruhuta hodhi \ 

*' For now, o energetic god, men are thy worshippers, as the ancients 
bom of old and the men of the middle and later ages have been thy 
£riends« And, o much-invoked, think of the most recent of all." ' 

vi. 21« 1. Satu imdhilndra nutanoiya hrahmanyato tlra kdrudhdyah \ 

^' Heroic Indra, supporting the poet, listen to the modem [bard] who 
wishes to celebrate thee." 

tL 22, 2. Tarn u nal^ pHrve pitaro navagvdh sapta viprdsa^ Mi vdja- 
yantah ityddi \ 

" To Him (Indra) our ancient fathers, the seven Navagva sages, de- 
siring food, (resorted) with their hymns," etc. 

vi. 50, 15. JEvd napdto mama tasya dhihhir Bharadvdjdh ahhyarchanti 
arkath \ 

" Thus do the Bharadvajas my grandsons adore thee with (my ?) 
hymns and praises." 

* Prof. Aufrccht thinks sfinyo naj'eta may perhaps mean, <* like a winner of sicklea 
(as a prize)." 
> This verse is translated in Bcnfey's Glossary to the SSma-Teda, p. 76; coL i. 


vii. 18, 1. The ha yat pitarai chid nal^ Indra vihd vdmdjariidro 
vann ityadi \ 

" Since, in thee, o Indra, even our fiEitherB, thy worahippen, obtaised 
all riches," etc. 

vii. 29, 4. Vlo gha U purushyd^ id d»an yesham pHrveshdm airinor 
jriihlnam \ adha aham ivd Maghavan johavlmi tvam nah Lidra anprium^ 
ii^piUva I 

" Even they were of mortal birth, — those former rishis whom thou 
didst hear. I invoke thee again and again, o Maghavan ; ihou art to 
US wise as a father." 

TiL 53, 1 Te chid hipurve kavayo grinantah puro mahl dadhire 

devaputre | 

''The ancient poets, celebrating their praises, haye placed in the 
front these two great [beings, heaven and earth] of whom the gods are 
the children." 

vii. 76, 4. Te id devandm sadhamadah dMnn fitdvdna^ kavaya^ pur- 
vydia^ \ gulham jyotii pitaro anvavindan satya - numird^ ajanayann 
ushdsam \ 

''They shared in the enjoyments of the gods, those ancient pious 
sages. Our fathers discovered the hidden light ; with true hymns they 
caused the dawn to arise." 

vii. 91, 1. Kuvid anga namasd ye vridhusah purd devdh anavadyd^a^ 
dsan I te Vdyave Manave Iddhitdya avdsayann ' mhasaih sdryena \ 

" Certainly those gods who were formerly magnijGled (or grew) by 
worship were altogether blameless. They lighted up the dawn and 
the sun to Vayu (Ayu?) and the afflicted Manu." (See Vol. I. p. 172.) 

viii. 36, 7. S'ydvdhasya sunvaias tathd ifinu yathd airinor Atre^ 
karmdni krinvaiah \ 

" Listen to Sydvasva pouring forth libations, in the same way as 
thou didst listen to Atri when he celebrated sacred rites." * 

iz. 96, 11. 2\^ayd hi nah pitara^ Samapurve karmdni ehakru^ pava- 
mdna dhlrdJi \ 

" For through thee, o pure Soma, our wise forefathers of old per- 
formed their sacred rites." 

^ See Benfey^B Gloeeary to SSma-yeda, under the word vas 2. 
• Compare ?iu. 35, 19 ; and viii. 37, 7. 



iz. 110, 7. The Soma pratham&l^ vjiktthvarhUiho make vdjdya iravase 
dhiyaih dadhuh \ 

** The former [priests] haying strewed the sacred grass, offered up a 
hymn to thee, o Soma, for great strength and food." 

X. 14, 15 (=zA.Y. zviii. 2, 2). Idan^ namai^ fishihhya^ pHrvajehhyah 
pathikridbhyah \ 

** This reverence to the rishis, horn of old, the ancients, who showed 
us the road." (This yerse may also he employed to prove that at the 
end of the Yedic period the rishis had hecome objects of veneration.) 

X. 66, 14. VasMthdMh pitfivad vdcham ahrata devdn tldndi^ fUhi" 
rod I ityddi \ 

** The Yasishfhas, like the forefathers, like the rishisy have uttered 
their voice, worshipping the gods." 

x^ 67, 1 — will be quoted in a following section. 

X. 96, 5. Ibam aharyathdh upastutah pnrvehhir Indra harikesa yaj- 
vahhih I 

" Indra, with golden hair, thou didst rejoice, when lauded by the 
ancient priests." 

X. 98, 9. Tvdm puree fishayo glrlhir ay an tvdm adhvareshu puruhuta 
viive I 

" To thee the former rishis resorted with their hymns ; to thee, thou 
much invoked, all men [resorted] at the sacrifices." 

Yajasaneyi Sanhita, xviii. 52. Imau te palcsJidv ajarau patairinau yd- 
hhydih rakshdmi apahamsi Agne \ idhhydm patema sukritdm u lokam 
yatra fishayo jaymuh prathamajdh ptirdnuh \ 

** But these undecaying, soaring pinions, with which, o Agni, thou 
dayest the Bakshases, — with them let us ascend to the world of the 
righteous, whither the earliest-bom ancient rishis have gone." (This 
Terse is quoted in the S'atapatha Brahmana, ix. 4, 4, 4, p. 739.) 

The ancient rishis, as Sayana says in his note on B.Y. i. 2, were 
Bh|igu, Angiras, and others whom he docs not name. In another place 
-we find Atharvan, Manu, Dadhyanch, and others mentioned. I will 
not here enter into any particulars regarding these ancient sages. For 
some texts relating to Bhrigu, I may refer to the First Yolume of this 
-work, pp. 443 ff. ; and various passages relating to Manu will be found 
in the same volume pp. 162 ff., and in pp. 324-332 of the Second 
Volume. In regard to Atharvan, as well as Angiras, Professor Gold- 


stacker's Sanskrit and English Dictionary, and in regard to the same 
personages and Dadhyanch, the Sanskrit and Grerman Lexicon of Boeht- 
lingk and Both, may be consulted. 

Sect. II. — Passages from the Veda in which a distinction ts drawn 
between the older and tlie more recent ht/mns. 

From the passages which I propose to bring forward in the present 
section, it will be found that the hymns which the rishis addressed to 
the gods are frequently spoken of as new, while others of ancient date 
are also sometimes mentioned. The rishis no doubt entertained the 
idea that the gods would be more highly gratified if their praises were 
celebrated in new, and perhaps more elaborate and beautiful composi- 
tions, than if older, and possibly ruder, prayers had been repeated. 

The fact that a hymn is called new by its author, does not, however, 
by any means enable us to determine its age relatively to that of other 
hymns in the collection, for this epithet of new is, as we shall see, 
applied to numerous compositions throughout the Yeda; and often 
when a hymn is not designated as new, it may, nevertheless, be in 
reality of recent date, compared with the others by which it is sur- 
rounded. "When, however, any rishi characterizes his own effusion as 
new, we are of course necessarily led to conclude that he was acquainted 
with many older songs of the same kind. The relative ages of the 
different hymns can only be settled by means of internal evidence fdr- 
nished by their dialect, style, metre, ideas, and general contents ; and 
we may, no doubt, hope that much will by degrees be done by the 
researches of critical scholars towards such a chronological classification 
of the constituent portions of the Eig-veda. 

The hymns, praises, or prayers uttered by the rishis are called by a 
great variety of names, such as rich, sdmany yajush, brahman, aria, 
ukiha, mantra, manman, matt, manishd, sumati, dhl, dhiti, dhiehand, 
stoma, stud, sushfuti, prasasti, iamsa, gir, vdch, vachas, nUha, nivid, etc. 

II. Y. i. 12, 11. Sa nah stavuiuih abhara guyatrena navtgasd \ rayiik 
viravatim ishatJi \ 

'* Glorified by our newest' hymn, do thou bring to ns wealth and 
food with progeny." (Sayana explains navlyasd by pHrvakair apy 
asaynpdditcna gdyatrena | ** A hynm not formed even by former rishis.") 
• Compare Psahns, S3, 3; 40, 3; 96, 1 ; 98, 1 ; 144, 9; 149, 1 ; and latioh, 42» lOL 


i. 27| 4. Imam H shu tvam dtmdkafk ianilk gdyatraik navyd^am \ 
Agne deveshu pravochah \ 

** Agni, ihou hast announced [or do thou announce] among the gods 
this our o£fering, our newest h3naui." 

L 60^ 3. Tarn navyasi hfidahk & j&yamdnam asmat tuklrttir madhu' 
fikvam aiy&h \ yam fitvijo vfijane mdnu8hd$a(k prayoivanta^ dyavo jlja- 
nanta \ 

'' May our newest laudation (springing) from (our) heart, reach him, 
the sweet-tongued, at his hirth, (him) whom mortal priests the descend* 
ants of ManUy offering ohlations, have generated in the ceremonial/' 
(See iiL 39, 1, in next page, and i. 171, 2 and IL 35, 2, which will he 
quoted further on in the next section). 

L 89, 3. Tdn pnrvayd nivtdd humahs vayam Bhagam Mitram Adittih 
Daisham Atridham ityddi \ 

''We invoke with an ancient hymn Bhaga, Mitra, Aditi, Baksha, 
Asridh [or the friendly]," etc. {Pikrvakdlinayd \ nityayd \ nivtdd \ 
vsddtmikayd vdehd | ''With an ancient— eternal, hymn — a Yedic 
text." — Saya^a.) 

i. 96, 2. 8a pHrvayd nividd haioyaUL Ay or imdh prajdl^ qfanayad mO' 
nUndm \ 

" Through the ancient hymn, the poetic work, of Ayu he (Agni) 
generated these children of men." ^ 

i. 130, 10. 8a no na/vyehhir vfisha-karmann ukthait purdfk dartta^ 
pdyubhi^ pdhi Say math \ 

" Through our new hymns, do thou, vigorous in action, destroyer of 
cities, sustain us with invigorating hlessings." 

i. 143, 1. Fra tavyaslni navyatlm dhUimAynaye vdcho matifk iohoia^ 
iHnave hhare j 

" t hring to Agni, the son of strength, a new and energetic hymn, a 
production of thought uttered hy the voice {vdehahy 

iL 17, 1. Tad asmai navy am Anyiras-vad arehata ityddi \ 

"Utter to him [Indra] that new [hymn] like Angiras." ("New, 
i.$, never hefore seen among other people " anyeshv adriahta-purvam — 

iL 18, 3. JSari nu lath rathe Indrasya yojam dyai aUktma vaehasd 
nacena | mo shu tvdm atra hahavo hiviprdh ni riraman yajamdndso any$ \ 

V See the Aitareya Brfthmaoa, p. 143 of Prof, flaogrs tnmsUtion ; and Vol I. p. 181. 



** With this new and well-expressed hymn I have yoked^ the steeds 
in India's car, in order that he may come hither. Let not the other 
wise saciificersi who are nnmerons, stop thee (&om coming to me)." 

ii. 24, 1. Sa imdm aviddhi prabhf^tim yah iHthe \ ay& vidhema lUh 
vayd fnaha gird \ 

** Do thou who rolest receive this, onr offering [of praise] : let ns 
worship thee with this new and grand song." 

iii. 1, 20. JEtd U Agne janimd sandni pra pnrvydya nntandni vocham \ 

'' These ancient [and these] new productions I have nttered to thee, 
Agni, who art ancient." (Gomp. E.V. viii. 84, 5, in the next section.) 

iii. 32, 13. Ya^ atomihhir vdvfidhe pUrvyehhir yo madhyamebhir uU 

** [Indra] who has grown through (or heen magnified by) andenti 
intermediate, and modem hymns. ** 

iii. 39, 1. Indram matir hfidah d vaehyamdnd aehhd patim itamo' 
tashtd jigdti \ d jdgrivir vidathe iasyatndnd Indra yat U jdyate viddhi 
tasya | 2. Divai ehid d parvyd jdyamdnd vi jdgrtvir vidathe ioiyamdnd | 
hhadrd vastrdni arfund vasdnd sd iyam asme sanajd pitryit dhl^ \ 

** 1. The vigilant hymn, formed of praise, and uttered from the heart, 
proceeds to Indra the lord, when chaunted at the sacrifice : be cognis- 
ant, Indra, of this [praise] which is produced for thee. 2. Produced 
even before the daylight, vigilant, chaunted at the saorifice, dothed in 
beautiftd and radiant garments, — this is our ancient ancestral hymn." 
(Pitryd is rendered by Sayana as pitrt-hrarndgatd, ** received by soo- 
cession from our fathers.") 

iii. 62, 7. Iyam te Pushann dghf^ne sushfufir deva navyoA \ oimdhhii 
tuhhyaih iatyaU \ 

^< Divine and glowing Pushan, this new laudation is recited by us 
to thee." 

V. 42, 13. Pra m make suiarandya medhdih giram hhar$ natyoAlk 
fdyamdndm \ 

'< I present to the mighty protector a mental production, a new ut- 
terance [now] springing up." 

• Compare the cxpressioM vaeho^uja hart, "brown horses yoked by the hyma 
(ELY, viii. 45, 39 ; viiL 87, 9) ; brahfna^yt^^ "yoked by prayer" (i. 177, 2 ; iii. 86, 
4 ; Tiii. 1, 24 ; viii. 2, 27 ; Tiii. 17, 2) ; and mano-ytff^ " yoked by the mind, or will"* 
(i. 14, 6; L 61, 10; ir. 48, 4 ; r. 76, 6 ; viiL 6, 2). 



T. 55, 8, Yat pHrvyam Maruto yach cha nUtcmam yad udyaU Vasavo 
yaeh eha iasyate \ vihasya ta»ya hhavatha navedasah \ 

" Be cognizant of all that is ancient, Maruts, and of all that is 
modem, of all that is spoken, Yasus, and of all that is recited." 

vi. 17, 13 Suvlram tvd w&yudham suvajram a hrahma navyam 

avase vavritydt \ 

" May the new prayer impel thee, the heroic, well-accoutred, the 
loud-thundering, to succour us." (" New, f.e. never made before by 
others: prayer, i,e, the hymn made by us" Nutanam anyair akrita- 
purvam \ hrahma asmdhhih kfitaih ^^o^ram— S&yana.) 

vi. 22, 7. Tarn vo dhiyd navytuyd iavishtham prainam pratna-vat 
parita^ayadhyai \ 

'*1 seek, like the ancients, to stimulate thee, the ancient, with a 
new hymn." 

yL 34, 1. 8a0i cha tvejagmur giral^ Indra purvlr vi eha tvad yanti 
vibhvo manUhdh ] purd nUnam eha itutayah^ fishlndm paspridhre Indre 
adhi ukthdrkdh \ 

** Many songs, Indra, are collected in thee ; numerous thoughts issue 


forth from thee ; both before and now the praises, texts and hymns of 
lishis have hastened emulously to Indra." 

yL 44, 13. Yah pUrvydhhir via nutandhhir glrlhir vdvridhe grinatum 
fUMndm I 

" He (Indra) who grew through the ancient and modem hymns of 
lauding rishis." (See E.Y. iii. 32, 13, aboye p. 223.) 

tI. 48, 11. ^ aahhdyah mhardughdm dhenum ajadhvam upa navy aid 
9aehah \ * 

"Friends, drive hither the milch cow with a new hymn." 

tL 49, 1. Stuahe janam suvratam navyaslhhir glrhhir Mitrdvarund 
iumnayantd \ 

"With new praises I celebrate the righteous race, with Mitra and 
Yarona, the beneficent." (" The well-acting race, i.e. the divine race, 
the company of the gods," sukarmdnam janam daivyam janam deva- 
tangham — Sayana.) 

vi. 50, 6. Ahhi tyafh vlram girvanasam archa Indram orahmand jari" 
iarnavena \ 

" Sing, o worshipper, with a new hymn, to the heroic Indra, who 
delights in praise." 

* Compare ih» words ni Agne navyma vaehas ianuthu iamaam eaham^ riil. 39, 2. 


Ti. 62, 4. Tsi navyoBo jaram&nasya numma upa IkiUhaio ffuyi^'dtuh 
sap^ ity&di \ 5. Ta valgH datrd puruiakaiamd pratnd nmytud vachaaH 

'< 4. These (A^vins), with yoked horses, approach the hymn of their 

new worshipper 5. 1 adore with a new hymn these brilliant. 

strong, most mighty, and ancient (gods)." 

vii. 85, 14, will be quoted in the next section. 

viL 53, 2. Pra pUrvaje pitard nwyaaibhir ylrhhi^ krimudkcam sadam 
fitatya ity&di \ 

''In the place of sacrifice propitiate with new hymns the anden^ 
the parents " {%$. Heaven and Earth), etc. 

yii. 56, 23. BhUri ekakra Maruta^ pitrydni uUhOni yd vaf^ tatymiti 
purd chit I 

'' Te have done great things, o Marats, when our ikthers^ hymna 

were recited of old in your honour." 

vii. 59, 4 abhi vai dvartt sumaiir navHyM ^® inyaik ydta pipH" 

shavah \ 

''May the new hymn turn you hither; come quiddy, dedroos 
to drink." 

yii. 61, 6 Pra vdm manmdni ricJuue navdni kfiidni irahma 

jujutihann imdni | 

" May the new hymns made to praise you, may these pnrjrers gra- 
tify you." 

viL 93, 1. Suehim nu itofnam nava-jdtam adya Indragnl VfMrthJumd 
fu»hetham | ubhd hi vdfh suhavd johavlmi ityddi \ 

"Indra and Agni, slayers of Yfittra, receive with favour the pure 
h3rmn newly produced to-day. For again and again do I invoke you 
who lend a willing ear," etc. 

viii. 5, 24. Tdlhir dydtam Hdtbhir nopyasilhih suSasMhii^ yad vM 
VfishawoMH huve \ 

"Come with those same succours, since I invoke you, bountifioil 
[deities], with new praises." (The epithet napyaaihhih in this text 
might possibly be construed with the word UttbhH^^ " aids.") 

viii. 6, 11. Aham pratnetk* manmand gira^ iumbhdmi Eanva-vai 
yma Indra^ imhmam id dadhe | 

^ The flame words, tmuUir nainyati, ooeur in viiL 92, 9, where they may soft b 
the fame eenae le hei«. 


''I decorate my praises with an ancient hynuiy after the manner of 
Kanya, whereby Indra put on strength." 

Till. 6, 43. Imdm 9u pikrvydm dhiyam madhar ghfitoiya ptpymhlH 
Kanvdh ultthma vavjridhuh \ 

*' The Ka^yas with their praise haye augmented this ancient hymn, 
replenished with sweet butter." 

yiiL 12, 10. lyam te fitviy avail dhittr €t% navfyoH ioparyantl ityddi \ 

*^ This new and solemn hymn adyanoes to honour thee/' etc. 

yiii. 20, 19. Tunai H €u navMthaya vruhoaft pdvalan abhi Sohhar$ 
gird I gdya ityddi \ 

''Sing, Sobhari, with a new hymn to these youthful, yigorous, 
and brilliant (gods). 

yiiL 23, 14. S'nuihfl Ayne navMya me itomasya vlra viipate vi md- 
yinas tapushd rahhaso daha \ 

'' Heroic Agni, lord of the people, on hearing my new hymn, bum 
up with thy heat the deluding Bakshases." 

yiii. 25, 24 Kaidvantd viprd navishthayd mail | maha vdjindv 

mrvantd saehd aaanam \ 

** I haye celebrated at the same time with a new hymn, these twv;; 
8age and mighty [princes], strong, swift, and carrying whips." 

yiii. 39, 6. Aynir veda marttdndm aplehyam .... Aynir dpdrd fiyfir- 
iguU tvdkuto navfyasd | 

'' Agni knows the secrets of mortals • . • • Agni, inyoked by a new 
[^hymn], opens the doors." 

yiii. 40, 12. JSha Indrdynibhydm pitjri'Vad navlyo Mdndhdtft'ffod 
^JLngtroi'Vad avdchi ityddi | 

** Thus has a new [hymn] been uttered to Indra and Agni after the 
^naxmer of our fathers, and of Mandhatfi, and of Angiras." 

yiiL 41, 2. Tarn fl shu aamand gird pitfind^ eha manmdbhi^ Ndbhd' 
Jtasya praiastihhir yah sindhundm upa udaye aapUhtvasd m tnadhyama^ | 

" [Worship] him (Varuna) continually with a song, with the hymns ol 
the fathers,^^ and with the praises of Kabhaka. He who dwells at the 

^^ The expression here employed, pUfinam eha fnanmahhihj oocutb also in lUV. x. 
67, 3 (=Vaj. S. 3, 53) : Mano nu a huvamahs naraiamuna iomena piifinaih eha 
wianmabhih \ ** We summon his sonl with Soma, acoompanied by human praises, and 
with the hymns of the fathers." The Yajasaneyi Sanluti reads ttomena, ** hymn," 
instead of iomcfuk The commentator there explains naraiaSuena ttomma as ^'a hyoin 


birth-place of the streams, the lord of the seyen sisters, abides in the 
centre." (This verse is quoted in the Nirukta x. 5. Nabhaka is said 
by Yaska to have been a rishi {rishir N&lhaho hahhuva), A translation 
of the passage is given in Iloth's Illustrations of the Nir. p. 135, when 
reference b also made to two verses of the preceding hymn (viii. 40, 
4, 5), in which Nabhaka (the ancestor of Nabhaka) is mentioned thus: 
(verse 4) Ahhyarcha Ndhhdka-vad Indrdgnl yajoid gira .... (verse 5) 
Pra hrahmdnt Ndhhaka-vad Indrdgnibhydm irajyata \ '' Worship Indra 
and Agni with sacrifice and hymn, like Nabhaka .... Like N&bhaka, 
direct your prayers to Indra and Agni." In explanation of the seven 
sisters, Both refers to Nir. v. 27 (E.Y. viii. 58, 12) where the seven 
rivers are mentioned. See his Ulustrations of Nir. pp. 70, 71. 

viii. 44, 12. Agnih pratnena manmand Sumbhdnas tanvaih wdm kavik 
vtprena vavridhe \ 

"The wise Agni, illuminating his own body at [the sound of] the 
sage and ancient hymn, has become augmented." 

viii. 55, 11. Vayam gha U apurvyd Indra hrahmdnt vfiUrakan \ 
purutamdsah puruhuia vqfrivo hhritim na pra hhardnum \ 

" Indra, slayer of Vyittra, thunderer, invoked of many, we [thy] 
numerous [worshippers] bring to thee, as thy hire, hymns which never 
before existed." 

viii. 63, 7, 8. lyani U navyasl matir Agne adhdyi asmad d mandr^ 
8Ujdta sukrato amUra dasma atithe \ sd U Agne iawtamd chaniahthd bhth 
vatu priyd tayd vardhasva sushfutah \ 

" Agni, joyful, well-born, strong, unerring, and wondrous guest, 
this new hymn has been offered to (or, made for) thee by us; may 
it be dear to thee, agreeable and pleasant: lauded by it, do thou 

viii. 65, 5, 6 Indraih girlhir havdmahe \ Indratn pratnena man- 
mand marutvantam havdmahe ityddi \ 12. (=S.Y.ii. 340.) Vdcham aeh- 
tapadim aham nava-sraktim rita-sprUam \ Indrdt pari tanvam mame \ 

"5. We invoke Indra with songs; we invoke Indra, attended by 
the Maruts, with an ancient hymn 12. I compose for the sake of 

in which men are praised," and pitfTnam eha manmabhihf as hymns "in 'which the 
father sare reyerenced" (pitaro yaih atotrair manyanU U manmanat fair ityadi^. 
See Prof. Max Miiller's translation of this hymn in the Jonmal of Roy. As. Soc for 
1866, pp. 449 and 458. 


Indra a hymn of eight feet and nine lines, ahoonding in sacred 
tmth." (This Terse is translated and explained by Professor Benfey, 
Sama-yeda, p. 255.) 

ix. 9y 8. Nu na/oyoie fMvJtfote mktdya idihaya jpathah \ pratna-vad 
roehaya ruehah | 

'' Prepare (o Soma) the paths for onr newest, most recent, hymn ; 
and, as of old, cause the lights to shine." 

iz. 42, 2. JEsha pratnena manmand devo devebhyah^ pari \ dhdrayd 
pavate mtah \ 

*^ This god, poured forth to the gods, with an ancient hymn, purifies 
with his stream.'' 

iz. 91, 5. 8a pratfUhvad navyate vika^dra sUktdya pathah kfinuM 
prdchah iiyddi \ 

** god, who possessest all good, make, as of old, forward paths for 
this new hymn.'' 

iz. 99, 4 (= S.Y. ii. 983). Ta^ gdthayd purdnyd pundnam abhi anU- 
shaia \ uto kfipanta dhftayo devdndih ndma hihhraiih \ 

** They praised the pure god with an ancient song ; and hymns em- 
l>racing the names of the gods have supplicated him." (Benfey trans- 
lates the last clause differently.) 

z. 4, 6 lyaM UAyne navyaA fMnUMytJuhvarathaihnaiucha- 

yadhhir angaih \ 

*^ This is for thee, Agni, a new hymn : yoke thy car as it were with 
shining parts." 

z. 89, 3. Samdnam atmai anapdvfid archa hahmayd divo atamam 
hrahma navyam ityddi \ 

'' Sing (to Indra) without ceasing a new hymn, worthy of him, and 
unequalled in earth or heaven." 

z. 91, 13. Imdmpratndya suahtutix^ navlya^m vocheyam asmai idaU 
fyinotu nah \ 

^ I will address to this ancient [deity] my new praises, which he 
desires ; may he Hsten to us." 

z. 96, 11 Navyam navyam haryasi manma nupriyam ityddi \ 

" Thou delightest in ever new hymns, which are dear to thee," etc. 

z. 160, 5. Aivdyanto gavyanto vdjayanto havdmahe tvd upa gantavai 
« I dhhiUhantai U iumatau navdyum vayam Indra tvd Sunarh huvema \ 

" Desiiing horses, cattle, and wealth, we invoke thee to approach us. 


Paying homage to fhee in a new hjum, may we, o Indra, invoke fhee 

Sect, in.— Pamo^m of the Eig-veda, in which th$ riihis describe 
thetneehee as the composers of the hymns. 

In this section I propose to quote, first of all, those passages in 
which the rishis distinctly speak of themselves as the authors of the 
hymns, and express no consciousness whatever of deriving assistance 
or inspiration from any supernatural source. I shall then adduce some 
farther texts in which, though nothing is directly stated regarding the 
composition of the hymns, there is at the same time nothing which 
would lead the reader to imagine that the rishis looked upon them as 
anything else than the offspring of their own minds. 

1 shall arrange the quotations in which the rishis distinctly claim 
the authorship, according to the particular verh which is employed to 
express this idea. These verbs are (1) fy», "to make," (2) talsh (= 
the Oreek T€KTalvofmL\ <<to fabricate," and (3) jan, ''to beget, gene- 
rate, or produce," with others which are less explicit. 

I. I adduce first the passages in which (1) the verb kfi, ''to make," 
is applied to the composition of the hymns. (Compare B.V. vii. 61, 6, 
already quoted in the last section.) 

B.y. L 20, 1. Ayaffi devdya fanmane stomo viprebhir dsayd^ \ akdri 
ratna-dhdtamah \ 

" This hymn, conferring wealth, has been made to the divine race, 
by the sages, with their mouth [or in presence of the gods]." 

i. 31, 18. JStena Agne brahmand vdvfidhasva iaktl vd yat te chakfima 
vidd vd I 

" Grow, Agni, by this prayer which we have made to thee accord- 
ing to our power, or our knowledge." 

i. 47, 2 Kanvdso vdm brahma kriwanti adhvare teshdm su 

fyinuta^i havam \ 

" The Kai^vas make a prayer to you : hear well their invocation." 

i. 61, 16. Evdtehariyojand suvfihti IndrabrahmdniOotamdsahakroH t 

" Thus, Indra, yoker of steeds, have the Gotamas made hymns for 
thee efflcaoiously." 

>* See the note on vi. 32, 1, below. 


i. 117, 25. Mdni vdm Ahind vlrydnipra pHrvydnt dyavd^ avochan \ 
hrakma kfinvanto " Vfishana yuvahhydm suvlrdso vidatham a vadema \ 

<< Thesei your ancient exploits, o A^vins, men have declared. Let 
OS, who are strong in bold men, nuking a bynm for you, o Tigorous 
gods, ntter onr offering of praise." 

L 184, 5. Esha vdm stomo Ahtndv akdrimdnehhir maghavdnd Buvrikti \ 

" This hymn has efficaciously been made to you, o opulent A^vins, 
by the Manas. (Comp. i. 169, 8; 171, 5 ; 182, 8; 184, 3.) 

ii. 39, 8. Etdni vdm Ahind vardhandni brahna ttamam GjiUama- 
ddsah dkran \ 

«< These magnifying prayers, [this] hymn, o Airins, the Gfitsamadas 
haye made for you." 

iii. 30, 20. Svaryavo matihhta tuhhyam viprdli Indrdya vdhah Kuii- 
Idaah akran | 

''Aspiring to heayen, the sage Kuiikas have made a hymn with 
praises to thee, o Indra." (The word vdhah is stated by Saya^a to be 
= stotraf "a hymn.") 

iv. 6, 11. Akdri hrahma samidhdna tubhyam ityddi | 

'' kindled [Agni], a prayer has been made to thee." 

It. 16, 20. JSved Indrdya vjrUhahhdya vfishne hrahma akarma Bhri- 
yavo na raiham | . • . . 21. Akdri te harivo hrahma navyaih dhiyd sydma 
raihyah eaddsdh \ 

** Thus have we made a prayer for Indra, the productiTe, the yigorous, 

as the Bhi'igus [fashioned] a car 21. A new prayer has been 

made for thee, o lord of steeds. May we, through our hymn (or rite), 
become possessed of chariots and perpetual wealths" 

Ti. 52, 2. Ati vd yo maruto manyate no hrahma vd yah kn'yamdnafh 
nmitsdt \ tapHniihi taamai vfiftndni aaniu hrahma-dvisham abhi tarn 
kehatu dyau^ \ 

** Whoeyer, o Maruts, regards himself as superior to us, or reviles 
the prayer which is being made^ may burning injuries be his lot ; may 
the sky scorch the enemy of prayer.'^ 

u The reader wiU find Prof. Hang's opinion of the Mnae of this phrase in p. 11 f. 
of hia German dissertation "on the original signification of the word brahma," of 
which the author has been kind enough to send me a copy, which has reached me as 
this sheet is passing through the press. Prof. Haug mentions B.Y. L 88, 4 ; yii. 
103, 8, as passages (additional to those I haye giyen) in which the expression occurs. 

^ Translated by Prof. Haug in the Dissertation above referred to, p. 6. 


Tii. 35, 14. Aditydh Eudrdh Vasavo juihanta (the Atharya-veda has 
jushantdm) idam hrahma kriyamanafh navlyah I irinvantu no divyH^ pdT'- 
thivdso goj&tah ityadi \ 

'' The Adityas, Budras, and Yasus receive with pleasure this new 
prayer which is being made. May the gods of the air, the earth, and 
the sky hear us." 

yii. 37, 4. Vayafh nu ie dcLivdffiBah sy&ma hrahma krtfwaniaJ^ ifyddi | 

'' Let us offer oblations to thee, making prayers/' etc. 

vii. 97, 9. lyaih vdm jBrahmanaapate tuvftktir hrahma Indrdya vqfruu 
aJcdri I 

*' Brahmanaspati, this efficacions hymn, [this] prayer has been wutd§ 
for thee, and for Indra, the thimderer." 

yiii. 51, 4. Aydhi hrinavdma U Indra hrahmdni varddhand ityddi \ 

'' Come, Indra, let ns make prayers, which magnify thee," etc 

Tiii. 79y 3. Brahma U Indra girvanah krtyanU anattdbhuUi \ md 
jushasva haryaha yqfand yd ie amanmahi \ 

** Unequalled prayers are made for thee Indra, who lorest hymns. 
Beceiye favourably, lord of the brown steeds, those which we have 
thought out for thee, to yoke thy horses." • 

z. 54, 6 Adha priyam iusham Indrdya manma irahmakfiio^ 

Vrihadukthdd avdchi \ 

<' . • An acceptable and powerful hymn has been uttered to Indn 
by Yyihaduktha, maker of prayers."** 

z. 101, 2. Mandrd kfinudhvam dhiyah d tanudJwaih ndvam aritro' 
paranlm krimdhvam \ 

" Make pleasant (hymns), prepare prayers, make a ship propelled by 

It is possible that in many of these passages the verb kfi may have 
merely the signification which the word make has in English when we 
speak of *' making supplications," etc., in which case it of course meana 
to offer upy rather than to compose. But this cannot be the case in such 
passages as ILY. iy. 16, 20 (p. 233), where the rishi speaks of making 

^ Comparo fishayo mantrakrUo numlshinah in Taittiriya Brahma^ iL 8, 8, 5 ; 
and E.y. ix. 114, 2 : Riahe maniro'kjritam ttomaih Kiuyapodvardhayam girah \90mem 
namasya rajanam yo j'ajne vlrudham patih \ *' Rishi Kasyapa, augmenting thy words 
with the praises of tho maken of hymns, reyerence King Soma, who was bom the laid 
of plants." 

^ Prof. Hang thinks the word hrdhma-hrit here refers to hymns, and mantioM 
other passages in which it oooors : see p. 12 of the Dissertation aho?e referred to. 


ihe hymn as the Bhpgas made a chariot.^^ And snch an interpretation 
would be altogether inadmissible in the cose of the texts which I next 
proceed to cite. 

II. Passages in which the word takshy " to fashion, or fabricate," is 
applied to the composition of the hymns. 

L 62, 13. San&yaU Ootamah Indra naivyam atahshad hrahma hariyih 
ian&ya ity&di \ 

*^ Nodhas, descendant of Gotama, fashumed this new hymn for [thee], 
Indra, who art of old, and who yokest thy steeds," etc. 

i 130, 6. Imam U vdeham vasuyantah dyavo ratha^ na dhlrah wth 
pdh atahhUhuh gumndya tvdm atakshishuh \ 

« Desiring wealth, men haye fashioned for thee this hymn, as a skil- 
fdl workman [fabricates] a car; and thus they have disposed (Jit 
fashioned) thee to (confer) happiness." 

L 171, 2. JEsha vah atomo Maruto namasvdn hfidd tashfo manasd 
dhdyi devdh \ 

** This rererential hymn, o divine Marats, fashioned by the heart, 
has been presented [or, made] by the mind. [According to Sayana, the 
last words mean, 'let it be received by you with a &yonrable mind']." 

ii. 19, 8. £vd U Gfitsamaddh iura manma avasyavo na vayundni 

*' Thus, hero, have the Gfitsamadas, desiring sncoonr, fashioned 
for thee a hymn, as men make works." (Sayana explains vayuna by 
*' road.") 

ii. 35, 2. Imaffi su asmai hridaJ^ d suiashfam mantrafh voehema huvid 
asya vedat \ 

''Let US address to him this welt-fashioned hymn proceeding firom 
the heart ; will he not be aware of it ?" 

T. 2, 11. Etam te stomal tuvi-jdta vipro ratham na dhlraJ^ svapd^ 
ataksham \ 

" I, a sage, have fabricated this hymn for thee, o powerful [deity], 
as a skilful workman fashions a car." 

T. 29, 15. Indra hrahma hriyamdnd jushasva yd te iavishtha navyd 
akarma \ vastreva hhadrd suJcfitd vasHyuh ratham na dhlra^ svapdf^ 
ataksham | 

17 See also v. 29, 15, and z. 39, 14, which will be quoted a little further on; and 
In which the verbs kfi and iakih are both employed. 


« mighty Indra, regard with fsiTour the prayers which are made 
{he new [prayers] which we have made for thee. Desirous of wca^ 
I have fabricated them like beautiM well-fiEishioned garmeofllk m t 
skilful workman [censtmcts] a car." (Compare B-Y. iii. 39, 2 ; aboiv^ 
p. 226.) 

y. 73, 10. Imd hrahmdni vardhand Ahibhydm aaniu iantamd \ 3fA 
taJuhdma rathdn iva avochdma hjrihad namah \ 

'* May these magnifying prayers which we haye fashioned, like can, 
be pleasing to the A^vins : we haye uttered great adoration." 

yi. 32, 1 (=S.y. i. 322). ApHrvyd purutamdni asmai make drfiyi 
tavoBB turdya \ virapiine vafrine iantamdni vaehdrhsi dad ^ aihmnrdya 
tahham \ 

''To this great hero, yigorous, energetic, the adorable, unshakeii 
thunderer, I haye with my mouth fabricated copious and pleamng 
prayers, which haye neyer before existed." 

yi. 16, 47. A fe Agne fichd havir hfidd iaahfam bhardmaai \ 

'' In this yerse, Agni, we bring to thee an oblation fabricated by the 
heart" (Comp. R.V. iii. 39, 1, in p. 226.) 

yii. 7, 6. Me dyumnebhir vi&tam dtiranta mantra^ yevd araihnmyd^ 
atakehan \ 

'' Those manly (Yasishthas), who haye skilfully /i^timM the hymn, 
haye by their energy accomplished all things (?)." . 

yii. 64, 4. To vdfh garttam manaad tabhad etam Urddhvd^ dtatHk 
hfinavad dhdrayach cha \ 

''May he who with his mind fashioned for you (Mitra and YaroQa) 
this car, make and sustain the lofty hymn." (The same ezpreasian 
Urddhvd dhltiit occurs in E.y. i. 119, 2.) 

yiii. 6, 33. Ula brahmanyd vayam tubhyam pravjriddha wjrivo viprd^, 
atakshmajivase \ 

"0 mighty thunderer, we, who are sage, hsYe fabricated prayers for 
ihee, that we may liye." 

z. 39, 14. JStam vdfh stomam Ahindv akarma atakshdma BhjrigwoQ na 
ratham | ni amfikshama yoshandm na maryye nityam na eUnuih temayaSk 
dadhdnd^ | 

" This hymn, Aiyins, we haye made for you ; we haye fabricated it 

18 On the senBo of ata tee Prof. Miiller's article in the Journal of Boy. Aa. Soc fi>r 
1867, p. 232 1 ; and fiohtlingk and Both's Lexioon, m. 



u the Bbrigiu [constructed] a car; we have decorated it, as a bride for 
ber hnsband, continuing the series [of our praises] like an unbroken 
line of descendants."' (See iy. 16, 20, above, p. 233.) 

(The following is Sayana's comment on this passage, for a copy ot 
which I am indebted to Professor Miiller : He Aivinau vdm yuvayor etaiti 
foihokta^ iUmafn stotram aharma akurma j Tad etad aha \ Bhrigavo na 
Bhrigavah iva ratham ataksh&ma vayafk stotram aafhskfitavantah \ karma" 
yog&d Rxhhavo Bhfigaval^ uchyante \ athavd rathakurd^ Bhrigavah | 
hineha vaya0i nityaih idhatarh tanayarh ydgddlndrh karmandih tanitdram 
9lLnufh na aurasam putram iva stotrath dadhdndh dhdrayanto martye ma- 
nushye nyamfthnhdma yuvayo^ itutith nitardfh aa^uhfitavantah \ " Aivins, 
we have made this preceding h3mm or praise of you. He means to say 
this. Like the Bhpgus, we have made a car, we have carefully con- 
structed a hymn. The Eibhus are, in this passage, .... styled £h^- 
g;u8 ; or Bhpgus are chariot-makers. Moreover, maintaining praise as 
a constant perpetuator (like a legitimate son) of sacrifice and other rites, 
we have polished, i.e. carefully composed a celebration of you among 
men [?]•'' In this comment the word yoehand is left unexplained. In 
verse 12 of this hymn the A^vins are supplicated to come in a car 
fleeter than thought, constructed for them by the Ribhus — d tena ydtam 
manaeojavlyaed ratham yaih vdm J^ibhavai chahrur Aivind \ •) 

z. 80, 7. Agnaye hrahma Bihhavas tatakehuh \ 

'' The Eibhus [or the wise] /a^rti^a^ a hymn for Agni. 

III. I next quote some texts in which the h3rnniB are spoken of as 
liemf^ generated hj the rishis. (Comp. E.Y. vii. 93, 1, in p. 228.) 

iiL 2, 1. Vaihdnardyadhiahandmfitdvfidheghritafhnapiltam Agnaye 
fandmaei | 

" We generate a hymn, like pure butter, for Agni Yaiivanara, who 
promotes our sacred rites." 

vii. 15, 4. Ndvam nu atomam Agnaye divah iyendya jijanam \ vana^ 
iitvid vandti nah \ 

** I have generated a new hymn to Agni, the falcon of the sky; will 
lie not bestow on us wealth in abundance ? " 

viL 22, 9. Te chapUrve fiahayo ye eha nUtnd^ Indra hraJm&ni jana^ 
fomta viprd^ \ 

''Indra, the wise rishis, both ancient and modem, have generated 


yii. 26, 1. Na aomah Indram oiuto mamada na ahrahmdno tnaghavdnaih 
iuULsa^ I iasmai ukthaih janaye yaj jujoshad nfivad navlyah Srinq/oad 
yathd nalk | 

'' The soma exhilarates not Indra nnless it be poured out/ nor do 
libations [gratify] Maghayan when offered without a prayer. To him I 
gmerate a hymn such as may please him, that, after the manner of men, 
he may hear our new [production].'' 

Tii. 31, 11 Suvfiktim Indrdya hrahma janayanta vipr&h \ 

''The sages generated an efficacious production and a prayer for 

yii. 94, 1, 2 (=S.Y. ii. 266). lyafh vdm asya manmana^ IndrOyia 
parvya-etutir ahhrdd vriehfir iva ajani \ erinuta^ jaritur Juwam ity&di | 

'' This excellent praise has been generated for you, Indra and Agni, 
firom the soul of this [your worshipper], like rain from a cloud. Hear 
the invocation of your encomiast." (Benfey thinks manman^ ** spirit," 
is to be understood of Soma, whose hymn, i.e. the sound of his drop- 
ping, resembles the falling of rain. The scholiast of the S.Y. makes 
manman = stotri, " worshipper ".) 

viii. 43, 2. Aamai te pratiharyate Jdtavedo vieAarahane Agne jandm 
euehtutm | 

" Wise Agni Jatavedas, I generate a hymn for thee, who receivest it 
with fevour." 

viii. 77, 4. A tvd ay am arka^ ntaye vavarttati yaih Qotamdh qfy'anan \ 

"This hymn which the Ootamas have generated^ incites thee to 
succour us." 

yiii. 84, 4, 5. Srudhi haicaih Tiraiehydh Indra yat tvd saparyaU 
^euvlryaeya gomato rdyah pdrdhi mahdn asi \ Indra yaa te natHya^ii 
giram mandrdm afljanat ehikitvin-manasam dhiyam pratndm fUatya 
pipyuehlm \ 

''Hear, Indra, the invocation of Tira^chl, thy worshipper; replenish 
him with wealth in strong men and in cattle, for thou art great. Indra 
(do this for him] who has generated for thee the newest exhilarating 
hymn, springing from an intelligent mind, an aneient mental producti 
full of sacred truth." 

(These verses occur also in the Sama-vcda ii. 233, 234, and axe 
translated by Professor Benfey, at pp. 230 and 250 of his edition. 
The hymn referred to in this passage is apparently designated as both 


new and old. How can it be both? It may haye been an old hymn 
xe-wiitten and embellished; ancient in snbstance, though new in ex- 
pression." Compare St. John's Gbspel, ziii. d4| and the Plrst Epistle 
of St John, ii. 7, S, and iii. 11.) 

ix. 73, 2 madhor dhdrahhir janayanto arJtam it priy&m Indrth 

mfa tanvam avivfidhan | 

** Generating the hymn, they have augmented the beloTcd body of 
Indra with the honied streams." 

ix. 95, 1 (= S.Y. i. 530) ato matlr janayata evadhdhhih \ 

«< Wherefore generate hymns with the oblations.'' (Professor Benfey 
makes janayata the 3rd person singular of the imperfect middle, and 
applies it to Soma.) 

X. 7, 2. Ifn&h Agne matayas tubhya0ijdtdiiyohMr a&vair abhiyrinanti 
rddhah \ 

« These hymns, Agni, generated for thee, celebrate thy bounty in 
cows and horses." 

X. 23, 5, 6, 7. To v&eha vivdeho mridhravdckah purU Bahasrd aiivd 
jaghdna \ Tat tad id asya pauffieyafh gfinJmasi pitd iva yas tavishim vd- 
vfidhe iavah \ 6. Stomarn te Indra Vimaddh ajijanann apUrvyam puruta- 
maffi iuddnave \ Vidma hi aeya Ihqjanam inaeya yad d paiufk na gapdh 
hardmahe \ 7. Md Ur nah end aakhyd viyaushiu tava eha Indra Vimadaeya 
tka fiehei \ Vidma hi te pramatiih devajdmi-vad aeme te aantu aakhyd 
ikdni | 

** 5. Who (Indra) with his voice slew many thousands of the wicked 
Tittering confused and hostile cries. We laud his several acts of valour, 
who, like a father, grew in vigour and strength. 6. For thee, o Indra, 
who art bountiful, the Yimados have generated a copious hymn, which 
never before existed {apUrvya) ; for we know that it is gratifying to this 
mighty god, when we attract him hither as a cowherd drives his 
cattle. 7. Indra, may that friendship of ours never be dissolved, which 
exists between thee and the rishi Yimada: for we know thy wisdom, 
god ; may thy friendship be favourable to us, like that of a kinsman.'' 
X. 67, 1. Imam dhiyaih aapta-iirahnim pitd nah fitaprajdtdm hrihatlm 
uvindat \ turlyafh avij janayad viivqfanyo Aydayah uktham Indrdya 
iansan | 

^* Am Prof. Aufirecht expresses it : '< Oir is opposed to dAi, as form to sul»tanoe 
a Dew utterance, bat a primordial homage." 


'' Our father hath discovered [or inyented] this great, seyen-headed 
hymn, bom of sacred truth ; Ayasya, friend of all men, celebrating 
Indra, has gmeraUd the fourth song of praise." (In his Lexicon, Both 
gives Ayasya as a proper name ; but says it may also be an adjective 
with the sense of ''unwearied.") 

z. 91, 14. Kildla-pe aoma-pfUhtdya vedhase hrtdd matini janaye ehd^ 
rum Ay nay 6 | 

'' With my heart I generate a beautiful hymn for Agni, the drinker 
of nectar, the soma-sprinkled, the wise." (See also E.y. L 109, 1, 2, 
which will be quoted below.) 

rV. In the following texts the verbal root fi, "to move, send forth," 
etc., used with or without a preposition, is applied to the utterance or 
(it may even mean) the production of hymns. 

L 116, 1. Ndsaiydhhydm harhir iva pravrinje stomdn iyarmi ahhriyd 
iva vdtah \ ydv arlhagdya Vimaddya jdydih sendjuvd ni Hhatuh rathena \ 

'' In like manner as I spread the sacrificial grass to the Ndsatyas 
(A^vins), so do I send forth to them hymns, as the wind [drives] the 
clouds ; to them (I say), who bore off to the youthful Yimada his bride 
in a chariot swift as an arrow." 

vii. 61, 2. Pra vdm sa Mitrd- Varunau fitdvd ^npro manmdni dlryho" 
trud iyartti [ Yaeya hrahmdni suhratu aodthah d yat hratvd na iaradak 
Pfinaithe \ 

'' The devout sage, heard afar off, sends forth his hymns to yon, o 
Mitra and Yaruna. Do you, mighty gods, receive his prayers with 
favour, so that for (many) autumns ye may not be satiated with his 
fervour." (See Bohtlingk and Eoth's Lexicon, s.v, d + pfi,) 

viii. 12, 31. Imdih te Indra sushfutim ^tprak iyartti dhitibht^ \jdmim 
padd iva pipratlm pra adhvare \ 

** In the sacrifice the sage, with praises, sends forth to thee this hymn, 
which is of kin to thee, and, as it were, supplies the places (of others Q 

viii. 13, 26 J^itdd iyarmi te dhiyam manoyujam | 

''.... From the sacred ceremony I send forth a prayer which will 
attract thy heart." 

X. 116, 9. Fta Indrdgnihhydrh suvaehasydm iyarmi sindhdv i/oapremh 
yafh ndvam arkaih \ 

'' I send forth a [hymn] with beautiful words to Indra and Agni ; 
with my praises I have, as it were, launched a ship on the sea." 


(Compare E.Y. ii. 42, 1, spoken of Indra in the fonn of the bird 
called Kapinjala, a sort of partridge : lyartti vdcham ariteva ndvam \ 
** It sends forth a^ voice, as a rower propels a boat." See also B.Y. x. 
101, 2, quoted above, p. 234.) 

z. 4, 1. Pra U yakshi pra te iyarmi manma hhuvo yathd vandyo no 
haveshu I dhanva7in iva prapd asi tvam Agne iyakshave pHrave pratna 
rdjan | 

** I offer thee worship, I send forth to thee a meditation, that thou 
mayest be accessible to adoration in our invocations. For thou, Agni, 
ancient king, art like a trough of water in the desert to the man who 
longs for thee." 

y. In the following passages other verbs are employed to denote the 
composition or presentation of hymns : 

L 61. 2. IndrcLya hjidd matMsd manUhd pratndya patye dhiyo ma/rja- 
yanta \ 

** To Indra, the ancient lord, they prepared [or polished] hymns [or 
ceremonies] with the heart, mind, and imderstanding.*' 

i. 61, 4. Asmai id u etomam eamhinami rathaih na taehfa iva ityddi [ 
'< To him (Indra) I send forth a hymn, as a carpenter a car," etc. 
L 94, 1 (:= S.y. i. 66). Ima^ atomaih arhate Jdtavedase ratham iva 
^utm mahema manUhayd \ hhadrd hi nah pramatir aeya samsadi Agne 
^makhye md riehdma vayam tava \ 

*' Let us with our intellect construct (or, send forth) this hymn for 
adorable Jatavedas like a car, for his wisdom is favourable to us in 
e assembly. Agni, in thy friendship may we never suffer." (The 
mah means to honour or worship.''^ The reader may compare 
nfey's translation.) 

There is to be found in the hymns a great multitude of passages in 

hich the nshi speaks of presenting his hymns and prayers to the 

arious deities who are the objects of his worship, without directly 

laiming for himself the authorship of those compositions. The natural 

erence to be drawn from the expressions which we shall find to be 

mployed in most of the cases to which I refer, would, I think, be that 

personality of the rishi himself was uppermost in his mind, and 

t he was not conscious that the praises which he was uttering to 

* See, howerer, the rarioui reading suggeited by Bothlingk and Both t.v, mah -f 
m and ah + lom. 



the gods proceeded from any other source than his own unaided fiEuml- 
ties. Of this description are the following texts, which represent a 
manner of thinking and speaking very prevalent in the hymns : 

i. 60, 5. Tarn ivd vayam patim Agne raylnam praiamadmo nuUibhir 
Gotamdsa^ | 

'* We, the Gotamas, praise with hymns thee, Agni, the lord of riches." 

i. 77, 5. JSva Agnir Ootamehhir ritdvd viprehhir astoshfajdtavedah \ 

" Thus has the holy Agni Jatayedas been celebrated by the sage 

i. 78, 5. Avoehdma Bahftgand^ Agnage madhumad vacha^ \ dgumnair 
dhhipra nonuma^ \ 

** We, the Eahuganas, have nttered to Agni honied speech ; we in- 
cessantly land him with eulogies." 

i. 91, 11. Soma glrhhia tvd vayafk vardhaydmo vach<hv%dait \ sumftliko 
nah dviia \ 

** Soma, we who are skilled in speech magnify thee with praises ; do 
thou enter into us, full of kindness." 

i. 102, 1. Imdfh U dhiyam prabhare maho mahlm . • • • 

^' I present to thee joyfully this great hymn .... 

i. 183, 6. Atdrishma tamasas pdram asga prati vdih gtamo Ahindv 
ndhdyi I 

" We have crossed over this darkness ; a hynm, o Asvins, has been. 
Addressed to you." 

iii. 53, 2. Pitur na putra^ sicham a rabhe U Indra wddUhthayd girW 
iachivah \ 

" FowerM Indra, I lay hold of thy skirt (as a son does that of hif 
father), with a very sweet hymn." 

iv. 3, 16. Etd vihfd vidushe tubhyafn vedho nUhdni Agne nimyd m- 
chd^i I nivaehand kavaye kdvydm (Uaihsisham matibhir viprah ukthaik | 

<' Intelligent Agni, to thee, who knowest, [have I uttered] aU these 
songs and mysterious words ; to thee, who art a bard, have I, a sage, 
uttered these hymns, these poems, with meditations and praises." 

iv. 32, 12. Avivridhanta Gotamdh Indra tve itama-vdhasah \ 

** The Gotamas, Indra, briaging hymns to thee, have magnified thee." 

Y. 11, 5. Ikihhya idam Agne madhumaltamaih vaohas tuhhyam mariUhd 
(yarn astu iaih hfide \ nd^ gira^ eindhum iva avitnlr mahir d prismUi 
iavoid vardhayanti eha \ 


''Agni, may this sweetest of prayers, may this mental production 
be pleasant to thy heart As great rivers fill the oceaUi so do the words 
of praise fill thee, and augment thee with strength." 

Y. 22, 4. Agne ehikiddhi (uya nah idafk vachak iohasya \ Ta^ ivd 
ndipra dampaU itomair vardhanti Atrayo glrlhih iumbhanti Atrayali \ 

''Vigorous Agni, observe these our words; thee, with the beautiful 
nose, the lord of the house, the Atris magnify with praises, the Atris 
decorate with hymns." 

V. 45, 4. Suktehhir vo vaeholhir dwa-juMair Indrd nu Agnl avaae hu- 
vaikyai \ 

''Let me invoke you for help, o Indra and Agni, with well-spoken 
words, such as are acceptable to the gods. 

vi. 38, 3. Tain vo dhtyd paramaya purdjam ajaram Indram abhi 
anushi arkaih ityddi \ 

" I adore thee, the ancient, imperishable Indra with an excellent 
hymn and with praises." 

viL 67, 5. Prdchtm a, devd Ahind dhiyam me amridhrdm sdtaye 
Ifitam vasHyum \ 

'' divine A^vins, bring to fulfilment my unwearied prayer which 
sapplicates wealth." 

vii. 85, I. PunUhe vdm arakshasam manUhdm somam Indrdya VarU' 
ndyajuhvat \ ghrita'pratikdm Ushasam na devlm ityddi \ 

** Offering soma to Indra and Yaruna, I prepare for you twain the 
^cere hymn, like the goddess XJshas, with glittering face." '^ 

viii. 5, 18. Asmdkam adya vdm ayaih stomo vdhishfJio antama^ \ yuvd" 
^Aya^ hhutu AMnd \ 

'' May this hymn of ours approach near to you, to-day, o A^vins, and 
l>e effectual in bearing you hither." 

tIiL 8, 8. Kim anye parydsaU asmat stomebhir AMnd \ putrali Kan^ 
^atya vdm fishir glrbhir VaUo avlvfidhat \ 

« A^vins, do others than we sit round you with songs? Yatsa, the 
^on of Kanva, has magnified you by his hymns." 

yiiL 27, 8. A pra ydta Maruto Fishno AMnd Fushan mdklnayd 
^hiyd I 11. Ida hi vah upastutim idd vdmasya hhaktaye upa vo vihO' 
^>edato namasyur dsrikshi 

n Compare li. 8, 1. Vaisvanttraya matir navyaai iuchih tomah iva pavaU eharur 

-^gnayg | «< A new and bright hymn is purified, like beautifol soma, for Agni Vai^- 


" 8. Come, o Mamts, YiBhno, A^vinB, Fushaxiy at my hymn. 1 1. Pot 
now, possessors of all riches, now, in order to obtain wealth, have I, 
full of reverence, sent forth to yon a hymn." 

Tiii. 44, 2. Afffie stomarh jushasva me vardhasva anena manmand \ 
prati 8uktdn% harya nah \ 22. Uta tva dhltayo mama giro varddhantu 
vihahd I Jpne aakhyasya hodhi nah \ 26. Tuv&nam vUpati^ kaviM vii' 
vddam pururvepasum \ Agnifk iumlMmi manmalhih \ 

" 2. Agni, receive my hymn : grow by this product of my thought : 
rejoice in onr beautiful words. 22. And may my thoughts and words 
always augment thee ; Agni, think of our friendship. 26. With my 
mental productions I adorn Agni, the young, the lord of the people^ 
the sage, the all-devouring, the very restless." 

z. 42, 1. Astd tva mpraiaraih lay am asyan hhUshann ivaprahhara iUh 
mam asmai | vdehdviprds taratavdeham aryo niramayajartia^somelndram \ 

*' Like an archer discharging his far-shooting arrow, with zeal pie- 
sent the hymn to Indra. Sages, by your song, overcome the song of 
the enemy; worshipper, arrest Indra at the soma." 

X. 63, 17. JSva Flateh aUnur avlvfidhad vo vihe Adityd^ Adits manU 
8hl I fSdndw naro amartyena astdvijano divyo Oayena \ 

" Thus, all ye Adityas, Aditi, and ye ruling powers, has the wise 
son of Flati magnified you. The celestial race has been lauded by the 
immortal Gaya." 

X. Ill, 1. ManUhina^ prahharadhvam manlshdm yathd yathd mata- 
ya^ santi nrinam \ Indrarh satyair d Iraydma kritebhih sa hi viro ytr- 
vanasyur viddnah \ 

*' Sages, present the prayer, accoiding as are the various thoughts 
of men. Let us by our sincere rites stimulate Indra, for he is a hero, 
he is wise and loves our songs." 

In the following verse, from a hymn in praise of liberality, it is said, 
though no doubt only figuratively, that the true rishi is the prince who 
is bountiful to the priesthood. 

X. 107, 6. Tarn eva fishim tarn n hrahmdnam dhur yajnanyafk adma^ 
gdm ukthaSaeam \ sa htkrasya tanvo veda tiiro yah prathamo dakehinayd 
rarddha \ 

''He it is whom they call a rishi, a priest, a pious sacrificer, a 
chaunter of prayers, a reciter of hymns ; he it is who knows the thiee 
bodies of the brilliant (Agni), — the man who is most prominent in be* 
iitowing gifts." 


8xcT. lY.— Po^^M of the Rig-veda in which a iupermUural character 

is ascribed to the rishis or the hymns. 

In the present section I propose to collect the most distinct indi- 
cations which I have noticed in the Yedic hymns of any supematoral 
attributes attaching, in the opinion of the authors, either to the rishis 
themselves, or to their compositions. We shall see in the course of 
this enquiry (1) that a certain superhuman character was ascribed by 
the later rishis, who composed the hymns, to some of their prede- 
cessors ; (2) that expressions are occasionally employed by the rishis 
which appear to ascribe their compositions to a divine influence gene- 
rally ; while there is a still more numerous set of texts in which the 
hymns are attributed in various forms of phraseology to the agency of 
one or more particular and specified deities ; and (3) that there is a 
considerable number of passages in which a mysterious or magical 
power is ascribed to the hymns or metres. 

I proceed to furnish specimens of these several classes of quotations. 
I. I adduce some passages which ascribe a superhuman character or 
ipematural £EU!ulties to the earlier rishis.'' These are the following : 
E.V. L 179, 2. Te chid hi pHrve fitasapa^ dsan sdkam devebhir ova- 
in fitdni \ te chid avdsur ityddi \ 
"The pious sages who lived of old, and who conversed about sacred 
'C^K-aths with the gods, led a conjugal life,'' etc. 

vii. 76, 4. Te id devdndm sadhamddah dsann ^itdvdnah kavayah pUr- 
^^^dtah I yulha^ jyotih pitaro anvavindan satyamantrdh ajanayann 
'^^■^hdsam I 

"They were the associates of the gods, those ancient pious sages* 
^I^e fathers found out the hidden light ; with true hymns they gene- 
^^ited the dawn." 

X. 14, 15. Tamdya tnadhumattamam rdjne havyam juhotana \ idam 
^*maf^ fishxbhya^ pUrvajebhyah pHrvehhyah pathikfidbhyah \ 

"Offer to king Yama a most sweet oblation. (Let) this reverence 
(be paid) to the rishis bom of old, who were the earliest guides.'' 

ts Compare A.V. z. 7, 14, quoted aboTo in p. 3. 


The sixty-second hymn of the tenth Mandala contains the following 
passage regarding the Angirases (see above, p. 223) : 

1. The AnprasM.— x. 62, 1, 3. Te yajnena dahhinayd samakidh In- 
drasya sakhyam amritatvam unaia \ tehhyo hhadram Angiraso vah wtvL 
prati grihhnlta manavam sumedhasah | 3. J^ fitena sUryam arohayan 
divi aprathayan prithivlm mataram vi ityddi \ 

" 1. Blessings be on you, Angirases, who, sanctified by sacrifice and 
liberality, attained the friendship of Indra and immortality. Do ye, 
sages, graciously receive the man (who addresses you). 3. Ye who by 
sacrifice caused the sun to ascend the sky ; and spread out our mother 
earth," etc. 

This is succeeded by the following verses : 

z. 62, 4. Aya0i Ndhhd vadati valguvo gfihe deva-putrdh jrtshayas tat 
iftnotana • . . [ 5. VtrUpdsah id fishayas te id yambhlra-vepasah | Anyi- 
rasah sUnavas te Agneh pari jajnire \ 

''This Nabhan addresses you, brilliant beings, within the house. 
Hear this, ye rishis, sons of the gods. ... 5. The Yirupas are rishis, 
profound in emotion ; they are the sons of Angiras ; they have been 
bom from Agni." 

(The fifth verse is quoted in the Nirukta, zi. 17. See Eoth's illus- 
trations of the passage.)^ 

2. Vamhtha,—lL supernatural character is attributed to Yasishtha 
also in the following passage (which has been already quoted and 
illustrated in Yol. I. pp. 318 ff.). 

vii. 83, 7 ff. Trayah hrinvanti hkuvanasya retas tiirah prajdh drydk 

jyotir-agrdh \ trayo gharmdsah ushasam sachante sarvdn it tan anu vidur 

Vasish(hdh \ 8. Suryasyeva vaJuhatho jyotir eshdm samudrasyeva mahimd 

gahhlrah \ vdtatyeva prajavo na anyena stomo Vasishfhd^ anu etave vd^ \ 

** The next yene (which, with the sequel, is quoted in my article <' On the relations 
of the priests to the other classes of Indian society in the Yedic age,*' Joum. Roy. As. 
Soc. for 1866, p. 276) is as follows : 6. Ye Agneh pari jajnire Virupaso divas pari | 
Navagvo nu Laeagvo Angirattamah aacha deveahu mamhate \ ** The YirQpas who were 
produced from Agni, from Dyaus, — the Navagra, the Das'agva, who is a most eminent 
Angiras, lavishes gifts along with the gods." Here the YirQpas would seem rather 
to he princes than rishis: and the same is the case in the following passage also : 
iii. 53, 6. Ime bhojah Angiraeo Viruplah divas putraso aturaeya vtrah | Viivamiitaym 
dadato maghani eahaeraeave pra tiranta ayuh | << These liberal YirQpas of the race of 
Angiras, heroic sons of the dirine Dyaus (the sky), bestowing gifts on Yis'vamitra at 
the ceremony with a thousand libations, have prolonged their liyes." (See YoL I. 
p. 341 f.) 


^* Teidm'nyam hjridayiuya praketai^ sahatra^aUam ahhi saneharanti \ 

^^^tnena tatam paridhifh vayantah apsarasah upa aedur Vasishthd^ \ 10. 

^^idyuto jyotih parisanjihdnam Mitrd- Varund yad apaSyatdm tv& \ tat te 

^jftma uta ekafh Vasishtha Agastyo yat tvd viiah djdbhdra ] 11. Uldai 

-^^[aitrdvaruno Famhfha UrvaSydh brahman maiuuo ^dhi jdtah \ drapsarh 

-^^kannam hrahmand daivyena viive devdh pushkare tvd adadanta \ \2, Sa 

S^oraJcetah uhhayasya pravidvdn aahasra-ddnah uta vd aaddnah \ yamena 

^Matam paridhifh vayishyan apsarasah parijajne Vaauhthah \ 13. Satre ha 

}didv ishitd namohhih kumhhe retah aiaiehituh samdnam \ tato ha Mdna^ 

-^iydya madhydt tatojutam rishim dhur Vasishtham [ 

*' 7. Three [gods] create the fecundating principle in (all) existences ; 
[there exist] three excellent productions of which light is the first : 
three fires attend upon the dawn : all these the Yasishthas know. 8. 
The splendour of these [sages] is like the full glory of the sun ; their 
grandeur is profound as that of the ocean ; like the swiftness of the 
windy your hymns, o Yasishthas, cannot he followed by ahy other 
bard. 9. Through the intuitions of their hearts they seek out the 
mystery with a thousand branches. Weaving the envelopment ex- 
tended by Yama [Agni ? see B.Y. i. 66, 4] the Yasishthas sat near the 
Apsaras. 10. When Mitra and Yaruna saw thee quitting the gleam of 
the lightning, that was thy birth, Yasish^ha, and [thou hadst] one 
[other], when Agastya brought thee to the people. 11. And, Yasish- 
tha, thou art the son of Mitra and Yaruna, bom, o priest, from the 
mind of XJrvasi; all the gods placed thee — ^the drop fedlen through 
divine contemplation — in the vessel. 12. He the wise, knowing both 
[worlds ?], with a thousand gifts, or with gifts, Yasish^ha, being about 
to weave the envelopment extended by Yama, was produced from the 
Apsaras. 13. Bom at the sacrifice, and impelled by adorations, they 
[Mitra and Yamna] let the same equal procreative energy fall into the 
jar ; firom the midst of this Mana (Agastya) issued forth ; firom this 
men say the rishi Yasishfha was produced.'' 

Two of these verses are quoted in the Kirukta, verse 8, in xi. 20, 
and verse 11, in v. 14. See also Frof. Both's Illustrations of that 
work, p. 64, where he states his opinion that the foregoing verses 
which describe the miraculous birth of Yasishtha in the style of the 
epic mythology, are a later addition to an older hymn. See the note 
in p. 321 of the First Yolume of this work. 



The two following passages also have reference to knowledge snper- 
naturally communicated^ or £ivours divinely conferred on Yasishtha. 
See Vol. I. p. 325 ff. 

vii. 87| 4. Uvdcha me Varuno medhirdya trih aapta ndma aghnyd 
hibhartti \ vidvdn padasya guhyd na voehad yugdya viprah upardya 
Hkshan \ 

''Yaruna said to me, the intelligent, 'the cow has thrice seven 
names/ The wise [god], though he knows them, has not declared the 
mysteries of the word, which he desires to reveal to a later generation." 

vii. 88, 4. VasMfham ha Varuno ndvi d adhdd ruhiih chdkdra wapdh 
maholhih I stotdram vtprah sudinatve ahndih ydd nu dydvas tatanan ydd 
whasah I 

« Yaruna took Yasishtha into the hoat ; by his mighty acts, working 
skilfully he (Yaruna) has made him a rishi ; the wise (god) has made 
him to utter praises in an auspicious time, that his days and dawns 
znay be prolonged.'' (See Yol. I. p. 325 f. ; and compare B.Y. x. 101, 
2, and x. 116, 9, in pp. 234 and 240, above.) 

3. Vihdmitra. — In one or more of the texts which I shall next 
produce, a superhuman character is ascribed to Yii^vamitra, if not to 
the Eu^ikas. 

iiL 29, 15. Amitrdyudho tnarutdm iva praydh prathamajdh hrahmano 
viiram id viduh \ dyumnavad brahma Euiikdsah erire eka^ eko dam$ 
Agnirh aamldhire \ 

" Combating their foes, like hosts of Maruts, (the sages) the first- 
born of prayer are masters of all knowlege ; the Ku^ikas have uttered 
an enthusiastic prayer; each of them has kindled Agni in his house." 
(See Yol. I. p. 347.) 

iii. 43, 5. Euvid md gopdih karase janasya kuvid rdjdnam Ifaghavatm 
fijishan \ kuvid md fishim papivdmam stUasya kuvid me vawah amfi" 
tasya Sikahdh \ 

** Dost thou not make me a shepherd of the people ? dost thou not 
make me a king, o impetuous Maghavan? dost thou not make me a 
rishi, a drinker of the soma ? wilt thou not bestow upon me imperish- 
able wealth ? *' (See Yol. I. p. 344.) 

iii. 53, 9. Mdhan fiahir devajdh devajntah astahhndt aindhum arnavaik 
nriehakahd^ \ VOvdmitro yad avahat Suddaam apriydyata Kuiikebhir 
Indra^ \ 


"The great rishi (Vi^vamitra), leader of men, god-boni| god-im- 
t)ened, stemmed the watery current. When Yi^yamitra conducted 
Sudosy Indra was propitiated through the Euiikas." (See Yol. I. 
pp. 342. Indra himself is called a Kau^ika in E.Y. i. 10, 11. See 
VoL 1. p. 347.) 

According to iz. 87, 3, of which TJ^anas is the traditional rishi, 
certain mysterious knowledge is said to have been possessed by that 

Jfuhir vtprah pura-etd jan&ndm fxbhur dhlra^ USand kdvyena \ 9a 
chid viveda nihitam yad dsdtn aplehyaih gvhyam ndma yondm \ 

** A wise rishi, a leader of men, skilful, and pradent, is XJianas, 
through his insight as a seer; he has known the hidden mysterious 
name applied to these cows." 

Again in ix. 97, 7, it is said: Pra idvyam USaneva iruvdno d€Vo 
devdndm janimd vivaJcti \ 

*' Uttering, like TJ^anas, the wisdom of a sage, the god (Soma) de- 
clares the births of the gods." 

In a hymn of the tenth Man^ala, the rishis are spoken of as 
** seeing" the objects of their contemplation in a way which seems to 
imply a supernatural insight (see above, pp. 116, 118, 125 ff.) ; in this 
hymn, x. 72, 1, 2, it is said : 

Ikvdndm nu vayarh jdnd pravochdma vipanyayd | uktheshu Sagyamd- 
nethu yah paiydd uttare yuge \ Brahmanaspatir etd Bam karmdrah iva 
adhamat \ devdndm purvye yuye asatah sad ajdyata \ 

"Let us, from the love of praise, celebrate in recited hymns the 
births of the gods, — any one of us who in this later age may Bee 
them. Brahmanaspati has kindled these births, as a blacksmith [blows 
a flame] : in the earliest age of the gods, the existent sprang from the 
non-existent." ^ (See Yol. I. p. 46.) 

Another not less decided instance of this use of the verb to Bee, in 
the sense of supernatural insight, may be found in the verse of the 
Yalakhilya already quoted in Yol. II. p. 220, which will Be cited 
below. See also x. 130, 6, which will be quoted further on* 

The next two passages speak of the radiance of the rishis. 

viiL 3, 3 (= S.Y. i. 250, and Yaj. S. 33, 81). Imdh u ivd puruvoBO 

** The first of these yenes is translated by Frof. Benfey in his Glossary to the 
Sama-Teda, p. 154« 



giro ^ardhantu yd^ mama \ pdvaka-varnd^ iuehayo vtpaiMtai abli iUh 
mair aniUhata \ 

** Lord of abnndant wealth, may these prayers of mine magnify fheel 
Pore sages of radiant appearance have celebrated thee with hynma." 

Tiii. 6y 10. Aham id hi pituh pari medham fitaiya jagrahha \ ahtm 
9Qryah iva ajani \ 

" I hare acquired knowledge of the ceremonial from [my3 Either ; 
I have become like the son." (Is Indra the father here referred to ?) 

The following texts, which occnr in the last book of the Rig-Toda, 
speak of tapas (''fervour" or ''austerity") being practised by Uie 
rishis much in the same way as the later epic literature does. This use 
of the word is not known in the earlier books of the B. Y. (See Boehi- 
lingk and Eoth's Lexicon, under the word tapas,) 

X. 109, 4. Devdh etasydm avadanta puree aapta jriihayat tapaae y$ 
nisheduh \ 

** The ancient gods spoke of her, the seven rishis who sat down for 
austere-fervour." (See my article ** On the priests of the Yedic age " 
in the Joum. Boy. As. Soc. for 1866, p. 270.) 

X. 154, 2. Tapasd ye anddhriSyds tapasd ye war yayui \ tapo ye ehth 
kfire maha8 tdihs chid eva api gachehatdt \ 5. Sahaira^nlthdh ka/oayo ye 
yopdyanti sHryam fishims tapasvato Tama tapojdn api gaehhatdt \ 

*^ Let him (the deceased) go to those who through austere-fervour 
are invincible, who by austere-fervour have gone to heaven, who have 
performed great austerity. 5. Let him go, Yama, to the sages of a 
thousand songs who guard the sun (see Wilson, Yish. Fur. voL iL 
pp. 284 fPl), to the devout rishis, bom from fervour." (See my article 
" On Yama " in the Joum. Boy. As. Soc.) 

X. 190, 1. Jftitam eha satyam eha ahhlddhdt tapaeo adhyqfdyata \ iah 
rdtrl ajdyata tatah eamudrah arnavah j 

''Bight and truth sprang frx)m kindled austerity; thenoe sprang 
night, thence the watery ocean." 

In X. 167, 1, it is even said that Indra attained heaven by austerity: 

Tvam tapah paritapya ajayah evah \ 

" By performing austerity thou didst conquer heaven." 

In some places the gods are said to possess in the most eminent 
degree the qualities of riehie^ or kacia. This may possibly imply, e oon^ 
vereo, that the rishis were conscious of a certain affinity with the divine 


^tore, and conceived fhemselves to participate in some degree in the 
^operior wisdom and knowledge of the deities. 

&.Y. L 31y 1. Tvam Agne prathamo Angirdh ruhir devo devdndm ahha- 
^ Hva^ Bokhd ityadi \ 2. Team Agne prathamo Angiraitamah kavir 
ieffdndm parihhushasi vratam \ 

''1. Then, Agni, the earliest ruihi Angiras, a god, hast been the an- 

qncions friend of the gods 2. Thoa, Agni, the earliest and most 

Angiras-like sage, admimsterest the ceremonial of the gods.'' 

L 66, 2. • . . Rkhir na stubhvd vikshu praiasiali ityddi \ 

<< Like a riahi^ who praises [the gods], /he (Agoi) is famons among 
the people," etc. 

liL 21, 3. • • . Jfishih ireihthak tamidhyase yajnasyapra aoitd hhava \ 

''Then, Agni, the most eminent mA», art kindled; be the protector 
of the sacrifice." 

T. 29, 1. • • . Arehanti tvd marutah puta-dahhdi team eshdm fishir 
Inira ati dhlrah \ 

** The Marats, endowed with pnre dispositions, worship thee ; then, 
Indra, art their wise rishi.** (Sayana, however, here renders ftehi by 
iraahfd, << beholder.") 

tL 14, 2. Agnir id hipraehetd^ Agnir vedhastamak fUhih \ 

^* Agni is wise; Agni is a most sage rishV^ 

viiL 6, 41. J^ishir hi pHrvafd oh ehah Uana^ ofasd | Ihdra ehoih- 
hkffOH viuu I 

'^ Thou art an anciently-born mM, who alone rolest by thy might ; 
Indra then lavishest riches." 

Tiii. 16, 7. Indro hrahmd Indrai fuhir tndra^ puru purthhuta^ \ 
mahdn mahlhhth iachlhhxh \ 

** Indra is a priest, Indra is a rtisAt, Indra is much invoked ; he is 
gieat through his great powers." 

iz. 96, 18 (= S.Y. ii. 526). ^uhi-mand ya^ riihi-kfit wanhd^ tahoi- 
ranUhah padai^h havUndm \ 

''Soma, rtshi'tnindedf riahi-maher^ bestower of good, master of a thou- 
sand songs, the leader of sages," etc. 

iz. 107, 7. • • . R\9hir vipro vichakshana^ | t^aH^ htmr qHhavo dev^ 
witama^ iiyddi | 

''A fiiAt, a sage, intelligent, thou (Soma) wast a V^^ ^^^ agreeable 
to the gods^" etc. 


z. 27y 22. • • . Indrdya iunvad fishaye eha iikshat | 
** . . , Let [men] present libations to India, and offerings to the ruhL" 
z. 1 12. 9. Ni shu slda ganapate ganeshu tvdm dhur vipratamaih iorf- 
ndm I na fite tvat kriyaU hinchana are tnahdm arlam Maghavan ehiinm 
archa | 

'^ Sit, lord of multitadeSy among onr multitudes ; they call thee the 
greatest of sages [or poets] ; nothing is done without, or apart from, 
thee ; sing, Maghavan, a great and beautiful hymn." 
z. 115, 5. Agnih kanvatamah kanva-aakhd ityddi \ 
'* Agni is the greatest of the Kanvas, the Mend of KaQva,'* etc. 
• II. The Yedic rishis, as we have seen, ezpected to receive from their 
gods every variety of temporal blessings, strength, long life, offsprings 
riches, cattle, rain, food, and victory, and they also looked for forgiveness 
of their offences, and sometimes for exaltation to paradise, to the same 
benefiGictors. Hence it would be nothing more than we might have an* 
ticipated, if we should further find them asking their different deities to 
enlighten their minds, to direct their ceremonies, to stimulate their devo- 
tion, to augment their powers of poetical expression, and to inspire them 
with religious fervour for the composition of their hymns. I think the 
following passages will justify this expectation by showing that the rishis 
(though, as we have seen, they frequentiy speak of the hymns as their 
own work) did also sometimes entertain the idea that their prayers, 
praises, and ceremonies generally, were supematurally suggested and 
directed. One of the modes (if not the most important) in which this 
idea is expressed is, as we shall discover, the personification of speech 
under different appellations. The following are the passages to which 
I refer : they are- 
First, such as refer to the gods generally : 

B. Y. i. 37, 4. Pra vah iardltdyaghfishvaye tvesha-dyumndya huhmime \ 
hrahma devattam gdyata \ 

*' To your vigorous, overpowering, energetic, host [of Marots] sing 
the god-given prayer." 

S.Y. i. 299. Shashtd no daivyarh vaeha^ Farfanyo Brahmanaepati^ | 
putrair hhrdtphhir Aditir nu pdtu no diuhtaram irdmanam vaeha^ \ 

" May Tvashtri, Parjanya, and BrahmsQaspati [prosper] our dicin§ 
utterance : may Aditi with her [?] sons and brothers prosper our in- 
vincible and protective utterance." 


In the next passage, the hymn or prayer is spoken of as incanceivahls, 

B.y. i. 152, 5. Achittam hrahma jujushur yuvdnah ityadi \ 

'' The youths received with joy the incomprehensible prayer," etc. 

In B.y. X. 20, 10, Yimada, a rishi, is connected with the immortals : 

Agn$ Vimado manUhdm Hrfondpdd amfiUlhih aajoshdh girah dvahshat 
iumatlr iy&nah ityddi \ 

^'0 Agni, son of strength, Yimada, united with the immortals, 
hastening, has brought to thee a product of thought, and beautiful 

In the two following texts the gods are said to have generated the 
hymn or prayer : 

X. 61y 7. • . . SvSdhyo qfanayan irahma devdh Vdstoehpatifh vratapdm 
niratdkehan \ 

** The thoughtful gods generated prayer : they fashioned Yastoshpati 
the protector of sacred rites.'' 

X. 88, 8. Sukta^dkam prathamam dd %d Agntm dd id havir ajano' 
yanta devdf^ \ $a ethdfn yajno dbhavat tanUpdh tarn dyaur veda tarn pri- 
tkivi tarn dpa^ \ 

** The gods first generated the hymn, then Agni, then the oblation. 
He was their sacrifice, the protector of their life. Him the Sky, the 
lEarth, and the Waters know." 

In the latter of the two following verses, Vdeh (speech) is said to be 
divine, and to have been generated by the gods. Though speech is here 
spoken of generally, and nothing is said of the hymns, still these may 
have already come to be connected with her in the minds of the Yedic 
bards, as they were afterwards regarded as her most solenm and im- 
portant expression. 

B.Y. viii. 89, 10. Tad vdg vadantl avichetandni rdshfri devdndth nulia- 
9dda mandrd \ chatasrah Urjaih duduhe paydmet leva evid asydh paramaih 
jagdma \ 11. Devvn vdeham ajanayanta devds tdih viharUpdh paSavo 
vadantl \ 8d no mandrd isham Hrjarn duhdnd dhenur vdg aemdn ttpa 
euthtfUd d etu \ 

'' When Yach, speaking unintelligible things, queen of the gods, sat 
down, melodious, she milked forth sustenance and waters towards the 
four quarters : whither has her highest element departed ? The gods 
generated the divine Yach ; animals of all kinds utter her ; may this 
melodious cow Yach, who yields us nourishment and sustenance|-*ap- 
proach us, when we celebrate her praises. 


The last Terse (as well as E.y. Tiii. 00, 16, which will be quoted 
helow), derives some illustration from the following passage of the 
Bf ihad Aranyaka Upanishad, p. 082 (p. 251 English transL), in which 
also Yach is designated as a cow : 

Vdeha^ dhenum updslta \ tast/di ehaivdrai^ standh wdhd-kdro voikat' 
kdro hanta-kdrah wadhd-kdrah \ taayd^ dvau atanau devd^ upajlvanii 
ivdhd-kdram eha vashaf-karam cha hanta-kdram manuahyd^ svadhd-kdrsm 
pUarah \ toiydhprdna^ fUhahho tnano vatsah \ 

** Let a man worship the cow Y^ch. She has four udders, the for- 
mulsB svdhd, vashat, hanta, and wadhd. The gods live upon her two 
udders, svdhd and vashat : men upon hanta; and the fathers upon 
tvadhd. Breath is her bull ; the mind, her calf." 

The two verses, B.Y. viii. 80, 10, and 11, occur in the Nirukta, zL 
28, 20. Both (in his Illustrations of that work), p. 152, says the un- 
intelligible utterance of Yach in verse 10, means thunder. Whether 
this be the case, or not, the word appears to have a more general signi- 
fication in the next verse, and to refer to speech in gendhd, personified 
as a divine being. The speech which all the animals utter cannot <tf 
course be thunder. 

In some of the preceding verses of this hymn there is a curious ^e&^ 
ence made to some sceptical doubts regarding the existence of India; 
which I quote here, though unconnected with the present subject 

E.Y. viii. 80, 3, 4. JPra su stomam hharata vdjayantam Indrdya sai' 
yafh yadi satyatn asti | na Indro asti iti nemah u tva^ dha kah im da- 
darSa kam abhi stavdma \ Ayam asmi jaritah pa4ya md iha tnkvd jdtdm 
ahhi asmi mahnd \ fitasya md pradiio varddhayanti ddardiro hhitvmUk 
dardarimi \ 

*^ Present to Indra a hymn soliciting food, a true [hymn] if he truly 
exists. ' Indra does not exist,' says some one : ' who has seen him ? 
whom shall we praise?' 'I am here, worshipper' [aoiwers Indra]; 
'behold me, I surpass all creatures in greatness; the directors of the 
sacrifice augment me ; crushing, I destroy the worlds.' " 

Second : the next set of passages which I shall bring forward either 
refer to Sarasvati, Yach, etc. (various names of the goddess of speech, 
or different personifications of speech, or of prayer), or at least speak 
of prayer as divine. 

K.Y. i. 8, 11, 12. Chodayitri sUnritdndM ehetantl iuma^lndm \ fof- 
na^ dadhe Sarasvati | • • • . dh^o viivd virdjati \ 


** Sarasvatly who farthers our hjnmSy and who is cognizant of our 
prayers, has sustained our sacrifice She enlightens all intellects.'' 

L 22, 10. Agn&hAgne iha avaseHotrd^i yavuhfha Bhdratlm \ Vara." 
it^fk LhUhandih vaha \ 

** Bring here, youthful Agni, to our help, the wives [of the gods], 
Eotra, Bharatl, Yarutri, and Dhishana." 

( VarUirif *' the eligible," may be merely an epithet of Dhishanft 
which, according to Sayana, at least, is = vag-devl^ '* the goddess of 
speech.'' ) 

i. 31, 11. lULm akrtnvan manu»hasya Sdsatiim iiyadi \ 

" The gods made I}a to be the instructress of men." (See Professor 
"Wilson's note on this passage, p. 82 of his translation of the B. Y. vol. i.) 

ii. 8, 8. Sarasvatl sddhayantl dhiyafn nah lid devl Bharatl vihatUrt- 
Hi I Tiiro d&vih wadhayd harhir edam achhidram pdntu iaranam nh- 
ahadya \ 

'' May SarasvatI, perfecting our hymn, may the divine I|a, and the 
all-pervading Bharatl ; may these three goddesses, seated on the place 
of sacrifice, preserve by their power the sacrificial grass uninjured." 
(See Prof. Miiller's translation of part of the verse in the Joum. Boy. 
As. Soc. for 1867, vol. iiL p. 224.) 

iii. 18, 3 Ydvad lie hrahmand vandamdna^ imdm dhiyaih Sato- 

90ydya devlm \ 

'* Worshipping thee with a prayer according to the best of my power, 
in this divine hymn, to obtain unbounded wealth." 

iv. 43, I. Ed u iravat katamo yajniydndm vanddru devaft latamo 
puhdte I haaya imdm devlm amfiteshu preehthdm hfidi ireshydma sush- 
tutim euhavydm | 

** Who will hear us ? which of all the objects of adoration ? which 
of all the gods will be gratified by our praises ? In the heart of whom 
among the immortals can we lodge this our divine and dearest hymn 
of praise and invocation ? " 

vii. 34, 1. Fra iukrd etu devl manlshd aemat eutashto ratho na vdjl | 

''May prayer, brilliant and divine, proceed from us, like a well- 
&bricated chariot drawn by steeds." 

vii. 34, 9. Abhi vo devlm dhiyaih^ dadidhvam pra vo devatrd vdeha^ 
kfinudhvam \ 

^ Gomptre the same phraie dhiyam devm in A.Y. ilL 15, 3, and daivy^ vachU in 
A.Y. viiL 1, 3. 


'' Beceive towards you the divine hymn ; proclaim the song for your- 
selves among the gods." 

viii. 27, 13. Devam detain huvema vdjaedtaye grinanto devyd dhiyd \ 

'^ Let us invoke each of the gods to bestow riches, praising them with 
a divine hymn.'* 

viii. 90y 16. Vacho'vidaih vdcham udlrayantim viSvdhhir dhihhir upO' 
tishthamdndm \ devlm devehhya^ pari eyushlm yam d tnd avjikta marttyo 
dahhrachetdh \ 

'' Let not any mortal of little intelligence do violence to the cow, the 
divine Yach, who is skilled in praise, who utters her voice aloud, who 
arrives with all the hymns, and who has come from the gods." 

iz. 33, 5. Ahhi brahmir anUshata yahvlr riUuya mdtaro marmrtjyanU 
divah iiium \ 

** The great and sacred mothers of the sacrifice have uttered praise : 
they decorate the child of the sky.'* 

X. 71, 1. Bfihaspate prathamam vdcho agraih yat prairata ndmadhd" 
yath dadhdndh \ yad eshdih ireehtha^ yad aripram dAt prend tad eihdM 
nihitam guhd dvih \ 2. Saktum iva titaund punanio yatra dhlrd^ manata 
vdcham akrata \ atra sakhdyah eakhydni jdnaU hhadrd eshdm lakshmlr 
nihiid adhi vdehi \ 3. Yajnena vdchah padavlyam dyan tdm anvavindann 
rishishu pravishfdm \ tdm dhhfitya vyadadhuh purutrd tdm Mpta^rehhd^ 
ahhi sannavante \ 4. Ula tvahpaSyan na dadaria vdcham ufa tvahijrimvmk 
na Mnoti endm | uto tvasmai tanvam visaere jdyeva patye uiatl mvdsdk \ 
5. Ula tvaih sakhye sihirapitam dhur nainafh hinvanty apt vdjineehu | 
adhenvd eharati mdyayd esha vdchafh itUruvdn aphaldm aputhpdm \ 6. 
Tas titydja sachi-vidam sakhdyam na ta»ya vdehi api Ihdgo oiti \ yad lik 
Sfinoti alakam fyinoti na hi praveda suk^itasya panthdm \ 

** 1. When, o Bfihaspati, men sent forth the first and earliest utter- 
ance of Y&ch (speech), giving a name (to things), then all which was 
treasured within them, the most excellent and spotless, was disclosed 
through love. 2. Wherever the wise,— cleansing, as it were, meal with 
a sieve, — have uttered speech with intelligence, there Mends recognize 
[their] friendly acts ; an auspicious fortune is impressed upon their 
speech. 3. Through sacrifice they followed the track of Yach, and 
foimd her entered into the rishis : ^ taking, they divided her into many 
portions : her the seven poets celebrate. 4. One man, seeing, sees not 

as See the nse made by S'ankara ef thif text, above, p. 106. 


Yadi ; another, hearing, hears her not ; to another she discloses her 
form, as an elegantly attired and loving wife displays her person to her 
husband. 5. They say that one man has a sure defence in [her] Mend- 
ship ; men cannot overwhelm him even in the conflicts (of discussion) ; 
but that man consorts with an improfltable delusion who has [only] 
heard speech [Vach] which is [to him] without finiit or flower. 6. He 
who has abandoned his discerning friend, has no portion in Yach ; what- 
ever he hean he hears in vain ; he knows not the path of virtue." 

The second, fourth, and fifth verses of this obscure hymn are quoted 
in the ISirukta, iv. 10 ; i. 19, 20 ; and are explained in Professor Eoth's 
JUoBtrations. Verses 2 and 4 are also quoted and interpreted in the 
ICahabhashya ; see pp. 30 and 31 of Dr. Ballantyne's edition. The 
verse which is of most importance for my present purpose, is, however, 
the third, which speaks of Yach having '' entered into the rishis." See 
the First Yolume of this work, pp. 254 f. The idea of Yach being 
divided into many portions will be found again below in E.Y. x. 125, 3. 

X. 110, 8 (=Yaj. S. 29, 33). A no \fajnam JBhdratl tuyam etu lid 
manushvad iha chetayantl \ (wro devlr larhir d idam ayonam Sarasvatl 
tvapeuah aadaniu \ 

** Let BharatI come quickly here to our sacrifice, with I^a, who in- 
structs us like Manush [or like a man], and with Sarasvatl : let these 
three goddesses, skilful in rites, sit down upon this beautiful sacrificial 

X. 125, 8. Aham rdahfrt sangamani vasHnaih ehikitushl prathamd 
yqjniydn&m \ tdm md devd vyadadhuh purutrd hhUristhdtrdm hhnri 
dveiayantlm \ 4. Mayd so annam atti yo vipaiyati yah prdniti ya Im 
ifinoti ukiam \ amantavo math U upa Juhiyanti &rudhi iruia iraddhivaffi 
U vaddmi \ 5. Aham eva wayam idam vaddmi jushfam devehhir uta md- 
nuthebhih I ya^ kdmaye tarn tarn ugram kjrinomi tam brahmunafk tarn 
luhiih ta^ Bumedhdm \ 

**S. I am the queen, the centre of riches, intelligent, the first of the 
objects of adoration : the gods have separated me into many portions, 
have assigned me many abodes, and made me widely pervading. 4. He 
who has insight, he who lives, he who hears [my] sayings, eats food 
through me. These men dwell in my vicinity, devoid of understand- 
ing. Listen, thou who art learned, I declare to thee what is worthy of 
belief. 5. It is even I myself who make known this which is agreeable 



both to gods and men. Him whom I love I make terrible, [I make] 
bim a priest, [I make] him a rUhi^ [I make] him intelligent." " 

X. 176, 2. Pra devam devyd dhiyd hharata Jdtavedasam havyd m 
vakshad dnushak | 

** By divine prayer bring hither JStayedas : may he present onr ob- 
lations in order." 


z. 177, 1. Patangam aktam amrasya tndyayd hfidd paSyanii numoid 
vipaSchitah \ samudre aniah kavayo vichakahate marlehlndm padam 
tekhanti vedhasah \ 2. Patango vdeham manasd hihhartti tdm Gandharvo 
avadad garhhe antah \ tdm dyotamd,ndm avaryam manUhdm fitasya paie 
kavayo nipdnti \ 

** 1. Sages behold with the heart and mind the Bird illuminated by the 
wisdom of the Asura : the wise perceive him in the (aerial) ocean : the 
intelligent seek after the abode of his rays. 2. The Bird cherishes 
speech with his mind : the Gandharva hath uttered her in the womb : 
the bards preserve in the place of sacred rites this shining and celestial 
intellect." (See also z. 189, 3, vdk patangdya dhlyate.) 

Third : I shall now adduce the passages in which other Yedic deities, 
whether singly or in concert^ are spoken of as concerned in the pro- 
duction of the hymns : 

Aditu-^la B.y. viii. 12, 14, Aditi is mentioned as fulfilling this 
function : 

Tad uta evardj'e Aditih etomam Indrdya jljanat puru-praSastam Utaye 
ityddi I 

^ When Ml^ generated for the self -resplendent Indra a hymn abound- 
ing in praises, to supplicate succour," etc. 

Agni» — B.Y. i. 18, 6, 7. — Sadasaepatim adbhittam priyam Indnuya 
hdmyam \ eanim medhdm aydsisham | yasmdd rite na mddhyati yqfno 
vipaichitai chana \ aa dhindm yogam invati \ 

'' 6. 1 have resorted, for wisdom, to Sadasaspati (Agni), the wonder- 
fol, the dear, the beloved of Indra, the beneficent; (7) withoot whom 

^ This passage, which is commonly understood of Vach, occurs also in the Atliar?ft-> 
yeda, iv. 30, 2ff., but with some various readings, as aveiayantah for avesayanitm, 
and iraddheyam for traddhivam, etc. The hjmn is translated by If r. Colebrooke, 
Ebb. i. 32, or p. 16 of Williams and Norgate's edition. Professor Whitney, as I lean 
from a private communication with which he has favoured me, is of opinion that 
there ii nothing in the language of the hymn which is specially appropriate to Tllch, 
so as to justify the ascription of it to her as the supposed utterer. 


the sacriBce of the wise does not succeed : he promotes the course of 
our hymns." 

IT. 6f 3. Sdma dvi-harhd^ mahi tigma-hhrUhtih sahawa-retdh vrishahhoi 
imshmdn \ padam na gor apagulham vividvdn Agnir mahyam pra id u 
foehad manUhdm \ 6. Idam me Agne hiyate pdvaka aminaU gurum bhu- 
ram na manma \ Bfihad dadhdtha dhrUhatd gabhiram yahvam priBhfham 
prayasd Boptadhdtu \ 

"Agni occupying two positions, the fierce-flaming, the infinitely 
prolific, the vigorous, the powerful, who knows the great hymn, mys- 
terious as the track of a [missing] cow, has declared to me the know- 
ledge [of it]. 6. To me who am feeble, though innoxious, thou, o Agni, 
the luminous, hast given, as a heavy load, this great, profound, and ex- 
tensive Pfishtha hymn, of seven elements, with efficacious oblations." 

iv. 6, 1. Toaih hi viham ahhi ati manma pra vedhasai chit tirasi 
w^miUhdm \ 

** Thou presidest over all thoughts [or prayers] ; thou augmentest the" 
intelligence of the sage." 

iv. 11, 3. Ik^ad Agne kdvyd tvad manUhdt tvad ukthd jay ante 
rddhydni \ 

''From thee, Agni, are generated poetic thoughts; fkx>m thee the 
products of the mind ; from thee efiective hymns." 

X. 21, 5. Agnir jdto Atharvand vidad vihdni kuvyd \ 

'' Agni, generated by Atharvan, is acquainted with ell wisdom." 

z. 91, 8 Medhdhdram vidathaeya praeddhanam Agnim ityddi \ 

<< Agni, the giver of understanding, the accomplisher of sacrifice." 

z. 4, 5. Yad vo vayam pramindmo vratdni vidushdm devdh aviduata^ 
rdiah I Agnis tad viham dprindti vidvdn yebhir devdn fituhhih kalpa- 
fdti I Tat pdkatrd manaed ddna-dakshdl^ na yajnaeya manvate martyd' 
tah I Agnis tad hotd hratuvid vijdnan yajiahtho devdn fituio yajdti \ 

*' When, o [ye] gods, we, the most unwise among the wise, transgress 
the ordinances of your worship, the wise Agpii completes them all, at 
the stated seasons which he assigns to the gods. When men, devoted 
to sacrifice, do not, from their ignorance, rightly comprehend the mode 
of worship, Agni, the skilful sacnficer, and most eminent of priests, 
knowing the ceremonial, worships the gods at the proper seasons." 

(Ab rites and hymns were closely united in the practice of the early 
Indians, the latter finding their application at the former; if Agni was 


supposed to be the director of the one, viz., the oblations, he might easily 
come to be also regarded as aiding in the production of the other — the 
hymns. Verse 4 occurs also in the A.Y. ziz. 59, 1, 2, where, however, 
dpfindtu is read instead of dpfindtif and in place of the words ffehhtr 
devdUf etc., at the close of the verse, we have, sotnaS cha yo hrdhmandn 
d viveSa I '' and Soma, who entered into the priests.") 

Brahmanaspatu — E.Y. i. 40, 5, 6. Pra nunam Brahmanaspatir man- 
traih vadati uhthyam \ yasminn Indro Varum Mitrah Aryamd devdh 
okdmsi chakrire \ Tarn id vochema vidatheshu Samhhitvam mantram devdh 
anehasam ityddi \ 

** Brahmanaspati (abiding in the worshipper's mouth, according ix^ 
the scholiast) utters the hymn accompanied with praise, in which the 
gods, Indra, Yaruna, Mitra, and Aryaman, have made their abode. Let 
us utter, gods, at sacrifices, that spotless hymn, conferring felicity." 
(Both in his Lexicon considers okas to mean '' good pleasure," '' satis- 
faction." See also his Essay on Brahma and the Brahmans, Journal of 
the Germ. Or. Soc. i. 74.) 

Bfi'JiaspatL — ^B.Y. iL 23, 2. Usrdh iva suryojyotishd maho viSvstkam 
ijjanitd hrahmandm asi \ 

'' As the sun by his lustre instantly generates rays, so art thou (Bfi- 
haspati) the generator of all prayers." 

X. 36, 5. A Indro larhih sldatu pinvatdm lid Brihaspati^ idmahhir 
fikvo archatu \ 

** Let Lidra sit upon the sacred grass ; let I}a abound in her gifts ; 
let the bard Bfihaspati offer praise with hymns." 

Oandharva, — According to Professor Koth (see under the word in his 
Lexicon) the Gandharva is represented in the Yeda as a deity who 
knows and reveals the secrets of heaven, and divine truths in general ; 
in proof of which he quotes the following texts : 

E.Y. X. 139, 5. ViSvdvasur ahhi (ad no grindtu divyo Gandharvo 
rqfaso vimdnah \ Tad vd ghd tatyam tUa yad na vidma dhiyo hinvdno 
dkiyah id nah avydh 

** May the celestial Gandharva Yisvavasu, who is the measurer of 
the atmosphere, declare to us that which is true, or which we know 
not. May he stimulate our hymns, and may he prosper our hymns. 

A.Y. ii. 1, 2. Fra tad voched amritasyavidvdn Gandharvo dhdmaparth 
maih guhd yat \ 



''May the Oandharra, who knows the (secret of) immortality, de- 
clare to us that supreme and mysterious abode." 

.Buhra, — ^B.Y. iii. 54, 17. MahiU tad va^ kavayaS ehdru ndma yad ha 
devflh bhavatha vihe Indre \ sahhoL ftihhubhiit puruhuta priyehhir imdih 
dhiyarh sdtaye takshata nah \ 

** Great, o sage deities, is that cherished distinction of yours, that 
3'e are all associated with Indra. Do thou, much invoked (Indra), our 
£riend, with the beloved Eibhus, fabricate (or dispose) this hymn for 
our welfare." (This may merely mean that Indra Was asked to give a 
.Avourable issue to the prayer of the worshipper, not to compote his 
Hiymn for him. See Koth's Lexicon, under the word taksh, 8.) 
Ti. 62, 8. Tbam kavim ehodayah arkasdtdv ityadi \ 
'' Thou (Indra) didst stimulate the poet in the composition of his 
3iymn8," etc. (Sayana renders arkasdtau, "for the sake of finding 

vi. 18, 15. JSYiihva kfitno akfitaih yat te asti ukthaih navlyo jana- 
^uva yajnath \ 

" Energetic (Indra), do what thou hast never yet done ; generate a 
isoew hymn with the sacrifices." 

▼i. 84, 1. Safh cha tve jagmur girah Indra pUrvlr vi cha tvad yanti 
'9^/wo manUhdh \ 

^'Ifany hymns are congregated in thee, o Indra, and numerous pro- 
^ucts of the mind issue from thee." (Thb half- verse has been already 
90.oted in p. 227.) 

47, 10. Indra mrih mahyam fivdtum ichcha ehoddya dhiyam ayaeo 
dhdrdm \ Tat kincha ahafh tvdyur idarn vaddmi tajjuahasva kridhi md 
avantam \ 

" Indra, gladden me, decree life for me, sharpen my inteJleet like 

edge of an iron instrument. Whatever I, longing for thee, now 

', do thou accept ; give me divine protection." (Compare with the 

rd ehodaya the use of the word prachodaydt in the G^yatrl| £.y« iiL 

9 10, which will be given below.) 

"^iL 97} 3. Tarn u namasd hainrbhih euSevam Brahmanaepatiih gjrtnUhe \ 

aik iloko mahi datvya^ skhaktu yo brahmajto devakfitaeya rdjd \ 5. 

^si d MO arkam amritdyajushtam ime dhdeur amjitdsah purdjdh ityddi \ 

** 3. 1 invoke with reverence and with offerings the beneficent Brah* 

^taspatL Let a great and dkine song celebrate Indra, who is king 


of the prayer nutde hy the gods. 5. May these anoient immortala make 
this our hymn acceptable to the immortal," etc. 

viii. 13, 7. Pratna-vajjaiioya girah sfinudht jaritur havam \ 

'' As of old, generate hymns ; hear the invocation of thy worshipper.'' 

viii. 52, 4. 8a pratnathd kavi-vftdhah Indro vakasya vakshanih \ 

'' Indra was of old the promoter of the poet, and the augmenter of 
the song." 

viii. 78, 6. Yaj jayatJtd apiirf>ya Maghavan Vfittra-hatydya \ tatpf^ 
ihivim aprathayas tad aetahhndh uta dydm \ 7. Tat te yajno ajdyata tod 
arkah uta haskritih \ tad vtham ahhihhur asi yajjdtam yach chajantvam \ 

" When, o unparalleled Maghavan, thou wast bom to slay Vj-ittni, 
thou didst then spread out the earth (the broad one) and sustain the 
sky : then thy sacrifice was produced, then the hymn, and the haskf iti : 
(since) then thou surpasscst everything that has been, or shall be, bom." 

HerQ therefore the hynm is asserted to be as old as Indra ; thon^ 
nothing more need be meant than that hymns then began to be pro- 
duced. The hymn in which this verse occurs is not necessarily meant 

X. 112, 9. iV» shu Bida ganapate ganeshu tvdm dhur vipratamam kml* 
ndm I na rite tvat kriyate h'nchana dre mahdm arham Maghavan chitram 
archa \ 

'' Lord of assemblies, sit amid our multitudes ; they call thee the 
wisest of poets. Nothing is done without, or apart from thee ; sing, o 
Maghavan, a great and beautiful hymn." (Already quoted in p. 252.) 

Ifidra and Vishnu. — R.V. vi. 69, 2. Td viivdsdm janitdrd matindm 
Indrd' VishnU kalasd soma-dhdnd \ Pra vdtn girah iasyamdnd^ avaniu 
pra stomdso giyamdndsah arkaih \ 

*' Indra and Vishnu, ye who are the generators of all hymns, who 
are the vessels into which soma is poured, may the praises which an i 
now recited gratify you, and the songs which are chaunted with en- — 

Indra and Varum, — The following passage is not, properly speaking, ^ 
a portion of the Eig-veda, as it is part of one of the Yalakhilyas or 
cryphal additions (described in Vol. II. p. 210), which are found in< 
sorted between the 48th and 49th hymns of the 8th Mandala. From i 
style, however, it appears to be nearly as old as some parts of the E.T* 

xi. 6. Indrdvarund yad jrishihhyo manxshdin vdcho maiiih 
adattam agre \ yuni sthdndny asfijanta dhlrdh yajnaih tanvdnds 
^bhyapasyam \ 


*' Indra and Yamna, I have seen throngh anstere-fervour that which 
f0 formerly gave to the rishis, wisdom, nndentanding of speech, sacred 
lore, and all the places which the sages created, when performing sacri* 
fice." (See Vol. II. p. 220.) 

The Maruts, — II.Y. viii. 78, 3. Pra vah Indrdya hfihate Ifaruio hrah- 
ma archata \ 

*' Sing, Mamts, your hymn to the great Indra." (Compare yerse 1, 
of the same hymn, and the words hrahmakfitd MdrtUena yanena in 
iii. 32, 2.) 

Puahan, — ^It.y. z. 26, 4. MaiMmahi tvd vayam aemdkam deva JPHshan 
matlndfh cha eddhanam viprdndm eha ddhavam \ 

'' We have called thee to mind, divine Pushan, the accomplisher of 
our hymns, and the stimulator of sages." (The first clause of this, how- 
ever, may merely mean that the god gives effect to the wishes expressed 
in the hymns. Compare vi. 56, 4 : Yad adya tvd puruehfiUa bravdma 
dasra mantumah \ tat tu no manma eddhaya \ ^* Accomplish for us the 
(objects of the) hymn, which we utter to thee to-day, o powerful and 
wise god." 

iSanVn*.— R.V. iii. 62 (= S.V. ii. 812, and Vaj. S. iii. 35). Tat So- 
Ttiur rarenyam Ihargo devaaya dMmahi \ dhiyo yo fwh prachodaydt \ 

** We have received that excellent glory of the divine Savitf i ; may 
he stimulate our understandings [or hymns, or rites]." 

(This is the celebrated Gayatrl, the most sacred of all the text )i ^ 
the Veda. See Colebrooke's Misc. Ess. i. pp. 29, 30, 1^7, «aia 175; or 
pp. 14, 15, 78, and 109 of Williams and Norgat-^'s ed. Benfey (S.V. 
p. 277) translates the Gayatrl thus: "May we receive the glorious 
brightness of this, the generator, of the god who shall prosper our 
works." On the root from which the v/ord dhlmahi is derived, and its 
sense, see also Bohtlingk and Roth's Lexicon, e.vv. dM and dhi ; and 
compare my article " On the Interp»*etation of the Veda," Joum. Roy. 
As. Soc. p. 372. 

The Linga Purana (Part II. sec. 48, 5 ff., Bombay Uthographed ed.) 
gives the following " varieties " P^ the Gayatri, adapted to modem 
S^iva worship : 

Gdyatrl-hked^h \ Tatpurushdy^ vidmahe vdy-viiuddhdya dhlmahi \ 
Tan nah S'ivah prachodaydt \ (^andmhikdyai vidmahe Jsarma-eiddhyai 
cha dhlmahi \ Tan no Gauri prachodaydt \ Tatpurtuhdya vidmahe JMd- 




devdya dhlmahi \ Tan no Rudrah prachodayat \ Tatpurush&ya v%dmah$ 
Vaktratunddya dhlmahi \ Tan no Dantih praehodaydt \ Mahdgen&ya vid- 
mihe v&g-viiuddhdya dhlmahi \ Tan nah Skandah praehodaydt \ Tlkshna- 
^finydya vidmahe Vedajpdddya dhlmahi \ Tan no Vrishah praehodaydd 
ityddi I 

'' 1 . We contemplate That Purusha, we meditate ^ him who ib pnre in 
speech ; may That S^iva stimulate us. 2. We contemplate GaQambika, 
and we meditate Earmasiddhi (the accomplishment of works) ; may 
That Gkiori stimulate us. 8. We contemplate That Purusha, and we 
meditate Mahadeva ; may that Eudra stimulate us. 4. We contemplate 
That Purusha, and we meditate Yaktratun^a (Gane^a); may That 
Danti (the elephant) stimulate us. 5. We contemplate Ifahasena 
(Kartikeya, and we meditate him who is pure in speech ; may That 
Skanda stimulate us. 6. We contemplate Tlkshnasiringa (the sharp* 
homed)y and we meditate the Yeda-footed; may Yfisha (the buU) 
stimulate us." 

Soma. — E. Y. vi. 47, 3. Ay am me pltah udiyartti vdcham ayam manl- 
ihdm uiatlm ajigah \ 

''This [soma], when drunk, stimulates my speech [or hymn] ; this 
called forth the ardent thought." 

It may be said that this and the other following texts relating to 
Soma, should not be quoted as proofs that any idea of divine inspiration 
was entertained by the ancient Indian bards, as they can mean nothing 
more than that the rishis were sensible of a stimulating effect on their 
thoughts and powers of expression, produced by the exhilarating 
draughts of the juice of that plant in which they indulged. But the 
rishis had come to regard Soma as a god, and apparently to be passion- 
ately devoted to his worship. See the Second Yolume of this work, 
pp. 470 ff., and especially pp. 474, 475 ; and my account of this deity 
in the Journal of the Eoyal Asiatio Society for 1865, pp. 135 ff. 

Compare what is said of the god Dionysus (or Bacchus) in the BacShse 
of EuripideSy 294 : 

Mollis S*d taliuav 58c* rh yhp $aKX*^H»09 
Kal T^ /iart(v8cf fuvntK^w iroAA^ Ix'** 
'Oroy yhp 6 Bths 'ctt t^ a&fi' t\Op voX^r, 
AiyMty rh fi4XXo¥ robs fULtfiiitf6Tas voict. 

^ I retun here this aenae of the word, irhich ii probably the moat eommonly 
reeeiTed. ) 


^ And ibis deity ib a prophet For Bacchic excitement and raving have in them 
nooh prophetic power. For when this god enters in force into the body, he caiuea 
thoee who rave to foretell the future." 

ILY. viii. 48, 8. Apdma somam amfitdh dbhnma aganma jyotir tm- 
ddma devdn \ kirn nunam atm&n kfinavad ardUf^ him u dhUrttir amjita 
marfyasya \ 

'*'We have drunk the soma, we have 15ecome immortal, we have 
entered into Hght, we have known the gods ; what can an enemy now 
do to VLsi what can the malice of any mortal effect, o unmortal god?'"* 

(This passage is quoted in the commentary of Gau^apada on the 
Sankhya Karika, verse 2, and is translated (incorrectly as regards the 
last danse), by Prof. Wilson, in p. 18 of his English version.) 

A cnrions parallel to this last Yedic text is to be found in the 
satirical drama of Euripides, the Cyclops, 578 ff.; though there, of 
course, the object is merely to depict the drunken elevation of the 
monster Polyphemus : 

'O 8* hvpa»6s ftoi trvfAfitfuy/Uwos Soicci 
Tp yp ^4pta$<Uj rod Ai6s rt rhp Bp6vo¥ 
Ac^<r«» T^ iray re HcufiSwwy hyvhw aifias 

" The sky, commingled with the earth, appears 
To whirl around; I see the throne of Jove, 
And all the awful glory of the gods." 

R.y. iz. 25, 5. Arwho janayan gira^ Samah pa/oaU dyushag Indraih 
gaehehan Jumhratuh \ 

** The ruddy Soma, generating hymns^ with the powers of a poet (or 
with the imderstanding of a sage), united with men, is purified, resort- 
ing to Indra." 

ix. 76, 4 Fitd matlndm asamashta-kdvyah \ 

''. [Soma] father of our hymns, of incomparable wisdom." 
ix. 95, 2. Harih Biijdnah pathydm j^tasya iyartti vdeham artieva 
ndvam | devo devdndm guhydni ndma dvUhkfinoti barhishi pravdche \ 

* This text may be versified as follows : 

We'ye quaffed the soma bright, 
And are immortal grown ; 
WeWe entered into light, 
And all the gods have known. 
What foeman now can harm. 
Or mortal vex us, more ? 
Through thee, beyond alann, 
Immortal god, we soar. 



''The golden [Soma] when ponied ont along the path of the oere- 
mony, aends forth his yoice, as a rower propels a hoat. A god, he 
reveals the mysterious natures of the gods to the hard upon the sacred 
grass." (See E.V. ii. 42, 1, and x. 116, 9, quoted in p. 240.) 

iz. 96, 5 (^ S.Y. iL 293-5). Somah pavate janitd maiind^ johmUL 
divo janttd pjrithivyah \ janitd Agner janitd iHryasya janitd Jndratya 
janitd uta Vishnoh \ 6. BraJimd devdndm padavJh kavindm jithir viprdndm 
mdhisho mrigdnam \ Syeno gfidhrdn&fk svadhitir vandndm Soma^ pan^ 
tram at* eti rehhan | 7. Frdvlvipad vdcha^ urmim na sindhur gira^ 
aomah pavamdno tnanUhdh ityddi j 

" Soma is purified, he who is the generator of hymns, of Dyaos, ot 
Pfithivi, of Agni, of Surya, of Indra, and of Vishnu. 6. Soma, who 
is a hrahm^n-priest among the gods (or priests),*^ a leader among the 
poets, a rishi among sages, a huffalo among wild heasts, a falcoii among 
vultures, an axe amid the forests, advances to the filter with a sonnd. 
The purified Soma, like the sea rolling its waves, has poured forth 
soDgs, hymns, and thoughts," etc. (See Benfey's translation of this 
passage in his Sama-veda, pp. 238 and 253 ; and Nirukta'pariiishta« 
ii. 12, 13.) 

Varum. — It.Y. viii. 41, 5, 6. To dharttd hhuvandndm yah usrdndm 
KipJchyd veda ndmdni guhyd | sa kavih kdvyd puru rUpam dyaur iva 
puehyati . . • • | Yasmin vihdni kdvyd chahre ndhhir ivi Mtd ityddi \ 

*' He who is the upholder of the worlds (Varuna), who knows the 
secret and mysterious natures of the cows, he, a sage [or poet], manifests 

sage [or poetical] works, as the sky docs many forms In him aU 

sage works abide, as the nave within a wheel," etc. (See R.V. viL 
87, 4, in p. 248, and ix. 95, 2, above, in this page.) 

Varuna, Mitral and Aryaman. — R.V. vii. 66, 11. Vi ye dadhuh iara^ 
dam mdsam dd dkar yajnam aktuih cha dd ficham \ andpyam Varun9 
Mitra^ Aryamd kshatram rdjdnah diata \ 

^' The kings, Yaruna, Mitra, and Aryaman, who made the antnmn, 
the month, and then the day, the sacrifice, night, and then the Bich, 
possess an unrivalled power." '^ 

» It appears from Prof. Benfey's note on S.V. ii. 294 (=R.V. ix. 96, 6, quoted 
Here], that the scholiast on that passage makes devanam s fUvijam^ '* priests." 

*^ As this verse ascribes the formation of the ^ich to the gods who are nanoied in 
Xf my remark, in p. 3 aboye, that the Pnmsha SQkta contains " the only passage in 


The following passage of the Eig-yeja has (as we haTe seen aboye, 
p. 69, note 79, and p. 75) been quoted by Indian commentators and 
aphorists to prove the eternity of the Veda, on its own authority : 

R.y. viii. 64, 6. Taamai ni^nam ahhidyavs vdchd Virupa nityayd | 
Vfishne chodasva stishfutim \ 

''Send forth praises, Yiriipa, to this heaven-aspiring and prolific 
Agni, with perpetual voice " (See i. 45, 3, etc., quoted above, p. 220.) 

There is, however, no reason whatever to suppose that the words 
nityayd vdchu mean an3rthing more than perpetual voice. There is no 
ground for imagining that the rishi entertained any such conception as 
became current among the systematic theologians of later times, that 
his words were eternal. The word nitya is used in the same sense 
"perpetual" in R.V. ix. 12, 7 (= S.V. ii. 55, 2), where it is said of 
Soma: nitya-stotro vanaspatir dh'indm antar ityddi \ "The monarch of 
the woods, cofUinually-praised, among the hymns," etc., as well as in 
the two following texts : 

E.y. ix. 92, 3. — Somah pun&nah tadah eti niiyam ityddi \ 

" The pure Soma comes to his perpetual abode [or to his abode eom- 
tinually\ etc. 

z. 39, 14 (quoted above, p. 236). Nitydfk na HJinufh tanayam dth 
dhdndJ} \ 

" Continuing the series like an unbroken line of descendants.' 

The tenor of the numerous texts adduced in this Section seems 
clearly to establish the fact that some at least of the ancient Indian 
rishis conceived themselves to be prompted and directed, in the com- 
position of their hymns and prayers, by supernatural aid, derived from 
various deities of their pantheon. It may add force to the proof de- 
rived from these texts, and show that I am the less likely to have mis- 
understood their purport and spirit, if I adduce some evidence that a 
similar conception was not unknown in another region of the ancient 
Indo-European world, and that the expressions in which the early 
Grecian bards laid claim to an inspiration emanating from the Muses, 
or from Apollo, were not mere figures of speech, but significant, origin- 
ally, of a popular belief. Most of the following passages, from Hesiod 

the hymns of the ILV. in which the creation of the Yedas is descrihed,*' requires some 


and Homer, in which this idea is enunciated, are referred to in Mr. 
Grote's History of Greece, i. 478. 

Hesiodi Theogony, 22 : 

"Apvas vni^JoLifov^ 'EXiictfFOt 0iro (oBdoio, 

T<{y8ff 8^ fu irpdrurra 0cal irp6s fiv9o¥ i^vwaof^ 
Mov(rai 'OAv/AVK(8cf, Kovptu £^\os iuyiSxoio, 
TloifjL4tf€S iypavXoi, kAiC iX^yx^^* ywrrip§s hop^ 

"iZlktP tfrc^Sea iroXX& \4y9iy Mfiouriy dfjuttOf 

"lifuw 8', Zvr' i04kuij.€¥y iXfiBia fiv&fiaair$au 

'fit H^offtuf Kovpai fity^ov A\os itprUx^uu' 
Kai fioi oinjfierpov fZoWt ^d^pyris ipiOri\4os 6(oPy 
Ap^oiTcu $fifrr6¥' itt4vr€v<ray 94 fioi ivSJ^r 
BtifiVf &t Kktloifu rd r* iaa6fittmj wp6 r' iSrrOf 
Kal /i§ K4\orff 6fuf§iw fAOKdpup y4¥os iuh^ UrrmVf 
"X^las T* Avr^f xpvrSp re jcol tar§po¥ iuhf cUiScir. 

** The Miues once conferred the dower 
... . On Hesiod of poetic power, 

■4'-* ' As underneath the sacred steep 

Of Helicon he fed his sheep. 
And thus they spake, < Inglorious race 
Of rustic shephords, gluttons base, 
Full many fictions we can weaye 
Which by their truthlike air deceive ; 
But, know, we also have the skill 
True tales to tell, whene'er we will.' 
They spake, and ga?e into my hand 
A fair luxuriant laurel wand ; 
And breathed into me speech diyine, 
That two-fold science might be mine; 
That future scenes I might unveil. 
And of the past unfold the tale. 
They bade me hymn the race on high 
Of blessed gods who never die ; 
And eyermore begin my lays, 
And end them, with the Muses' praise ** 

Hesiod, Theogony, 94 : 

'Ek yhp Movaiotp koI ImyiS^Xov *Aw6\KotPo$ 

"Ay^pts doiSol fcuriw iwl x^^^w Kol luBapiffraif 

*Ek 8^ Aihs fiaatKrj§s, 

•< The bards who strike the lyre and sing, 
From Phoebus and the Muses spring : 
From Joye's high race descends the king." 

The following are the words in which the author of the Hiad invokes 

the aid of the Muses, to qualify him for enumerating the generals of 

the Grecian host (Iliad| iL 484} : 


*^(nrfrff inhf /tot Movvvu Oxifjotia ^ttfidi^ Ixovoroi, 
Tfitis yap Btal ^orc irdptari re tart re wdarra^ 
flfius 9^ k\4os Zto¥ dKo6ofit¥ 6M n TB/itp. 

" Tell me the truth, ye Muses, tell, 
Te who on high Olympus dwell ; 
For, omnipresent, ye can scan 
Whate'eyer on earth is dooe by man. 
Whilst we yagne ramonrs only learn 
And nothing certain can discern." 
But the Muses could also take away, as well as impart, the gift of 

song, as appears from Hiad, ii. 594 ff. : 

*%vOa Tff MowTM 
*Arr6fi€wtu Sdfivpuf rhw Bp^iKa mukrai^ doiS^t* 
StcOto yhp ivx&iuvos yucria4fiei^, Hartp tiM dirral 
Wovceu dc/8oicy, Kovpat Aths diyi6xoto, 
*At 8i x^'^'vtrdE/ici^ai miphw $4<rcty, durkp cSotSV 
Bunrtffiriv dtpdkoirro, koX 4K\4\a0oy Kt9apurrhp. 

^ 'Twas there the Muses, we are told. 
Encountered Thamyris of old. 
He boasted that the minstrel throng 
To him must yield the prize of song ; 
Tes, eyen although, among the rest, 
The Muses should the palm contest. 
Aware of his presumption, they 
Both took his sldU in song away, 
And power to wake the tuneful lyre ;— 
And struck him blind, in yengeful ire." 
The following passages firom the Odyssey refer to Demodocus, the 

bard who sang at the court of Aicinous, King of the Phseacians (Odys- 

^' * '^' Ka\4acur0t 8c $ttO¥ dotZSv, 

ArifiS^oKOW T^ ydp fia Oths wipi ^Kty ctotS^r, 
T4pKtiyf ttnrQ Ovfths 4'KOTp6ypaiP itl^tiM, 

** And go, the bard diyine inyitc :— 
The god hath giyen him skill 
By song all others to delight, 
Wheneyer he may will. 
Odyssey, Tiii. 62 ff. : 

Krjpv^ 8* iyy^w 1i\$§¥ ^ryww 4psfipop doiZhif' 

Th¥ w4pi Movo* 4^(\ri<rt SiSov 8* irfQB6v re fccucJr t1| 

*O^0<iXiAM¥ fihw ifjLtpirt 8(8ov 8* ^c7ar aoibiiy. 

" The herald came, and within him brought 
The bard whom all with longing sought. 
The Muse's darling, he had good 
As well as ill from her receiyed ; 
With power of dulcet song endued, 
But of his eyesight too bereayed." 


Here the Muse is described as the arbitress of the bard's destiiiy in 
other points besides the gift and withdrawal of Song. 

Odyssey, viii. 73 : 

" Stirf'd by the Muse the bard extoU'd 
In Bong the deeds of warriors bold." 

A little farther on, Ulysses says of Demodocus (Odyssey, viii. 479 ff.): 

Tlcurt yhp dyBp^onrtp Ikix^vioutiv cbiSoi 
Tifiqr ffifiopol tlai icol aiSovf, Zvyti^ ipa e^4as 
''OifMS tHovff* ^5/8a{C| ^i\ri(rt bk ^vAor iot^&P, 

** AH mortal men with awe regard, 
And honourably treat, the bard ; 
Because the Muse has taught him lays, 
And dearly Iotos his trmeful race." 

And again he addresses him thus (Odyssey, viii. 487) : 

Arifi69oK\ ^ox» '^ trc fiporvv iuvt(otA' kwdrruy. 
'H a4 yc Mova^ ^8/8a{c Aihs iratSj ^ <r§ y Air({\A»ir. 
fiiflP yitp KOT^ K6<r/A0¥ *Ax<uuy Znow itiScif, k.t.A. 

(< I^emodocus, beyond the rest 
Of mortals I esteem thee blest. 
For thee, the Muse, Joye's child, has taught. 
Or Phcebus in thee skill has wrought ; 
So perfectly thou dost relate 
The story of the Argives* fate." * 

Phemios, the Ithacon minstrel, thus supplicates UlysseB to 8pai« hif 
life (Odyssey, xxu. 345 ff.): 

'AvT^ roi firr^urff Ax^* twrraiy tutw huZ^ 
n^^vi}f, 8t t€ Btoiffi fcol hvBpdrwouruf &€i8w. 
'AvTo8/8aicTos S* ^t^il, 6ebt Zi yuoi iv ^p€<rly 6ifuu 
HoMToias iy4<f>u<rtv, 

" Thou soon wilt griere, if thou the bard shouldst slay, 
To gods as well as men who pours his lay. 
Self-taught I am ; and yet within my mind 
A god hath gendered strains of erery kind." 

^ " That is," says Mr. Grote, '' Demodocus has either boen inspired as a poet by 
the muse, or as a prophet by Apollo, for the Homeric Apollo is not the god of aong. 
Kalchas, the prophet, receives his inspiratioo from Apollo, who confers upon him the 
same knowledge, both of past and future, as the Muses give to Hesiod." fiut does 
not this passage (Odyssey yiii. 488) rather show that the Homeric ApoUo was the god 
of song, as well as the bestower of prophetic intuition ; and do we not learn the same 
from Iliad, i. 603 } In any case, it is quite clear from Th«og. 94, quoted abore, that 
Henod regarded ApoUo in this character. 


The early Greeks believed that the gift of profAecy also, as veil as 
that of song, was imparted by the gods to mortals. This appears both 
from Hesiod, as already quoted, and from the following passage of Homer 
(Hiad, i. 69) : 

Kd\XBif BtaropihiSf hutP9w6XM9 6x* ipurros^ 
*Of jjfiri rd T* i6yra rd t* iaa6fiewct, »/mJ t* i6yTa, 

^Hw 8i& fAotrroa^yriP, riiv 6i xopt ^70os *Av6\X9otf, 

^ Of aagors wisest, Calchas knew 
Things present, past, and future too. 
By force of that divining skill. 
Vouchsafed to him by Phoebus* will. 
The Grecian fleet he safely bore 
From Aulis* bay to Ilion's shore.*' 

It is thus argued by Mr. Grote that the early Greeks really believed 
in the inspiration of their bards by the Muses (History of Ghreece, 

L 477ff.) = 

** His [the early Greek's] faith is ready, literal and uninquiring, 

apart from all thought of discriminating fact from fiction, or of detect- 
ing hidden and symbolized meaning : it is enough that what he hears 
be intrinsically plausible and scductiyc, and that there be no special 
cause to provoke doubt. And if indeed there were, the poet overrules 
such doubts by the holy and all-sufficient authority of the Muse, whose 
omniscience is the warrant for his recital, as her inspiration is the cause 
of his success. The state of mind, and the relation of speaker to hearers, 
thus depicted, stand clearly marked in the terms and tenor of the an* 
cient epic, if we only put a plain meaning upon what we read. The 
poet — like the prophet, whom he so much resembles — sings under 
heavenly guidance, inspired by the goddess to whom be has prayed for 
her assisting impulse. She puts the words into his mouth and the in- 
cidents into his mind; he is a privileged man, chosen as her organ, and 
speaking £rom her revelations. As the Muse grants the gift of song to 
whom she^ will, so she sometimes in her anger snatches it away, and 
the most consummate human genius is then left silent and helpless. It 
is true that these expressions, of the Muse inspiring and the poet sing- 
ing a tale of past times, have passed from the ancient epic to compo- 
mtions produced under very different circumstances, and have now de- 
generated into unmeaning forms of speech ; but they gained currency 
criginally in their genuine and literal acceptation. If poets hod irom 


the beginning writton or recited, the predicate of singing would never 
have been ascribed to them ; nor would it ever have become customary 
to employ the name of the Muse as a die to be stamped on licensed 
fiction, unless the practice had begun when her agency was iuYoked 
and hailed in perfect good faith. Belief, the fruit of deliberate inquiry, 
and a rational scrutiny of evidence, is in such an age unknown ; the 
simple Mth of the time slides in unconsciously, when the imaginatiaii 
and feeling are exalted ; and inspired authority is at once understood, 
easily admitted, and implicitly confided in." 

If we extend our researches over the pages of Homer, we shall 
speedily discover numerous other instances of a belief in divine inter> 
ference in human affairs, not merely (1) in the general government of 
the world, in the distribution of good and evil, and the allotment of the 
diversified gifts, intellectual, moral, and physical, which constitute the 
innumerable varieties of human condition, but also (2) in the way of 
special suggestion, guidance, encouragement, and protection, afforded to 

Illustrations of the general control exercised by the gods over the 
fortunes of mankind may be found in the following passages of the 
Iliad,— xiii. 730 ff., and of the Odyssey,— i. 847 f.; iv. 236 f.; vL 
188 f.; viii. 167-175; xvii. 218, 485 ff. 

The following are illustrations of the special interference of the goda 
on behalf of their favourites: Iliad, i. 194 ff., 218; iii. 380 ff.; v. 1 ff.; 
viL 272 ; xiii. 60 f., 435 ; xvi. 788 ff. :— Odyssey, L 319 ff. ; iii. 26 ft ; 
xiv. 216 f., 227 ; xvi. 159 ff.» Of the latter class of passages, I quota 
two specimens. 

Odyssey, i. 319 ff.: 

*H /A^y Ap As tlwova^ i.w4$fi yXMfK&wu 'A9^, 
"Opyis 8* As iuKywdUa 9i4irraro' r^ 8* iy\ $v/i^ 
BriKt fiiyos iced Odpaost Mfiyriffdy r4 4 woTp6f 
MaWoy Ir* ^ rh wdpoiOw 6 8i ^ptaly ftrt yo^ffui 
Bd/ififia'€y icorck 0v/i6y, ittraro 7^ $§by Ztyat, 

'* As thus she spake, Athene flew 
Aloft, and soared beyond his yiei^. 
Bis soul she filled with force and fire, 
And stronger memory of his sire. 
Amazed, he felt the inward force, 
And deemed a god must be its source." 

» Compare Prof. Blackie*8 dissertation on the theology of Homer in the ^'Claaiied 
Huseum,*' vol. vii. pp. 414 ff. 


When Telemochus urges his youth and inexperience as a reason for 
diffidence in approaching Nestor, Minerva says to him (Odyssey, iii. 26) : 

"VlAAa 8i K<d Jkxlfiuy ihrotf^o'crcu' 6v yiip ctv 
'Ou (Tc 6(ay diicuri ytv4aOiu re rpai^ifji.w re. 

'* Somo things thy mind itself shall reach. 
And other things a god shall teach ; 
For bom and bred thou ne'er hadst been 
Unless they gods had wUrd, I ween. 

These p^sagcs, however, afford only one exemplification of the idea 
which runs through, and in fact created, the- entire mythology of the 
Greeks, viz. tliat all the departments of life and of nature were ani- 
mated, controlled, and governed by particular deities, by whom they 
were represented, and in whom they were personified. 

The Indian mythology, — as is evident to every reader of the Vedas, 
as well as (to some extent) to the student of the Puranas, — is distin- 
g^shed by the same tendency as the Grecian. Indra, Agni, Ya3ru, 
Savitfi, Surya, and many other gods are nothing else than personifica- 
tions of the elements, while Yach or Sarasvati and some other deities, 
represent either the divine reason by which the more gifted men were 
supposed to be inspired, or some mental function, or ceremonial ab- 

In the later religious history, however, of the two races, the Hellenic 
and the Indian, there is in one respect a remarkable divergence. 
Though the priestesses of the different oracles, and perhaps somo other 
pretenders to prophetical intuition, were popularly regarded as speak- 
ing under a divine impulse,^' the idea of inspiration as attaching to 
poems or other compositions of a religious, didactic, or philosophical 
character, very soon became extinct. The Greeks had no sacred Scrip- 
tures. Although a supernatural character was popularly ascribed to 
Pythagoras, Epimenides, and Empedodes, the Hellenio philosophers in 
general spoke and wrote in dependance on their own reason alone. 
They rarely professed to be guided by any supernatural assistance, or 
claimed any divine authority for their dogmas.^ I^or (unless such 

** See Nagclsbach's Nachhomerische Thcologie, pp. 173 ff., and Dr. Karl Eohler*! 
ProphetismuB der Hebrseer und die Mantik dor Gnechcn in ihrem gegenseitigcn Ver- 
haltnias, (Darmstadt, 1860), pp. 39 ff. 

^ I express myself cautiously here, as a learned friend profoundly Tcrsed in the 
study of Plato is of opinion that there are traces in the writings of that author of a 



may have been the case at a very late period) was any infallibilitj 
claimed for any of them by their Buccessors. 

In India, on the other hand, the indistinct, and perhaps hesitating, 
belief which some of the ancient rishis seem to have entertained in 
their own inspiration was not suffered to die oiCb in the minds of later 
generations. On the contrary this belief grew up (as we have seen aboTe^ 
pp. 57-138, and 207 ff.) by degrees into a fixed persuasion that all the 
literary productions of those early sages had not only resulted from a 
supernatural impulse, but were infallible, divine, and even etemaL 
These works have become the sacred Scriptures of India. And in the 
popular opinion, if not in the estimation of the learned, most Indian 
works of any importance, of a religious, scientific, or philosophical 
kind, which were produced at a later period, have come to be regarded 
as inspired, as soon as the lapse of ages had removed the writers beyond 
familiar or traditional knowledge, and invested their names with a halo 
of reverence. 

To return from this digression to the inquiry which was being pur- 
sued regarding the opinions of the ancient Yedic rishis on the sabjeet 
of their own inspiration : 

How, it will be asked, are we to reconcile this impression which 
the rishis manifest of being prompted by supernatural aid, with the 
circumstance, which seems to be no less distinctly proved by the cita* 
tions made in the preceding section (pp. 232 ff.), that they frequently 
speak of themselves as having made, fabricated^ or generaUd the hymnSi 
without apparently betraying any consciousness that in this process 
they were inspired or guided by any extraneous assistance ? 

In reply to this I will only suggest (1) that possibly the idea of in- • 
spiration may not have been held by the earliest rishis, but may have ^ 
grown up among their successors ; or (2) that it may have been enter- - 
tained by some rishis, and not by others ; or again (3), if both ideas 

claim to supernatural guidance, though by no means to infallibility. See abo th» 
mention made of the inspiration ascribed to Pythagoras, in Mr. Grote's Greece, iv. 
528, 630 ; and the notices of Epimenidcs and Empedocles given by the same ftQthor« 
vol. iii. 112 ff., Tol. rii. p. 174, and vol. viii. 465 f. ; and compare on the same lab* 
jects Bp. Thirlwall's Hist, of Greece, ii. 32 ff., and 155 ff. ; and Plato, Legg. L p. 648. 
• See also Prof. Geddes's Phaddo, note P. p. 251, and the pasMgea there refSemd to; 
and the Tract of Dr. Kohlor, above cited, pp. 60 and 64. 


ean he traced to the same author, we may suppose that the one notion 
was uppermost in his mind at one moment^ and the other at another; 
or (4) that he had no very clearly defined ideas of inspiration, and 
might conceive that the divine assistance of which he was conscious, or 
which at least he implored, did not render his hymn the less truly the 
production of his own mind; that, in short, the existence of a human, 
was not incompatible 'With that of a superhuman, element in its com- 

The first of these suppositions is, however, attended with this diffi- 
culty, that both conceptions, viz., that of independent unassisted com- 
position, and that of inspiration, appear to be discoverable in all parts 
of the Eig-veda. As regards the second supposition, it might not be 
easy (in the uncertainty attaching to tho Yedic tradition contained in 
the AnukramanI or Yedio index) to show that such and such hymns 
were written by such and such rishis, rather than by any others. It 
may, however, become possible by continued and careful comparison of 
the Yedic hymns, to arrive at some probable conclusions in regard to 
their authorship, so far at least as to determine that particular hymns 
ibould probably be assigned to particular eras, or families, rather than 
to others. I must, however, leave such investigations to be worked 
out, and the results applied to the present subject, by more competent 
fcholars than myself. 

III. While in many passages of the Yeda, an efficacy is ascribed to 
the hymns, which is perhaps nothing greater than natural religion 
teaches all men to attribute to their devotions, in other texts a mys- 
tical, magical, or supernatural power is represented as residing in the 
prayers and metres. (See Weber's Yajasaneyi-SanhitsB specimen, p. 61; 
and Yol. I. of this work,, p. 242.) Some of the following texts are of 
the latter kind. 

Thus in R. Y. i. 67, 8, it is said : 

Ajo na kshdth dadhdra prithivim tastamhha dydm mantrelhili satyaih \ 

** (Agni) who like the unborn, supported the broad earth, and up- 
held the sky by true prayers." 

The following is part of Sayana's annotation on this verse : 

Mmirair divo dh&ranaih Taittiflye samdmndtaih \ "devd^ vai ddiU 
yuiya ivarffo-lokasya pardcho Hipdtdd ahibhayuh \ tarn ehhandohhir adj-i* 
han dhiiiyd " iti \ yadvd satyatr mantraifi ttuyamdno *gn%r dydik ta§» 
tMmtha iti \ 


^'The supporting of the sky by mantras is thus recorded in the 
Toittiriya: 'The gods feared lost the sun should fall down from the 
heaven ; they propped it up by metres/ Or the verse may mean that 
Agnii being lauded by true mantras, upheld the sky." 

See also E.Y. i. 96, 2, quoted above, in p. 225, and Ait. £r. ii. 33, 
cited in the First Volume of this work, p. 180. 

i. 164, 25. Jagatd sindhum divi (Mtahhdyad rathantare 9uryam parC 
apaiyat \ gdyatrasya samidhas tisrah uhus tato inahnd pra ririche ma^ 
hitvd I 

'' By the Jagati metre he fixed the waters in the sky ; ho beheld the 
sun in the Kathantara (a portion of the Sama-vcda) : there are said to 
be three divisions of the Gayatra ; hence it surpasses [all others] in 
power and grandeur." 

iii. 53, 12. Vihdmitrasya rakshati Irdhma idam Bhdrataih janam j 

"The prayer of ViiSvamitra protects this tribe of the Bhoratas." 
(See Vol. I. pp. 242 and 342.) 

V. 31, 4. lirahmdnah Ldram mahayanto arkair avardhayan Ahaye 
hantavai u \ 

'' The priests magnifying Indra by their praises, have fortified him 
for slaying Agni." 

Compare the following texts already quoted, iii. 32, 13, p. 226; vi. 
44, 13, p. 227; viii. 6, 11, p. 228; viii. 8, 8, p. 243; viii. 44, 12, 
p. 230; viii. 63, 8, p. 280; x. 67, 13, p. 244; and also i. 10, 5; iL 
11, 2; ii. 12, 14; iii. 34, 1, 2; v. 31, 10; viii. 6, 1, 21, 81, 85; viiL 
13, 16; viii. 14, 5, 11 ; viii. 82, 27; and viii. 87, 8, where a similar 
power of augmenting, or strengthening, the gods is attributed to the 

V. 40, 6 G&lham sHryam tamasd apavratena turlyena hrahmanH 

avindad Atrih | 8 Atrih saryasya divi chakahur ddhdl svarhhdnor 

apa mdydh aghukshat \ 9. Yam vai sUryam svarbhduus tamasd avidhyad 
dsurah \ Atrayas tarn anvavindan na hi anye aiaknuvan \ 

** Atri, by his fourth prayer, discovered the sun which had been con- 
cealed by the hostile darkness. 8. .... Atri placed the eye of the sun 
in the sky, and dispelled the illusions of Svarbhanu. 9. The Atris 
discovered the sun, which Svarbhanu, of the Asura race, had pierced 
with darkness ; no other could [effect this]." (Sec VoL I. of this work, 
pp. 242 and 469.) 


Ti. 75, 19 Devas tain sarve dharvantu hrahma varma tnamdn- 

taram \ 

" May all the gods destroy bim ; the prayer is my protecting armour.*' 

▼iL 19, 11. J^u Indra iura stavamdnah utl hrdhma-jntas ianvd vavfi- 
dhatva ityddi \ 

" Heroic Indra, lauded, and impelled by our prayers, grow in body 
through (our) aid [or longing]," etc. (Compare viii. 13, 17, 25.) 

Tii. 33, 3 I^ven nu kam ddsardjne Suddaam prdvad Indro hrah' 

mand vo Veuishthdh | 5 Vasiihfhasya stuvatah Indrah airod urum 

TfiUulhyah akfinod u lolam \ 

" Indra has delivered Sudas in the combat of the ten kings through 
your prayer, o Vasishthas. 5. Indra heard Vasishtha when he praised, 
and opened a wide place for the Tritsus." (See Vol. I. pp. 242 and 319.) 

viii. 49, 9. Puhi nah Agne eJiayd pdhi uta dviHyayd \ pdhi yJrbhis tis- 
fibhir urjdmpate pdhi chata^ribhtr raso \ 

" Protect us, Agni, through the first, protect us through the second, 
protect us, lord of power, through three hymns, protect us through 
four, thou bright god." 

The following passage celebrates the numbers of the metres : 

X. 114, 8, 9. Sahasradhd panchadaidni ukthd ydvad dyavd-prithivi 
tdvad it tat \ Sahasradhd mahimdnah aahoiram ydvad hrahma vishfhitam 
tdvatt vdk \ 9. Kai chhandasdm yogam dveda dhirah ho dhishnydm prati 
vdeham papdda | kam jritvijdm ashfamam iuram dhur hari Indrasya n% 
ehikdya hah avit \ 

8. ''There are a thousand times fifteen ukthas ; that extends as far 
as heaven and earth. A thousand times a thousand are their glorious 
manifestations ; speech is commensurate with devotion. 9. What sage 
knows the [whole] series [or application] of the metres ? Who has 
attained devotional speech ? Whom do they call the eighth hero among 
priests ? Who has perceived the two steeds of Indra ? *' 

(The word dhishnya is said by Yaska, Nirukta, viii. 3, to bo = to 
dhishanya, and that again to be = to dhiahand-hhava, ''springing" from 
dhishandf "speech," or " sacred speech." 

I conclude the series of texts relating to the power of the mantras 
by quoting the wholo of the 130th hymn of the 10th Man^ala of the 
Big'Veda : 

1. To yajno vOvataa tantuhhis tata^ ekaiatam iwa-karmehhir dyata^ [ 


tiM vayanti pitaro y$ dyayuh pra vaya apa vaya dsate tate \ 2. Pum&n 
enam tanuia utkrinatti pumdn vi tatne adhi ndke atmin \ ime mayikkh&h^ 
upa shedur n sadah sdm&ni ehakrua tasardni otave { 3. Kd dsit pramd 
pratimd him niddnam djyam him dalt paridfu^ hah d9lt \ ehhanda^ kin 
dsU prduyam kim uktham yad devdh devam ayajanta viive \ 4. Ayner 
gdyatn abhavat iayugvd ushnihayd Savitd damhahhilva \ amuh$uhhd 
Somah ukthair mahtuvdn Bfihaspater hjrihatl vdeham dvat \ 5. VirdM 
Mitrdvarunayor abhiirir Indrasya trhhfuh iha hhdgah ahnaf^ \ Viivdn 
devdn jagatl dvtveia iena ehdklfipre fishayo tnanuthyd^ | 6. Chakljripn 
Una fishayo manushydh yajne jdte pitarah nal^ purdns \ paiyan vumye 
manasd ehdkihasd idn ye imam yajnam ayajanta pikrv$ \ 7. Saha-Mtorndk 
saha-ehhandasahdvrita^saha^ramdhrishayah sapta daivyd^ \ pQrvetkdm 
panthdm anudriiya dhlrdh anvdUhhire rathyo na raimin \ 

** 1. The [web of] sacrifice which is stretched on every side with 
threads,'^ which is extended with one hundred [threads], the work of 
the gods, — these fathers who have arrived weave it ; they sit where it 
is extended, [saying] 'weave forwards, weave backwards.' 2. The 
Man stretches it out and spins it, the Man has extended it over this 
sky. These rays approached the place of sacrifice; they made the 
Sama verses the shuttles for the woof. 3. What was the measure [of 
the (Ceremonial], what the form, what the type, what the oblation, 
what thjd enclosing fuel, what the metre, what the prduga^ and what 
the vkiha^ when all the gods sacrificed to the god ? 4. The gayatrt 
was associated with Agni; Savitri was conjoined with the ushniha; 
and Soma, gladdening (us) through hymns {uUha9\ with the anush* 
tubh ; the bfihatl attached itself to the speech of Dphaspati. 5. The 
viraj adhered to Mitra and Yaruna ; the trishtubh, a portion of the 
day(?), [accompanied] Indra. The jagatl entered into the Yi^vedevas. 
By this means human rishis were successful. 6. By this means our 
human fathers the rishis were successful, when this ancient sacrifice 

*> In ]l.y. X. 67, 2, we find the same word taniu occurring : To yajnasya jEiroM- 
dhanaa tantur deveshu atatas tarn ahuiam fiaiJmahi \ ** May we obtain him [Agni] 
who is offered, who is the fnlfiUer of sacrifice, who is the thread stretched to the 
jrods." (Comp. the versions given by Prof. Miiller in the Jonm. R. A. S. for 1866, pp. 
449, and 457.) Prof. Both quotes under the word taniu the following text from the 
Taittiiiya Brahmana, ii. 4, 2, 6 : ji tanium Agnir diryam (atana | ivaik tuu Umtwr 
uta tetur Agne tram panthnh hhavasi deva^yanah \ " Agni has stretched the divine 
thread. Thou, Agni, art our thread and bridge ; thou art the path leading to the 


was celebrated. I believe that I behold with my mind, [as] with an 
eye^ those ancients who performed this sacrifice. 7. The seven wise 
and divine rishis, with hymns, with metres, [with] ritual forms, and 
according to the prescribed measures, contemplating the path of the 
ancients, have followed it, like charioteers seizing the reins." 

I shall not attempt to explain the meaning and purport of this ob* 
scnre and mystical hymn, which has been translated by Mr. Golebrooke 
(Essays, i. 34, 35, or p. 18 of Williams and-Norgate's ed.). My object 
in quoting the verses is to show how the various metres are associated 
'Vrith the different deities, in this primeval and mysterious rite, and how 
u certain sanctity is thus imparted to them. In verse 7, it will be 
observed, the rishis are spoken of as seven in number, and as divine. 
^he Atharva-veda (x. 7, 43, 44) gives the second verse somewhat dif- 
ferently from the Eig-veda, as follows : Puman enad vayati udgrimtti 
^ntmdn enad vi jahhara adhinake \ ime mayukhdh upa tastahhur divam 
sumdni ehakrus tasardni vdtave \ '' The Man weaves and spins this : 
the Man has spread this over the sky. These rays have propped up 
the sky ; they have made the Sama-verses shuttles for the woof." 

lY. But whatever may have been the nature or the source of the 
supernal illumination to which the rishis laid claim, it is quite dear 
that some among them at least made no pretensions to anything like a 
perfect knowledge of all subjects, human and divine, as they occasion- 
ally confess their ignorance of matters in which they felt a deep interest 
and curiosity. This is shown in the following texts : 

B.Y. i. 164, 5. Fdkah prichchhdmi manasd avtjdnan devdndm end 
nihitd paddni \ vatse hashkaye adhi sapta tantUn vi tatnire kavayah 
otavai u \ 6. Achikitvdn ehikitasai chid atra kavin prichchhdmi vidtnane 
na vidvdn \ vi yas tastamhha ahal imd rajdnm ajasya rape kirn api avid 
ekam | 37. Na vi jdndmi yad iva idam asmi ninyah aannaddho tnanasd 
ehardmi \ yadd nid dgan prathamajdh jritasya dd id vdchah ainuve hhd- 
gam asydh | 

'' 5. Ignorant, not knowing in my mind, I enquire after these 
hidden abodes of the gods ; the sages have stretched out seven threads 
for a woof over the yearling calf [or over the sun, the abode of all 
things]. 6. Not comprehending, I ask those sages who comprehend 
this matter ; unknowing, [I ask] that I may know ; what is the one 
thing, in the form of the uncreated one, who has upheld these six 


worlds ? 87. I do not recognize if I am like this ; I go on perplexed 
and bound in mind. When the first-born sons of sacrifice [or truth] 
come to me, then I enjoy a share of that word." 

I do not attempt to explain the proper sense of these dark and 
mystical verses. It is sufficient for my purpose that they clearly ex- 
press ignorance on the part of the speaker. Prof. Wilson's translation 
of the passages may be compared. Prof. Miiller, Anc. Ind. Lit. p. 567, 
renders verse 37 as follows : "I know not what this is that I am like ; 
turned inward I walk, chained in my mind. When the first-bom of 
time comes near mc, then I obtain the portion of this speech." 

X. 31, 7. Kim sutd vanafh hah u sa vrihlial^ usa yato dyava-pfithivl 
nishtatakshuJ^ I santasikune ajare itautl ahuni purvlr tukaso jaranta \ 

" What was the forest, what the tree, out of which they fashioned 
heaven and earth, which continue to exist undecaying, whilst days, 
and many dawns have passed away ? " 

Compare x. 81, 4, where the first of these lines is repeated and is fol* 
lowed by the words : Manishino manaiu prichkata id u tad yad adhy^ 
atishfhad hhuvandni dhurayan \ ''Ask in your minds, ye intelligent, 
what that was on which he took his stand when upholding the worlds;" 
and see verse 2 of the same hymn. 

i. 185, I. Katardpurvd katard apard ayoh hatha jdtekavayohfviteda \ 

'' Which of these two (Heaven and Earth) is the first ? which is the 
last ? How were they produced ? Who, o sages, knows ? " 

X. 88, 18. Kati agnayal^ hati surydsah kati ushasah hati u wid apak | 
nd upaspijam vahpitaro vaddmi prichchlidmi vah kavayo vidmane kam \ 

" How many fires are there ? how many suns ? how many dawns ? 
how many waters? I do not, fathers, say this to you in jest; I really 
ask you, sages, in order that I may know." 

Compare x. 114, 9, above, p. 227. 

X. 129, 5. TiraSchlno'vitato rainiir eshdm adhah avid dild apart 9vid 
d^it I retodhdh dsan mahimdnah dsan svadhd avastat prayatih parastdt j 
G. Kah addha veda hah iha pravochat hutal^ djdtd hutah iyam vi9fi$htihk | 
arvdg devdh asya visarjanena atha ho veda yat-ah dhahhuva \ 7. lya^ vtit- 
fishfir yatah dhahhUva yadi vd dadhe yadi vd na \ yah asya adhyahshah 
parame vyoman sa anga veda yadi vd na veda \ 

5. " Their ray [or cord], obliquely extended, was it below, or was it 
abo?e ? There were generative sources, and there were great powersy 


" Sfadha (a self-supporting principle) below, and effort above. 6. Who 

knowsy who hath hero declared, whence this creation was produced, 

whence [it came] ? The gods were subsequent to the creation of this 

universe ; who then knows whence it sprang ? 7. Whence this creation 

sprang, whether any one formed it or not, — he who, in the highest 

heaTcns, is the overseer of this universe, — he in^^ecd knows, or he does 

not know." 

See the translation of the whole hymn by Mr. Colebrooke in his 
JESssays, i. 33, 34, or p. 17 of Williams and Norgate's ed. See also 
Pzof. Miiller's version and comment in pp. 559-564 of his Uistory of 
Ajicient Sanskrit Literature ; and my own rendering in the article on 
tlie ** progress of the Vedic religion towards abstract conceptions of the 
IDeity," in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society for 1865, pp. 345 f. 
We have seen (above, p. G2) that a claim is set up (by some un- 
specified writer quoted by Sayan a) on behalf of the Veda that it can 
impart an understanding of all things, past and future, subtile, proxi-* 
mate, and remote ; and that according to Sankara Achuryya (on the 
Brahma-sutras, i. 1, 3) as cited above, p. 106, the knowledge which it 
manifests, approaches to omniscience. All such proud pretensions are, 
however, plainly enough disavowed by the rishis who uttered the com- 
plaints of ignorance which I have just adduced. It is indeed urged by 
Sayana (see above, p. 64) in answer to the objection, that passages like 
R.y. X. 129, 5, 6, can possess no authority as sources of knowledge, 
since they express doubt, — that this is not their object, but that their 
intention is to intimate by a figure of speech the extreme profundity of 
the divine essence, and the great difficulty which any persons not well 
versed hi the sacred writings must experience in comprehending it. 
There can, however, be little doubt that the authors of the passages I 
have cited did feel their own ignorance, and intended to give utterance 
to this feeling. As, however, such confessions of ignorance on the port 
ef the rishis, if admitted, would have been incompatible with the doe* 
trine that the Yeda was an infallible source of divine knowledge, it 
became necessary for the later theologians who held that doctrine to 
explain away the plain sense of those expressions. 

It should, however, be noticed that these confessions of ignorance and 
fidlibility are by no means inconsistent with the supposition that the 
rishis may have conceived themselves to be animated and directed in 


the composition of their hymns by a divine impulse. Bat althongh 
the two rivalsy Vasisbtha and ViiSyamitra, whether in the belief of 
their own superhuman insight, or to enhance their own importance, and 
recommend themselves to their royal patrons, talk proudly about the 
wide range of their knowledge (see above, pp. 246 ff.), it is not ne- 
cessary to imagine that, either in their idea or in that of the other 
ancient Indian sages, inspiration and infallibility were convertible or 
co-extensive terms. The rishis may have believed that the supematoral 
aid which they had received enabled them to perform what they must 
otherwise have left unattempted, but that after all it communicated 
only a partial illumination, and left them still liable to mistake and 

I must also remark that this belief in their own inspiration which I 
imagine some of the rishis to have held, falls very far short of the con- 
ceptions which most of the later writers, whether Yai^eshika, Miman- 
saka, or Veduntist, entertain in regard to the supernatural origin and 
authority of the Veda. The gods from whom the rishis supposed that 
they derived their illumination, at least Agni, Indra, Mitra, Yarunay 
Soma, Pushan, etc., would all fall under the category of productions, 
or divinities created in time. This is clearly shown by the comments of 
Siankara on the Brahma Sutras, i. 3, 28, (above, pp. 101 ff.); and is other- 
wise notorious (see my '' Contributions to a knowledge of the Yedic The- 
ogony and Mythology " in the Jl. E. A. S. for 1864, p. 63). But if these 
gods were themselves created, and even (as we are told in the Rig-veda 
itself, z. 129, 6, cited in p. 280) produced subsequently to some other 
parts of the creation, the hymns with which they inspired the rishis, could 
not have been eternal. The only one of the deities referred to in the 
Big-veda as sources of illumination, to whom this remark would per- 
haps not apply, is Yach or SarasvatI, who is identified with the supreme 
Brahma in the passage of the Bfihad Aranyaka Upanishad quoted 
above (p. 208, note 179) ; though this idea no doubt originated sub- 
sequently to the era of the hynms. But it is not to created gods, like 
Agni, Indra, and others of the same class, that the origin of the Yeda 
is referred by the Yai^eshikas, Mimansakas, or Ycdantists. The Yai- 
^eshikas represent the eternal ISvara as the author of the Yeda (see 
the passages which I have quoted in pp. llSfiT. and 209). The Ml- 
mftnsakas and Yedantists, as we have seen (pp. 70 ff., 99 ff. and 208), 


either affirm that it is nncreated, or derive it firom the eternal Brah- 
ma. And even those writers who may attribute the composition of 
the Veda to the personal and created Brahma (see pp. 69, 105 f. and 
208), with the Naij&yikas who merely describe it as the work of a 
competent author (see pp. 116 f. and 209), and the Sankhyos (see pp. 
135 and 208), concur with the other schools in affirming its absolute 
infallibility. Their view, consequently (unless we admit an exception 
in reference to Yach), differs from that of the Yedio rishis themselves, 
who do not seem to have had any idea, either of their hymns being 
uncreated, or derived from the eternal Brahma, or of their being in- 

As regards the relation of the rishis to deities like Indra, it is also 
deserving of notice that later mythologists represent the former, not 
only as quite independent of the latter, and as gifted with an inherent 
capacity of raising themselves by their own austerities to the enjoy- 
ment of various superhuman faculties, but even as possessing the power 
of rivalling the gods themselves, and taking possession of their thrones. 
See the stories of Nahusha and YiiSvamitra in the First Yolume of this 
work, particularly pp. 310 ff. and 404. Compare also the passages from 
the Eig-veda, z. 154, 2, and x. 167, 1, quoted above, p. 250, where 
the rishis are said to have attained to heaven, and Indra to have con- 
quered it, by austere-fervour {tapoi). 

Sect. Y. — Texts from the Upanuhads^ showing the opinions of the authors 
regarding tlieir own inspiration^ or that of their predecessors, 

I shall now adduce some passages firom different TTpanishads, to 
show what opinions their authors entertained either in regard to their 
own inspiration, or that of the earlier sages, from whom they assert 
that their doctrine was derived by tradition. 

I. S^veta^vatara Up. v. 2 (already quoted above, p. 184). To yonim 
yonim adhitishfhatg eko viSvdni rupani yonli cha sarvah \ r is him pra 
Mutam Kapilaih gas tarn agrejndnair hibhariti jQgamanam cha parget \ 

''He who alone presides over every place of productioD, over all 
fonns, and all sources of birth, who formerly nourished with various 
knowledge that rishi Eapila, who had been boni| and beheld him at 
his birth." 


II. S^yetasvatara Up. yi. 21. Tapah - prahhdvud veda - prasdddeh eh 
Braltma ha S'vetdSvataro Hha vidvdn \ aty&iramihhyah paratnam pavitrtm 
prov&cha samyag fishi-danyha-jushfajn \ 

*' By the power of austere-feryonr, and by the grace of the Yeda, 
the wise S^veta^vatara declared perfectly to the men in the highest of 
the four orders, the supreme and holy Brahma, who is sought after by 
the company of rishis." (Dr. Boer's translation, p. 68, follows the 
commentator in rendering the first words of the verse thus : ''By the 
power of his austerity, and the grace of God." This, however, is not 
the proper meaning of the words veda-prasadach cha, if the correcfeflB 
of that reading, which is given both in the text and commentary (BibL 
Ind. p. 372), be maintained. S'ankara interprets the words thus: 
'' Veda-praauduch eha " | kaivalyam uddisya tad-adhikdra-siddhaye hahu' 
j'anmasu samyag drddliiia - par amescarasy a prasdddeh cJm \ "'By the 
grace of the Veda : ' by the grace of the supreme God who had been 
perfectly adored by him during many births in order to acquire the 
prerogative of (studying) it (the Yeda) in reference to Jcaivalya (isolation 
from mundane existence) ; " and thus appears to recognize this reading. 

In the 18 th verse of the same section of this Upanishad the Vedas 
are said to have been given by the supremo God to Brahma : 

Yo Brahmdnam vidadhdti pUrvam yo vai veddfhi chaprahinoti iasmai | 
tarn ha devam dima-buddhi-prakdiam mumuhhur vai iaranam aham pro- 
padye I 

" Seeking after final liberation, I take refuge with that Gbd, the 
manifoster of the knowledge of himself, who at first created Brahma 
and gave him the Vedas." 

III. Mundaka Up. i. 1 ff. (quoted above, p. 30, more at length). 
Brahmd devdndm prathamah samlabhuva vUvasya harttd hhuvanasya 
goptd I Sa hrahma-vidydm sarva-vidyd-pratUhthdm Atharvdyaj'yeshfhth 
putraya prdha \ 

" Brahma was bom the first of the gods, he who is the maker of the 
universe and the supporter of the world. He declared the science of 
Bruhma, the foundation of all the sciences, to Atharva, his eldest son." 

IV. The Chhandogya Up. viii. 15, 1, p. 625 ff. concludes as follows: 
Tad ha etad Brahmd Prajdpataye uvdcha Frajdpatir Manave MaHuk 

prajdhhyah \ dchdryya-kuldd vedam adhltya yathd vidhdnam yuroft Aar- 
mdiiieBhena ahhisamdrfttya kufumhe iuehau deie svddhydyam adklfdno 


dhSrmikdn vidadhad dtman% sarvendriyQni sampratUihthapya ahitnsan 
sarva-hhutdni anyatra tlrthehhyah sa khalv evam varttayan yacad-ayu" 
tham Brahma-lokam abhisampadyate na cha punar dvarttate 7ia cha punar 
dvarttaU \ 

** This [doctrine] Bralima declared to Prajapati, Prajapati declared 
it to Maou, and Manu to his descendants. Having received instruc- 
tion in the Ycda from the family of his religious teacher in the pre- 
scribed manner, and in the time which remains after performing his 
duty to his preceptor ; and when he has ceased from this, continuing 
his Yedic studies at home, in his family, in a pure spot, communicating 
a knowledge of duty [to his pupils], withdrawing all his senses into 
himself, doing injury to no living creature, away from holy places, — 
thus passing all his days, a man attains to the world of Brahma, and 
does not return again, and does not return again [i.e. is not subjected 
to any future births]." 
I quote the commencement of Siankara's comment on this passage : 
Tad ha etad dtma-jndnam sopakaranam om ity etad aksharam ity-ddyaih 
ioha updtanais tad-vdchakena granthena ashfddhydya- lakshanena saha 
Brahma Hiranyagarhhah Parameivaro vd tad-dvdrena Prajdpataye Kas- 
yapdya uvdcha \ asdv api Manave wa-putrdya \ Ifanuh prajdhhyaJ^ \ ity 
$vam iruty-artha-Bampraddya-paramparayd dgatam upaniahad-vijndnam 
adydpi vidvaUv avagamyate \ 

** This knowledge of soul, with its instruments, with the sacred mo- 
nosyllable Om and other formulae of devotion, and with the book dis- 
tinguished as containing eight chapters, which sets forth all these 
topics, [viz. the Chhandogya XJpanishod itself] was declared by Brahma 
Hiranyagarbha, or by Parame^vara (the supreme God), through his 
agency, to the Prajapati Ela^yapa. The latter in his turn declared it 
to his son Manu, and Manu to his descendants. In this manner the 
sacred knowledge contained in the TJpanishads, having been received 
through sTiccessivo transmission of the sense of the Veda from genera- 
tion to generation, is to this day understood among learned men." 

In an earlier passage of the same XJpanishad iii. 11, 3f. (partly 
quoted in the First Volume of this work, p. 195), we find a similar 
statement in reference to a particular branch of sacred knowledge (the 
madhu-jndna) : 

Z. Ifd ha tai asmai udeti na nindochaH sakrid diva ha eva asmai hha^ 


9ati yah etdtn evam hrahmopanishada^ veda \ 4. Tad ha etad Brahmd 
Prajdpataye uvdcha Prajapatir Manave Manuh prajdhhyaJ^ \ tad etai 
UddalaJc&ya Arunaye jyeahfhdya puttrdya pitd hrahma uvdcha \ 5. 
Idam vdva taj-jyethfhdya puttrdya pitd hrahma prabruydt prdndyydya 
vd antavdaine (6) na anyasmai kasmaichana \ yadyapy asmai imam 
adhhih parigrihltdfh dhanasya pHrndfn dadydt etad eva tato hhuyah ity 
etad eva tato bhuyah iti \ 

" S. For hiin who thus knows this sacred mystery, the sun neither 
rises nor sets, hat one day perpetually lasts. 4. This (Madhu-jnuna) was 
declared hy Brahma to Prajapati, hy Prajapati to Mann, and hy Mann 
to his descendants. This sacred knowledge was further declared to 
TJddalaka Aruni by his father. 5. Let a father expound it to his eldest 
son, or to a capable pupil, but to no one else. 6. If any one were to 
give him this entire earth, which is surrounded by water, full of 
wealth, this sacred knowledge would be more than that, yes, would be 
more than that." 

Compare Mann, xL 243, where that Code is said to have been created 
by Prajapati (First Volume of this work, p. 894); and Bhagavad Glt& 
iv. 1, where the doctrine of that treatise is said to have been declared 
by Krishna to Vivasvat (the Sun), by Yivasvat to Manu, by him to 
Ikshvaku, and then handed down by tradition from one royal rishi 
to another (Vol. I. p. 608). 



Page 4, line 5. 

I haTo omitted here the verse from the Atharva-yeda, xi. 7, 24 
(quoted by Professor Goldstucker in his Panini, p. 70) : Jlichaft edmdni 
ehhanddmsi purdnam yajuehd eaha \ uchchhiehfdj jajnire earve divi devdh 
divUritdh \ ** Prom the leavings of the sacrifice sprang the Hich- and 
Saman-verses, the metres, the Puraga with the Yajushi and all the 
gods who dwell in the sky." 

Professor Aufrocht has favoured me with the following amendments 
in my translations in pp. 7 and 8 : 

Page 7, line 13. 

For *' the text called edvitfl [or gdyatrlY^ he would substitute ''the 
verse dedicated to Savitfi." 

Page 7, line 16. 

For '' the mouth of Brahma " he proposes " the beginning of the 

Teda." (Sir W. Jones translates '' the mouth, or principal part of the 


Page 8, line 8. 

For '' from Yach (speech) as their world" he proposes " out of the 
sphere (or compass) of speech." 

Page 8, line 8 

For '' Yach was his : she was created " he proposes ''For in creating 
the Yedas, he had also created Yach." 

Page 8, line 13. 
For " He gave it an impulse " he proposes " He touched it." 


Page 8, line 16. 

For " Moreover it was sacred knowledge, which was created from 
that Male in front" he proposes '^Eor even irom that Male (not only 
from the waters) Brahma was created first.'' 

Page 9, line 16. 

This passage of the Bfihad Aranyaka TJpanishad corresponds to 
Siitapatha Brahmana x. 6, 5, 5. 

Page 10, lin$ 2. 

"May the brilliant deity," etc., Professor Aufrecht would prefer to 
translate the second line of the verse, beginning etidevah (p. 9, 1. 6 from 
the foot), '^ Goodness (the good god) only knows where they put the 
earth which was thrown up {nirvapanay* 

Page 20, line 17. 
Bee A^valayanas Gfihya Sutras, pp. 155, and 157 ff. 

Page 22, line 13, note 25. 

I quote two verses from Manu, of which the second confirms the cor- 
rectness of the rendering I have given of the words a ha eva sa nakhd- 
grelhyae tapyaU, and the first illustrates the text of the Taittirlya 
Aranyaka cited in the note : Manu ii, 166. Ved^m eva eada ^Ihyanyet ta- 
pas tapsyan dvijoUamah \ veddhhydso hi viprasya tapah param ihoehyaie \ 
167. ^^Ahaiva sa nahhOgrelhyaV^ paranaih ^^tapyate" tapah \ yah sra^ 
gvy apt dvijo'^dhlte evadhydyam iahtito *nvaham | '^ Let a good Brahman 
who desires to perform tapas constantly study the Veda ; for such study is 
a Brahman's highest tapas. 167. That twice-born man who daily studies 
the Yeda to the utmost of his power, even though (luxuriously) wearing 
a garland of flowers (really) performs the highest tapas to the very ex- 
tremities of his nails." This verse, it will be observed, quotes verbatim 
one of the phrases of the Brahmana, and gives definiteness to its sense 
by adding the words par amain tapah. Verses 165 ff. of the same book of 
Manu prescribe the abstemious mode of life which the student {hrah- 
machdrin) is to follow whilst living in his teacher's house. The Mah&- 
bharata, TJdyoga-parvan, 1537, thus states the conditions of suoccssful 
study in general ; Sukhdrthinah kuto vidya ndati vidydrthina^ sukham | 


tukhdrthl vd tyaj$d vidy&rh vidydrthl vd tyajet Htkham \ " How can one 
who seeks ease acquire science? Ease does not belong to him who 
pursues science. Either let the seeker of ease abandon sciencoi or the 
Sleeker of science abandon ease." 

Page 30, line 17. 

Compare the lines quoted by the Commentator on S^ancjilya's Bhakti- 
Butra, 83, p. 60, from tho Mahabharata, Santipanran, Moksha-dharmay 
Terscs 13,551 ff. : Sahopankhado veddn ye viprdh samyay dsthitdh \ pa- 
thanti vidhim dsthdya ye ehdpi yati-dharminah \ tato viiMfdm jdndmi 
gatim ekdntindm nfindm | ''I regard the destination of Ekantins (persons 
devoted to the One as their end) as superior to that of Brahmans who 
perfectly study the Ycdas, including the XJpanishads, according to rule, 
as well as to that of those who follow the practices of ascetics {yatis).** 

Page 34, line 1. 

Perhaps this was scarcely a suitable passage to be quoted as depre- 
ciatory of the Veda, as in such a stage of transcendental absorption as 
Ib here described all the ordinary standards of estimation have ceased 
to be recognized. 

Page 43, line 10. 

With the expression hrid-akdia^ '' the »ther of the heart," compare 
the passage quoted from tho Yeda in Slinkara's commentary on Brahma 
Sutra iii. 2, 35 (p. 873) : **Yo *yam vahirdhd purushdd dkdio yo *yam 
antah'purushe dkdio yo ^yam antar-hfidaye dkdsah \ ** This sther which 
is external to a man, this aother which is within a man, and this sther 
which is within the heart." See also the Bpihad Aranyaka Upanishad 
ii. 5, 10 and iiL 7, 12. 

Page 44, line 1. 

See the Yoga aphorisms i. 2 ff. as cited and explained by Dr. BaUan- 
tyne.^ The second aphorism defines yoga to be "a stoppage of .the 
functions of the mind " ( Togas chiUa-vfiUi-nirodltah), '' The mind then 
abides in the state of the spectator, i.e. tho Soul " {tadd drashfuh iva^ 
rdpe^vMthdnam — Aph. 3). ** At other times it takes the form of tho 

^ Two faacicuE only, containing two P&das and 106 SQtras, were pabliibed at Alia* 
habad in 1863 and 1853 ; bnt a continuation of Dr. B.'fl work haa been commenced 
in the " Pandit" for Sept 1868. 



functions" {vfitti-i&rUpyam itaratra — ^Aph. 4). These fonotionay at 
modifications (as Dr. Ballantyne translates) are fivefold, and eitliar 
painfnly or devoid of pain, viz. proof, or right notion {pramdna\ mis- 
take {viparyyaya), groundless imagination {vikalpa\ sleep {nidrd\ 
recollection {Bmriti) — Aphorisms 5-11. See also Dr. Ballantyne's 
Sankhya Aphorisms, iii. 31 £f. 

Page 57, note 61. 

With the suhject of this note compare the remarks in p. 108, and 
the quotations from Dr. Boer and Professor Miiller in pp. 173, 175, 
and 193. 

Page 62, note 65. 

Professor Ck>well does not think that the text is corrupt. He would 
translate it, '' the other pramdnas, beside ic^da, (soil, perception and 
inference), cannot be even supposed in a case like this " (which refers 
to such a transcendental object as the existence of an eternal Veda). 
Sayana, in his reply to the objector, recapitulates the applicable proofs 
as h^itif emjiti, and loka-prasiddhiy — all three only different kinds of 
testimony, iahda. 

Page 63, lines 11 f., and note 68. 

Compare pp. 322 f., 329 f., 334 f., and 337 of my article '<0n the 
Interpretation of the Yeda," in the Journal of the Eoyal Asiatic So- 
ciety for 1866. 

Page 84, note 89, and page 180, line 7. 

I have been favoured by Professor Cowell with the following note 
on kdldtyaydpadishta : 

<< My Calcutta Pandit considered this fallacy to be the same as that 
more usually called hddha (cf. too Bhashaparichchheda, ^L 70, 77, 
and the Bengali translation, p. 65). Its definition is pakshe uddkyd* 
hhdvah. The Tarka-sangraha defines a hetu as hddhita, 'when the 
absence of what it seeks to prove is established for certain by 
another proof,' as in the argument vahnir anmJino dravyatvdt. The 
essence of this Mlacy is that you deny the mqfor^ and therefore it 
does not matter whether you accept the middle term in itself or 
not. It is involved in the overthrow of the major term. I should 
translate it the * precluded argument,' — it might have been plau- 
sible if it had not been put out of court by something which settles 


the point,— it is adranced too late (the pr9 in '|)r^aded' expresses the 
kdldtUa of the old name). This corresponds to the account in the 
Nvaya-sutra-vfitti: Kalasya addhana-kdlasyaiyaye *hhuve ^padishfa^ 
prayukto hetur \ etena sadhyalhavapramalakshaj^uriha iti sHchttam \ 
iddhydhhdvanirnaye sadhanusamhhavdt \ Ayam eva bddhitasddhyaka iti 
fiyate. The Vyitti goes on to say that you need not prove vyabhichdra 
{i.e. that your opponent*s hetu or middle term goes too far, as in parvaio 
dhumavdn valineh where vahni is a savyabhichdro l^tuh) in order to 
estahlish the Iddha, I should therefore prefer to translate the passage 
from the Yedilrtha-praku^ p. 84, ' your alleged middle-term vdkyatva, 
the possessing the properties of a common sentence, is liable to two 
objections, — (1) it is opposed by the fact that no author was ever per- 
ceived, and (2) it also is precluded by weighty evidence (which proves 
that your proposed major term is irrelevant).' Sayana then adds his 
reasons for each objection, — for the^r«^, in the words from yathd VydM 
down to upalahdhah; for the second, in the fact that emriti and iruti 
agree in the eternity of the Yeda (the pUrvam I suppose refers to p. 3 
of the Calcutta printed text), and that even if the Supreme Spirit be 
the author he is not purushah in the sense in which the objector uses 
the term. Either way, the major term of the objector's syllogism paU" 
ruiheya is precluded, hddhita: or, in the technical language of the 
Nyaya, Sayana establishes an absence from the minor term {pakska) of 
the alleged major term {eddhya)i and hence no conclusion can be 
drawn from the proposed syllogism. I may add that I have also 
looked into Yatsyayana, but his explanation seems to me an instance 
of what my Pandit used so often to impress on me, that the modem 
logic (which such a late mediaeval writer as Sayana follows) is not always 
that of the Nyayabhashya. He makes the error lie in the example, 
i,e, in the induction ; and it is therefore, as Professor Goldstucker says, 
a ' vicious generalizatiozL' " 

Page 88, note 95. 

Professor Cowell disagrees with the explanation I have hazarded of 
the object of the sentence in the text to which this note refers. He 
thinks that its purport, as shewn by the word vyabhiehdrdt, is to in* 
timate that the former of the two alternative suppositions would prove 
too much, as it would also apply to such detached stanzas as the one 


referred to, of which the author, although unknown to some personi 
was not necessarily unknown to all, as his contemporaries no doubt 
knew who wrote it, and his descendants, as well as others, might per- 
haps still be aware of the fact. In this case, therefore, we have an in- 
stance of a composition of which some persons did not know the origin, 
but which nevertheless was not superhuman (^apattrusheya). This is 
no doubt the correct explanation. 

Page 99, line 1. 

The argument in proof of the incompetence of the S^iidras for the 
acquisition of the highest divine knowledge is contained in Brahma 
Sutras i» 3, 34-38. As the subject may possess an interest for any 
educated persons of this class into whose hands this book may fall in 
India, I extract the entire discussion of the question : 

34. '' Sug aaya tad-anddara-iravandt tad-ddravandt sUckyaU hi " | 
yathd manmhyddhikdra-niyamam apodya devddindm apt vldydsv adki- 
kdrah uJitoB tathaiva dvijdty'odhikdra'niyamdpavddena Sudrasya apy 
adhikdrah sydd ity etdm diankdm nivarttayitum idam adhikaranam dra- 
hhyate | tattra Sudrasya apy adhikdrah sydd Hi tdvat prdptam arihitv^ 
sdmarthyayo(i iamhhavdt \ tasmdch " cJihudro yajne 'navakljripta^ " t^ 
vaeh ehhudro vidydydm anavaklriptah iti nishedhdiravandt \ yaeh eha 
karmaw anadhikdra-kdranam Sudrasya anaynitvam na tad vidydsv ad^ 
kdrasya apavddakam \ na hy dhavanlyddi-rahitena vidyd veditwSk na 
iakyate \ hhavati eha lingaih Sudrddhikdrasya upodhalakam \ ta^vargth 
vidydydm hi Jdnairutim Pautrdyanarh Suirushum iudra^idbdena pard- 
mjriiati ^* aha hare tvd iudra tava eva saha gohhir astv " iti \ Vidumh 
prdbhritayai eha indra-yoni-prabhavdh api viiiehta^ijndnO'Safnpannd^ 
emaryyanU; \ tasmdd adhikriyate iudro vidydsu | ity evam prdpte brftma^ \ 
na indraeya adhikdrovedddhyayandhhdvdt \ adhita-vedo hi vidita-xeddrtk^ 
veddrtheshv adhikriyate \ nacha iudrasya vedddhyayanam asty upanmyanth 
pHrvakatvddvedddhyayanasya upanayanasya eha varna-traychvishayaUdt \ 
yat Po arthitvafh na tad asati sdjnarthye 'dhikdra-kdranam hhavati \ «d- 
marthyam api na iaukikaih kevalam adhikdra-kdranam hhavati idttr^y0 
Wthe Sdstrlyasya sdmarthya^ya apekshitatvdt idstrfyasya eha sdmarthyet- 
sya adhyayana-nirdkaranena nirdkritatvdt \ yaeh eha idath iudro yajn$ 
^navaiklfiptah iti tad nydya-pUrvakatvdd vidydydm apy anavakjriptatva^ 
dyotayati nydyasya sddhdra^atvdt \ yat pv^nafisathvarga-^idydydik iikdrm* 


iabda-iravanafn lingam manyoBe na tal lingafh nyayubhdv&t \ nyayokter 
hi Unga-darianam dyotakam Ihavati na cha atira nydyo hti \ kdmarh cha 
ayaffi iUdra-Sahdah samvarya-vidydydm eva ekasydm iudram adhikuryydt 
tad-vishayatvdd na sarvdau vidydm \ arthavdda-sthatvdt na tu kvachid apy 
ayam iudram adhikarttum utsahaU \ iakyate cha ayam Sudra-iabdo ^dhi- 
hfita-vishaye yojayitum \ katham iti | uchyate \ " ' ham u are enam etat 
ianiam sayugvdtiam iva Rainkam dttha* (CLdndogya IJpaiiishad, iv. 1, 3.) 
ity asmdd hama-vdkydd dtmano ^nddaraih irutacato Jdnairuteh Fautrd- 
yanasya iuy utpede tdm rishl Rainkah Sudra-iahdena anena suchaydmha- 
MiZra dtmanah parohha-jyidnasya khydpandya Hi yamyate jati-sudrasya 
anadhikdrdt I katham puna^ iadra-iahdma iug uipannd sUchyaU iti \ 
uehyate \ tad-ddravandt iucham ahhidudrdva iuckd vd ^hhidudruve iuchd 
9d Rainkam ahhidudrdva iti ixLdrdvayavdrtha'Samhhavdd rudhdrthasya 
eha asamhhavdt \ driiyate cha ayam artho *8ydm dkhydyikdydm \ 

35. ^'JTshattriyatva-gateS cha uttarattra Chaitrarathena lingdt '* | Rai 
eha na jdti-iudro Jdnairutir yat-kdranam prakarana-nirilpanena kahat- 
triyatvam aaya uttarattra Chaitrarathena Ahhipratdrind kahattriyena 
samahhivydhdrdl lingdd gamyate \ uttarattra hi aa^varga-vidyd-vdkyo' 
ieshe Chaitrarathir Ahhipratdrl kshattriyah aanklrttyate \ *' atha ha 
8'aundkafk eha Kdpeyam Ahhipr<Udrinarh cha Kdkahaaenifh aUdena pari- 
viiyamdnau hrahmachdrl lihhikahe " (Chh. Up. iv. 3, 5) iti \ Chaitra- 
raihitvam cha Ahhipratdrinah Kdpeya-yogdd avagantavyam | Kapeya- 
yogo hi Chaitrarathasya avagatah \ " etena vai Chaitrarathath Kdpeyd^ 
aydjayann " iti iamdndnvaya-ydjindm cha prdyena samdndnvaydh ydja- 
kdh hhavanti \ tasmdch *' Chaitrarathir ndma ekah kshattra-patir ajdyata " 
iti eha kahattra-jdtitvdvagamdt kshattriyatvam asya avagantavyam \ tena 
kahattriyena Ahhipratdrind aaha aamdndyarh vidydydm aankirttanam 
Jdnahuter api kahattriyatvam auchayati | aamdndndm eva hi prdyena 
iamahhivydhdrdh hhavanti \ kahattfi-preahanddy-aiSvaryya-yogdch cha 
Jdnairuteh kahattriyatvdvagatih \ ato na iudratya adhikdral^ \ 

36. ^^Samakdra-pardmaridt tad-ahhdvdhhildpdch cha " | itai cha na 
iOidraayd adhik&ro yad vidyd- pradeieahu upanayanddayah aamakdrdh 
pardmfiiyante '' tani ha upaninye " | « ' adhthi hhagavaJ^ ' iti ha upaaa- 
sdda** I " hrahma-pardl^ hrahma-niahfhdh param Brahma anveahamdndJ^ 
*eaha ha vai tat aarvani vakahyati' iti te ha aamit-pdnayo hhagavantam 
Pippalddam upaaanndh " iti cha " tdn ha anupanlya eva " ity api pro- 
dariitd eva upanayana-prdvtir hhavati \ iudraaya cha aamakdrdhhdvo 


^hhilapyaU *^&fldrai ehaturtho vamah ekajdUr*^ Uy eJtajdfitva-iwuiramtna^ 
*'na iudre pdtakaih kinchid na eha Bafkshdram arhati^' ity'ddibhii eha I 

87. '' Tad-abhava-nirdhdrane eha pravrilte^ " | Itai eha na tUdratya 
adhikdro yat Batya^aehanena iadratvdhhdve nirdhdrite Jdhdlam Chmta- 
fiM^ upansium anuidsitu^ eha pravavfite '' na etad alrdhmaaw twMum 
arhati \ iamidham somya dhara upa tvd neihy$ na satydd agd^ " (Chh. 
Up. iv. 4, 5) iti &ruM%ngdt \ 

88. *' Sravanddhyayandrtha'pratishedhdi smfitei cha^^ \ Rai cha%a 
iadrasya adhikdro yad asya smjriteh iravanddhyayandrtha^aluhsdho bhh 
vat% I veda-iravana-pratishsdho vedddhayana-pratuhedhoi iad-artha-jnA' 
ndnushfhdnayoS eha pratishedhah iudrasya smaryyate | iravana-praiukt' 
dhas tdvad atha asya ^^vedam upahrinvatoB trapU'jatuhhydni irotra-praU' 
pHranam " tti *^padyu ha vai etat SmaSdnatn yat iudras tasmdt iudra- 
namipe na adhyetavyam " iti eha \ atal^ eva adhyayana-prattshedhah \ 
yasya hi namlpe *pi na adhyetavyam hhavati sa katham h^tim adhlylymta \ 
hhavati eha uehehdrane jihvd-ehhedo dhdrane iaflra-hhedah iti \ ata^ eva 
eha arthdd artha-jndndnushthdnayoh pratiihedho hhavati \ " na iudrdya 
matim dadydd*^ iti " dvijdtindm adhyayanath ijyd ddnam^' iti eha | 
yeshdm punah pUrva-krita-saihskdra-vaidd VidurO'dharma^yddha'pra' 
hhritlndm jndnotpattis teshdm na iakyate phaUhprdpti^ pratibaddhuA 
fndnasya ekdntika-phalatvdt \ ^^irdvayeeh ehaturo varndn" tti eha iti- 
haBO-purdnddhiganie ehdturvarnyddhikdra-^marandt \ peda^Hrvahu tu 
nasty adhikdrah iudrdndm iti sthitam \ 

34. " In the word ' S^udra ' reference is made to his vexation on 
hearing that disrespectful expression, and to his running up." 

" This section is commenced to silence the douht whether in the same 
way as it had heen denied (above) that the prerogative of acquiring 
divine knowledge is restricted to men, and affirmed that it extends to 
the gods, etc., also, the limitation of the same prerogative to twioe- 
bom men may not also be questioned, and its extension to fi^iidras 
maintained. The grounds alleged in favour of the S^udra having this 
prerogative are that he may reasonably be supposed to have both (a) 
the desire and (h) the power of acquiring knowledge, and that accord- 
ingly {e) the Yeda contains no text affirming his incapacity for know- 
ledge, as it confessedly has texts directing his exclusion from saozifioe : 
and further (jd) that the fact of the S^udra's not keeping up any aaored 
firoi which is the cause of his incapacity for saorifioei aJDEbrda no reaaon 


for denying to him the prerogatiYo of gaining knowledge ; since it can- 
not be maintained that it is impossible for a man who is destitute of 
the ahavanlya and other fires to acquire knowledge. There is also {e) 
in a Yedio text a sign which confirms the S^udra's prerogative. For in 
the passage which treats of the knowledge of the Samrarga (Chh&n- 
dogya XJpanishad, chapter ir. section 1-3) a speaker designates Jana- 
^mti, descendant of Jana^ruta in the third generation, who was desirous 
of performing service, by the term S^udra : ' Keep to thyself, o 9udra, 
thy necklace and chariot' with thy cattlo/ (Chh. Tip. iv. 2, 2.) And 
further (/) Yidura and others are spoken of in the 8mfiti as possessed 
of distinguished knowledge, although they were of S^udra descent. 
Consequently the S^udra enjoys the prerogative of acquiring various 
sorts of divine knowlege. To this we reply : The S^udra has no such 
prerogative, because he cannot study the Yeda. For it is the man that 
studies the Yeda, and obtains a knowledge of its contents, who enjoys 
the prerogative of [access to] those contents. But a Sudra does not 
study the Yeda, for such study must be preceded by initiation, which 
again is confined to the three upper castes. As regards (a) the desire 
of knowledge, — ^that, in the absence of power, confers no prerogative. 
And {h) mere secular power does not suffice for the purpose; since 
scriptural power is necessary in a matter connected with Scripture; 
•nd such scriptural power is debarred by the debarring of study. And 
{e) the passage which declares that a ' S^udra is incapacitated for sacri- 
fice^' demonstrates his incapacity for knowledge also ; since that follows 

t Socli u the sense given to hantw by the Commentators, wbo make it out to be 
% compoond of the words Kara^ ** necklace/' and itva, " a chariot ; " but although 
it9a might be the nominative of Uvan^ ''going/' no such word appears in the lexicons 
with the sense of *' chariot." Besides, the compound seems a very awkward one. 
Perhaps the word should be separated into ha are tva ; but then there would be no 
nominative to m^m, and it would be difficult to construe iva^ '* thee." — Since the 
above was written, I have been favoured with a note on the passage by Piufessor 
GoldstDckcr. He conjectures that the words should be divided as follows : ahaha ar9 
fva Sudra tava eva tahagobhir attu; that tva may be the nominative singular femi- 
nine of the Yedic pronoun tvoj meaning '* some one/' and then the sense might be as 
follows : " 0, friend, some woman belongs to thee, S'Qdra ! Let her be (1.0. come) 
along with the cows." And Janas'ruti would appear to have understood the word tva 
in this sense here supposed, for we find that on hearing the reply of Baikva, he took 
his daughter to the latter, along with four hundred additional cows and the other 
gifts ; and that on seeing the damsel, Raikva expressed his satisfaction and acceded 
to the request of her father. — The author of these puzzling words, it seems, intended 
a pun ; nd S'ankara perhaps gave only one solution of it. 


from the rule, wluch is of general application. As regards the circom- 
stance that in the Yedic text regarding the knowledge of the 8am- 
yarga, the word S'udra occurs, which yon regard as a sign in favonr of 
your view ; it is (i) no sign ; because in that passage no rule is laid 
down. For the discovery of a sign indicates that a rule has been 
laid down; but in the passage in question there is no sncli role. 
And although it were conceded that [if it were found in a precept 
regarding the Samvarga] the word S^udra would confer on a man of 
that caste a prerogative in regard to that particular knowledge alone, 
(from its being intended for him), although not to all sorts of know- 
ledge, yet as the word occurs [not in precept, but] in an illostrative 
narrative {arthav&da) it cannot confer on him a prerogative in regard 
to any knowledge whatever. And in fact this word S^iidra can be 
applied to a person [of a higher caste] who possessed the prerogative. 
How ? I explain : Vexation {ink) arose in the mind of Jana^ruti when 
he heard himself disrespectfully spoken of in these words of the swan : 
' Who is this that thou speakest of as if he were Bainka yoked to the 
chariot? '* (Chh. Tip. iv. 1, 3). And since a S^udra does not possess 
the prerogative of acquiring knowledge, we conclude that it is to this 
vexation {htk) that the rishi Eainka referred, for the purpose of shew- 
ing his own knowledge of things imperceptible by sense, when he made 
use of this word S^udra (Chh. Up. iv. 2, 2, see above). But again, how 
is it indicated by the word S^udra that vexation {ink) arose in his mind ? 
We reply : by * the running to it [or him]" {tad-ddravanat); i.e. either 
* he ran to vexation,' or ' he was assailed by vexation,' or ' in his vexa- 
tion he resorted to Bainka.' We conclude thus because the sense 
afforded by the component parts of the word S^udra is the probable 
one,^ whilst the conventional sense of the word S^udra is here inap- 
plicable. And this is seen to be the meaning in this story. 

> This appears to allude to tbo person referred to bein; found sitting under a 
chariot (Chb. Up. iv. 1, 8). See p. 67 of Babu Bujendralul Mittra's translation. This 
■tory b alluded to by Professor Weber in bis Ind. Stud. ix. 45, note, where he treats 
Bayugran as a proper name, and remarks '* The Vedunta SQtras (i. 3, 34, 35), indeed, 
try to explain away this " (the circumstance of Janas'ruti being called a S'Qdra) and 
of course S'ankara in his commentary on tbem does the same, as well in his explana> 
tion of the Chbandogya Upanisbad." I am not, however, by any means certain that 
the epithet " S'Qdra," applied to Jfina&ruti by Bainka, is not merely meant la a term 
of abuse. 

f The meaning of this is that the word S'Qdra ii derived from t'ueh^ '< vexatimii'* 


Sutra 35. " And that Jana^ruti was a Kshattriya is afterwards indi- 
cated by what is said of Abhipratarin of the race of Chaitraratha." 

" That Janairati was not a S^udra appears also from this, that by 
examining the context he is afterwards found to be a Kshattriya by 
the sign that he is mentioned along with Abhipratarin of the family 
of Chaitraratha. For in the sequel of the passage regarding the 
knowledge of the Samyarga mention is made in these words of Abhi« 
pratarin Chaitrarathi, a Eshattriya: 'Now a Brahmacharin asked 
alms of Saunaka of the race of Kixpi, and Abhipratarin the son of 
Eakshasena who were being served at a meal' (Chh. Up. iv. 3, 5). 
And that Abhipratarin belonged to the family of Chaitraratha is to be 
gathered from his connection with the Eapeyas ; for the connection of 
Chaitraratha with the latter has been ascertained by the text : ' The 
Eapeyas performed sacrifice for Chaitraratha." Priests of the same 
family in general officiate for worshippers belonging to the same family. 
From this, as weU as from the text : ' From him a lord of Kshat- 

and drUf ** to run." (See the First Volume of this work, p. 97, note 192.) Even the 
great S'ankara, it seems, was unable to perceive the absurdity of such etymologies. 
In his commentary on the Chhandogya Upanishad the same writer tells us that 
▼arious explanations had been given of the employment of the word S'Qdra in this 
passage : Nanu raja 'tau kshatiH-iambandhat \ "Sa ha kthattaramuvaeha'* (iv. 1, 6) 
ity uktam \ vidya-grahanaya eha brahmanO'iamtpopayamat \ iudratya cha anadhu 
karat \ katham idam ananurupam Baikvena uehyaU '* iudra " iti \ tatira ahur acha^ 
ryyah \ haihtO'Vaehana'sravanat dug enam aviveia \ ttna atau iucha i'ruiva Baik» 
ifosyo mahimanam va dravati iti \ fithir atmanah parokahq^natam darrayan " iudra" 
ity aha \ iudra-vad badhantna tva enam vidya-grahanaya upajagama na iuaruahaya \ 
na tu Jatya eva audrah iti \ apare punar ahur alpaik dhanam ahfitam iti rutha §va 
mam uktavan *' iudra " iti \ ** But is not Janas'ruti shewn to have been a king, (a) 
from his name being connected with a charioteer in the paasage ' He said to his 
charioteer/ {h) from his resorting to a Brahman to obtain knowledge, and (e) from a 
S'adra possessing no such prerogative P How then did Raikva address to him an 
appellation inconsistent with this In the words * o S'Qdra ? ' Learned teachers reply : 
* Vexation {iuk) took possession of him on hearing the words of the swan : in con« 
sequence of which, or of hearing {irutva) of the greatness of Baikva, he ran up 
[S'Qdra is here derived either from iucKa + dravati^ or from irutva -f dravati] ; and the 
rishi, to shew his knowledge of things beyond the reach of the senses, called him 
S'Qdra. He had approached to obtain knowledge from the rishi by annoying him like a 
S'Qdra, and not by rendering him service ; while yet he was not by birth a S'Qdra. 
Others again say that the rishi angrily called him a S'Qdra because he had brought 
him BO little property." This passage is also translated by Babu Bajendraliil (Chh. 
Up. p. 68, note), who renders hadhantna (which I have taken to mean " annoying ") 
by " paying " for instruction; but I cannot find any authority for this leoae of thA 


triyas named Chaitrarathi was desoendedy' which prorea fhat hia 
family were Kshattriyas, we may gather that Ahhipratfirin belonged 
to this class. And the circumstance that Janalmti is mentioned in 
connection with the same branch of knowledge as Abhipratarin, the 
Kshattriya, shews that the former also was a Kshattriya. For it is in 
general men of the same class who are mentioned together. And from 
the fact of Jana^mti sending a charioteer (Chh. Up. ir. 1, 5-7), and his 
other acts of sovereignty also, we learn that he was a Kshattriya. 
Hence (we conclude that) a S^udra does not possess the prerogatiTe 
of divine knowledge. 

Sutra 36. '' From reference being made to initiation, and from a 
9udra being declared to be excluded from it" 

''And that a S^udra does not possess the prerogative of acquiring 
divine knowledge, may be further inferred from the fact that investi- 
ture with the sacred cord and other rites are referred to in passages 
where science is the subject in question. For the fact that the seekers 
after such knowledge obtained initiation, is shewn by such passages as 
the following : ' He invested him ; ' 'He came to him, saying, teach 
me, Sir ' (Chh. Up. vii. 1,1?); ' Devoted to Brahma, resting in Brah* 
ma, seeking after the highest Brahma, they approached the venerable 
Pippalada with firewood in their hands, (saying) ' he will declare all 
this' (Pra^na Up. i. 1); and 'havmg invested them,' etc. And thai 
a S^udra receives no initiation is shewn by the text of the Smpti 
which pronounces him to be but once-born, viz. 'the S^iidra is the 
fourth class, and once-born;' and by such other passages as this: 
* There is no sin in a S^udra, and he is not entitled to initiation.' " * 

Sutra 37. " And because he acted after ascertaining that it was not 
a S^udra [who had come to him]." 

" That a S^udra does not possess the prerogative of acquiring know- 
ledge appears also from this that [according to the Chhandogya Upani- 
shad] Gkiutama proceeded to invest and instruct Jabala after ascertain- 
ing by his truth-speaking that he was not a S^udra: 'None but a 
Brahman could distinctly declare this : bring, o fair youth, a piece of 
fuel ; I will invest thee; thou hast not departed from the trath ' (Chh. 

Up. iv. 4, sy 

Thii last verse has been already quoted in Vol. I. p. 138, note 244. 
* 1 shall quote in full the earlier part of the passage from which these words sit 


Siitra 38. ''And becanse, according to the Smfiti, a ffudra is for- 
bidden to hear, or read, or learn the sense." 

"And that a S^udra does not possess the prerogative of acquiring 
divine knowledge, appears from this that, according to the Sm^ iti, he 
ia forbidden to hear it, or read it, or learn its sense : i,e, it is declared 
in the Smf iti that he is forbidden either to hear the Yeda, or read the 
Yeda, or to loam it contents, or to practise its injunctions. Hearing is 
forbidden to him in these texts : ' If he listens to the reading of the 
Yeda, his ears are to be filled with [melted] lead and lac ; ' and ' The 
Budra is a walking cemetery ; therefore no one must read in his vi- 
cinity.' And consequently the reading of it is prohibited to him : for 

taken, both for the sake of explaining the allusion, and for the illustration which it 
affords of ancient Indian manners : Cbh. Up. It. 4, 1. Satyakamo ha Jabalo Jabatam 
mataram amantrat/anchakre "brahmaeharyt/am bhavaii vivatsyami kim-yotro nv aham 
uimi" iti \ 2. 8d ha enam uvaeJia *' na aham etad veda tata yad-yotrat (vam asi \ bahv 
ahaxk eharantl parieharinl yauvaM tvam alabhe \ aa *hatn etad na veda yad-yottrat 
tvam 08% I Jabald tu natna aham aami Satyakamo nama tvam ati \ aa Saiyakamah eva 
Jabalo 'bravlthah" iti \ ** Satyakuma, the son of Jabula, addressed his mother JabfilS* 
>&7ingt * I wish, mother, to enter on the life of a religious student. To what family 
{ffottra : sec Miiller's Ano. Sansk. Lit. pp. 378 ff.) do I belong ? ' 2. She answered, 
' I do not know, my son, to what family thou belongest. Much consorting [with 
k>TeT8] and roving (or serying), in my youth, I got thee. I know not of what family 
thou art. But my name is Jabula, and thine Satyakuma. Say, ' I am Satyakama 
ion of Jabala.' " He accordingly goes to Huridrumata of the race of Gotama, and 
asks to be receiyed as a student. The teacher enquires to what family he belongs, 
and the youth repeats yerbatim the answer he had received from his mother, and says 
he is Satyakama the son of Jabula. The teacher replies in the words quoted by 
8'ankara *' No one other than a Br&hman could distinctly declare this," etc The 
interpretation of paragraph 2, above given, seems to convey its correct sense. Jabula 
apparently means to confess that her son was nuUitu JUiut : and that he must be 
content to call himself her son, as she did not know who his father was. The explan- 
ation of the words bahv aham eharantl parieharinl yauvane tvam alabhe given by tho 
Commentators and followed by Babu Bujendralul Mittra, that she was so much occu* 
pied with attending to guests in her husband's house, and so modest that she never 
tbonght of enquiring about her bou'b gottra, and that her husband died early, is founded 
mainly on the word parieharinl, and would not account for Jabala's ignorance of her 
husband's name (which she does not mention] or even of her husband's lineage. In 
regard to the sense of cltarantl see the passage from the S'atapatha Bruhmano, ii. 6, 
2, 20» quoted in the First Volume of this work, p. I3G, note 242. S'ankara was either 
ignorant of the laxity of ancient morals, or wished to throw a veil over the spurious 
origin of a sage like Satyakama who had attained divine knowledge and become a 
teacher of it (see Chh. Up. iv. 10, 1). In his preface, however, p. 30, as I observe, 
Babu R&jendralal speaks of Satyakjima as a natural son in these words: ''Although 
a natural bom son whose father was unknown, and recognized by the oontemptoous 
nnbriqufli of Jib&la from the designatioii of his mother Jabftla," ete^ 


how can he, in whose neighbourhood oven the Yeda is forbidden to be 
read, read it himself? And if he niters it, his tongue is to be cut; 
and if he retains it in his memory, his body is to be alit. And it 
results from the meaning of the terms tbat he is prohibited from learn- 
ing its contents, or practising its injunctions, according to the texti^ 
* Let no one impart intelligence to a S^udra ; ' and ' reading, sacrifice^ 
and liberality are the duties of twice-born men.' As regards (/) Yi- 
dura, Dharma, Yyadha, and others in whom knowledge was produced 
in consequence of their recollection of acts performed in a former 
birth, their enjoyment of its results cannot be prevented, from the 
transcendent character of the effects of knowledge ; and because in the 
text ' Let the four castes be made to hear them,' the Smpti declares 
that the four castes possess the prerogative of learning the Itihasat 
and Puranas [by means of which S^udras may attain perfection]. But 
it has been established that S^udras do not possess the prerogatiTe d 
acquiring divine knowledge derived [directly] from [the study of] the 

The Bhagavad Gita affirms a different doctrine fh the following 
Ycrses, z. 32 f., where Kfishna says : 

Math hi Pdrtha vyapd&ritya ye ^pi syuh papa-yanayah \ rtriyo vatfyds 
iathd iudras U *pi yanti pardfh gatim \ 33. Kim punar hrdhmand^ puM' 
yd^ hhahtd^ rdjanhayas tathd j 

'' Those who have faith in me, even though they be of base origin, 
women, Yaiiyas, and S^udras, attain to the most transcendent state. 
How much more pure Brahmans and devout royal rishis.'* 

Si ankara could scarcely have been ignorant that his principle was not 
in harmony with this text \ but he has thought proper to ignore this 
discrepance of views, as he probably shrank from directly contradicting 
a work held in such high estimation. 

See also the account of the views entertained on the same subject by 
S^an^ilya which I have stated above, p. 178. 

Page 105, line 24. 

The following quotation continues the discussion of this snbjeet; 
and will also serve to illustrate pp. 6 and 16, aboTOi as well as p. 60 
of the First Yolume : 

Brahma Sutra i. 3, 30. ^' SamdntHiULmth'r^pabvdeh cka dvfitUUf ap^ 


avirodho darianat »mf%tei cha** I athdpi sydt | yadi paSv-ddi-vad deva» 
vyahtayo ^pi iantatyd eva utpadyeran nirudhy$ramS cha tato ^hhidhdnd' 
bhidheydhhidhdtri - vyavahdrdviehheddt samhandha - nityatvena virodhah 
iahde parihriyeta \ yadd tu klialu Bahalam trailohyam parityakta-ndmO' 
rUpam nirUpam prahyate prahhavati cha ahhtnavam Hi iruti-smrUi-vddd^ 
vadanti tadd katham aoirodJiah iti \ tattra idam abhidhlyate '^ samdna- 
ndma-rHpatvdd ** iti \ tadd ^pi saiTisdrasya andditvam tdvad abhyupayan- 
iavyam \ pratipddayishyati eha dohdryyah sofhsdraaya andditvam " upa- 
padyaU cha apy upalabhyate cha*^ iti (Brahma Sutra iL 1, 36) | anddau 
eha samsdre yathd svdpa-prahodhayohpralaya-prahhava'iravaM ^pipHrvO' 
prahodha-vad uitara-prabodhe ^pi vyavahdrdd na kaiehid virodha^ \ $vaih 
kalpdntara-prabhava^ralayayor api iti drashfavyam | wdpa-prabodhayoi 
eha pralaya-prabhavau irnyete \ **yadd suptah wapnam na kanehana 
paiyaty atha aamin prdnah eva ekadhd hhavati tadd enaih vdk aarvair 
ndmahhi]^ iaha apyeti ehahhui^ sarvaih rUpaih aaha apyeti irotram sar- 
vaih Sahdaih saha apyeti mnnah earvair dhydnaih eaha apyeti \ sa yadd 
pratihudhyate yathd *gner jvalatal^ earvdh diio viephulinydh vipratish' 
fherann evam eva etaemdd dtmanah sarve prdndh yathdyatanafh vipratieh- 
fhante prdnehhyo devdh devehhyo lokdft (Eausb. Br. Utt. A. 3, 3) iti \ eydd 
etat I ivdpe purushdntara-ryavahdrdviehheddt wayaih eha suahupta-pra' 
huddhaaya purva'pralodha'Vyavahdrdnwandhdna'aamhhavdd aviruddham \ 
mahupralaye tu aarva-vyavahdrochheddj janrndntara-vyavahdra^ach eha 
kalpdntara-vyavahdraaya anuaandhdtum aiakyatvdd vaiahamyam iti \ na 
eaha doahah \ aaty api aarva-vyavahdrochhedini mahdpralaye Parameiva- 
rdnugrahdd Uvardndm Hiranyagarhhddindm kalpdntara-vyavahdrdnu- 
aandhdnopapatteh | yadyapi prdk^itdh prdnino na janrndntara-vyava^ 
hdram anuaandhdndh d^iSyante iti na tat prdkfita^ad Uvardndm bhavi* 
tavyam \ yathd hi prdnitvdviSeahe 'pi manuahyddi-atamba-paryyanteahu 
indnaiivaryyddi'pratibandhah parena parena bhuydn bhavan dfiiyate 
tathd manuahyddiahv eva Hiranyagarbha-paryanteahu jndnaiharyyddy- 
abhivyaktir api parena parena bhuyaal bhavati ity etat iruti-amfiti^ 
vddeahv aaakrid eva anukalpddau prddurbhavatdm pdramaiivaryyam ink" 
yamdnam na iakyam ndati %ti vaditum j tataS eha atlta - kdipdnuahthita* 
prakriahfa-jnana-karmandm lavardndih Hiranyagarbhddlndih varttamdna^ 
kalpddau prddurbhavatdm Faramesvardnuyfihltdndth aupta-pratibuddha* 
vat kalpdntara-vyavahdrdnuaandhdnopapattiJi [ tqthd eha irutir *^yo. 
Brahmdnam vidadhdti pHrvifh yo 9a% v^ddrki eha frahikoti taamai I taik. 


ha devam dtma-huddhi-praiaiam mumuhhur vai iaranam aham prapaiy»^* 
(SvetaSvatara TJpanisbad, vi. 18) iti \ smaranti cha S'aunakddayo Ma- 
dhuchhandah-prMfitihhir ddsatathyo drish(dh Hi | prativedam cha evam 
0va kundarshy-ddayah smaryyante | iruiir apy fishi-judna-pxirraham 
eva mantrena anuihthdnaih darSayati *^yo ha vai aviditdrsheya-chhando- 
daivaia^dhmanena mantrena ydjayati vd adhydpayati vd sthdnum cha 
fichhati garttam vd prapadyate " ity upahramya " tatmdd etdni mantn 
vidydd^^ Hi | prdnindm cha mkha-prdptaye dharmo vidhJyate duhkha^ 
pOrihdrdya adharmah pratishidhyate \ drishtdntiiravika-duhkha^mkha' 
vishayau cha rdga-dveshau hhavato na vilakshana-vishaydv ity ato dhar- 
rnddharma-phala-hhutottarottard sfishfir nishpadyamdnd pUrva-tiiihti' 
iadfiSy eva nishpadyaie \ smritii cha hhavati '' teshdm. ye ydni karmdni 
prdk'BTishtydm pratipedire \ tdny eva te prapadyante erijyamdndh punak 
puna^ I himerdhimere mridu-krure dharmddharmdv fitdnrite \ tad-hhd' 
vitdh prapadyante tasmdt tat tasya rochate " | iti \ prallyamdnam api cha 
idamjayat Sakty-avaSesham eva pr ally ate Sakti-malam eva cha prabhatati 
itaratlid dkaemikatta-praeangdt \ na cha anekdkdrdh hktayah iakydk 
kalpayitum \ tatai cha vichhidya vichhidya apy udhhavatdm hhur-ddi- 
loka^ pravdhdndm deva - ttryan - manuehya - lakshandndm cha prdni-ni- 
hdya'pravdhdndm varndirama-dharma'phala-vyavaethdndih cha anddau 
iainsdre niyatatvam indraya^iehaya-eamhandha-niyatatva-vat pratyetO" 
vyam \ na hi indriya^ishaya-eamhandhdder vyavahdraeya prati sargam 
anyathdtvarh ehashthendriya-viahaya-kalpam Sakyam utprekshitum \ atai 
eha earva-kalpdndm tulya^vyavahdrattdt kalpdntara-vyavahdrdnusan- 
dhdna-kihamatvdch cha Uvardndm eamdna-ndma-rupdh eva pratisargam 
viSeehdh prddurhhavanti eamdna-ndma-rupatvdch cha dvfnttdv api mahd' 
iarga-mahdprdlaya'lakehandydm jag ato *bhyupagamyamdndydth na kai* 
chich chhahda-prdmdnyddi-virodha^ \ eamdna-ndma-rnpatdm cha-inUi' 
imfitl dariayatah *' tHryd-chandramaeau dhdtd yathd-pHrvam akalpayat \ 
divam cha prithivlih chdntarlkeham atho evah " | t^i | yathd purvoimin 
kalpe edryd-chandramah'prahhriti jagat kljiptam tathd 'sminn api kalp4 
Parameharo *kalpayad ity arthah \ tathd ^*Agnir vai akdmayata 'an- 
nddo devdndfh eydm ' iti ea evam agnaye kfittikdhhyah puroddiam oihtO' 
kapdlafk niravapad^* iti nakehattreahti-vidhau yo *gnir niravapad yaamai 
9d *gnaye niravapat tayoh eamdna-ndma-rupatdm darSayati ity^evoM^ 
idtlyakd irutir uddharttavyd \ smfitir api ^^fiehlndm ndmadheydni ylU 
cha vedeehu dfishfaya^ \ Sarvaryy-ante proiiUdnd^ tdny evaibhyo daddip 


qfd^ I yathartdv fitfu-Ung&ni ndna-rUpdni paryyay$ \ dftfyante idnttdny 
§va taihd hhdvdh yugddishu \ yathd 'bhtmdnino Hitds tuiy&» U admpratair 
iha I devdh devair atltair hi rUpair ndmahhir eva eha^^ ity wafh-jatlyakd 
draihfavyd \ 

''Brahma Sutra, i. «3, 30. 'And though there be a recurrence of crea- 
tion, yet as (the new creation) has the same name and form^ (as the 
old) there will be no contradiction in regard to the words of the Yeda ; 
aince this is proved both by the intuition of rishis and by the Sm^itL' 
And further, let it be so that if a series of individual gods, as of 
animals, etc, is bom and disappears in unbroken continuity, the al- 
leged contradiction in regard to the words of the Yeda (viz. that as 
they are connected with objects which are not eternal, they cannot 
themselves be eternal) will be removed by the perpetuity of connection 
arising from the continuity of practice regarding the designation of 
things, the things to be designated, and the designator. But when, as 
texts of the S'ruti and Smpiti inform us, the entire three worlds, losing 
name and form," are utterly annihilated and afterwards produced anew, 
how can the contradiction be avoided ? [The meaning of this is : How 
can there be an eternal connection between the words of the Yeda and 
objects which how long soever they may have existed, must yet have 
come into being at the new creation following after the total (not 
merely the partial) destruction of the universe ? and if such a connection 
does not exist, how can the words of the Yeda be eternal, when before 
this new creation they represented nothing existent? see above, p. 
102.] A reply to this is' given in the words, ' Yet as (the new 
creation) has the same name and form as the old,' etc. Even then 
the world must be admitted to have been without a beginning. This 
eternity of the world will be declared by our teacher in the words (of 

"* Professor GoldstUckcr is of opinion that here, as elsewhere, these words (nSma' 
rSjN») should be rendered ** substance and form." 8ce the note on the subject furnished 
by him in M. Bumouf's Introduction k I'histoire dn Buddhisme Indien, p. 502. 

B Govinda Ananda remarks on the Sutra before us, and S'ankara'i comment : Natm 
maha-pralaytjater apy (uattvat iabdartlui-'tambandKanityatvam ity aiankya aha "m- 
mana" iti \ tutraihnira»yaaiankamaha**athapt** Hi | vyakti-tantutyajatinamavait' 
iarth-pralaye tattviit tambandhat tithfhati vyavaharaviehhedaj jnayeta cha iti vetUuya 
mwpekthatv^tui pramBnye na katehid virodhah syat \ nirlepo'pralaye tu Bamhandka^ 
naiat punah triBh^au kenaehit pumaa tanketah karttopyah iti purutha-buddhi-^pe" 
kakutvena vedatya apramanyam adhyapakatya atrayasya naiad airitaaya anityatvaik 
dU prdptam ity artha^ | tnahamralaya *pi nirUpa4ayo 'tiddka^ HU-karyyo'vadat \ 


Brahma Sutra, ii. 1, 36), 'It is agreeable to reason, and it is ascertained.' 
And the world being eternal, although the Veda declares that its disso^ 
lution and reproduction take place during the sleep, and at the waking 
(of the creator), still as the practice continues the same in the later, as 
in the previous, waking condition, there is no contradiction (of the sort 
pretended). And it is to be considered that the same must be the case 
in regard to the dissolutions and creations of another Kalpa (see Yol. I. 
p. 43 f.). Now dissolutions and creations are said in the Ycda to take 
place during (the creator's) sleep, and at his waking. 'When the 
sleeper does not see any vision, and when his breath is concentrated 
in him, then the voice with all names enters into him, the eye with 
all forms enters into him, the ear with all sounds enters into him, 
the mind with all thoughts enters into him. When he wakes, just as 
sparks shoot out in all directions from blazing fire, so do all breaths 
according to their several beats issue from this Soul ; from the breaths 
spring deities; and from the deities worlds' (KaushitakI Brahmana, 
latter part, 3, 3). But be it so, that [in the circumstances referred 
to*] there is no contradiction of tho kind alleged, because during the 

tatha eha tamskaratmana sahdartka-tat'SamhandKanaih satam eva punaJk 9fiahiap 
abhivyakter na anityatvam | abkivyaktatiain purva'kalplt/a'nama-rupa'tamanatvnd 
na tanketah kenachit karyyah \ vithama-sriihtau hi sanketapeksha na tulya-srithfth 
iti pariharati^^ tattra idam" ity-adina \ *' But since in a great dissolution even speeiei 
cease to exist, will it not result that tho coDnection of words with the objects they 
denote is not eternal ? In reference to this doubt the aphorist says, ' as the name and 
form are the same,' etc. Waving the authority of the SQtra, tho Commentator ex* 
presses a doubt in the words * And further/ etc. It is true that the connection sub- 
sists in consequence of the continuity of individuals owing to the existence of speciet 
during the intermediate dissolutions, and this connection will be known because the 
previous practice continues uninterrupted. And so from the independence of the 
Veda, there will be no contradiction in regard to its authority. But since in a total 
dissolution all such connection is lost, and some intimation (of what had existed before) 
must be given by some person at the new creation, the Veda will be dependent on 
the understanding of such person, and consequently its unauthontativeneas, as 
well as the non-eternity of the dependent object, owing to the extinction of the in- 
structor on whom it depended, will result. But even in a great dissolution an absolute 
annihilation is unproved, according to the doctrine that cfSipcts exist in their caoMk 
And so, as words, the objects which they denote, and the connection between both, 
(all of which things previously existed), are manifested at the new creation as re- 
miniscences of a previous existence, they are not non-ctemal. As the objects thus 
manifested have the same names and forms as in the previous Kalpa, there it no 
necessity for any intimation (of what had existed before) being given by any penon. 
For such an intimation would, indeed, be required in a dissimilar creation, but not 
in one which is similar. It is thus that the commentator removes the objection in 
the words * a reply to this is given,* etc." 


deep (of one person) the practice of others continues nnintermptcdly, 
and even the person who has been in a deep sleep can ascertain the 
action which took place in his former waking state. But this is in- 
applicable to a great dissolution, because then there is an absolute 
annihilation of all practice, and because the practice which prevailed in 
another Kalpa, like that of another birth, cannot be ascertained. This 
objection, however, does not hold ; for although all practice is annihi- 
lated by a great dissolution, still it is proved that through the favour 
of the supreme Lord, the lords Hiranyagarbha (Brahma), etc., can 
ascertain the practice of the preceding Kalpa. Although ordinary 
creatures are not observed to evinco the power of discovering the 
practice of a former birth, the limitation which is true of them will 
not attach to the great lords in question. Por just as in the scries of 
beings commencing with men, and ending with posts, although all the 
creatures included in it without distinction possess the attribute of life, 
yet, as we descend the scale, the obstructions to knowledge and to power 
are perceived to go on gradually increasing ; so too, in the series be- 
ginning with men and culminating in Hiranyagarbha, there is an ever 
greater and greater manifestation of knowledge and of power, etc. ; and 
thus the transcendent faculties which are declared in texts of the S^ruti 
and Sm |-iti to belong to the beings who again and again come into existence 
at the beginning of the successive Kalpas cannot be denied to be reaL 
And consequently it is established that the lords Hirapyagarbha and 
others who during the past Kalpa had manifested distinguished know- 
ledge and powers of action, and who again came into existence at the 
beginning of the present Elalpa, and enjoyed the favour of the supreme 
Lord, were able, like a person who has been asleep and awakes again, 
to ascertain the practice of the previous Kalpa. And accordingly 
the S>ruti says: 'Seeking final liberation, I take refuge with that 
God, shining by the light of his own intellect, who in the beginning 
creates Brahma and reveals to him the Yedas' (S^veta^v. TJpan. vi. 18). 
And S^aunaka and others record in their Smritis that the hymns in the 
ten Man^alas of the Big-veda were seen by Madhuchhandas and other 
xishis. In the same way the Kag^^^^his, etc., of each of the Yedaa 
are specified in the Smritis. The S^ruti, too, in the passage commenc- 
ing ' Any priest who in sacrificing for another person, or in teaching a 
pupil, employs a text of which he does not know the rishi, metre, deity, 


806 APPENDIl. 

and proper application, is turned into a post, or falls into a pit,' and end- 
ing, 'Wherefore let him ascertain all these points regarding every text;' 
— declares that a knowledge of the rishi by whom it was seen should 
precede the ceremonial use of every text.' Further, righteousness is 
prescribed and unrighteousness is forbidden, with a view to promote the 
happiness and obviate the misery of living beings : and love and dislike 
have for their objects nothing but the happiness and misery which are 
perceptible by sense or are scripturally revealed. Consequently each 
succeeding creation which is effected, forming, as it does, the recom- 
pense of righteousness and unrighteousness, is constituted perfectly 
similar to each of those which preceded it. And the Smriti, too, de- 
clares : * These creatures, as they are reproduced time after time, per- 
form, respectively, the very same actions as they had performed in the 
previous creation. ^° They so act under the influence of (their previous 
tendencies) whether noxious or innoxious, mild or cruel, righteous or 
unrighteous, to truth or to falsehood; and it is from this cause that 
they are disposed to one or another course of conduct.' Besides, even 
when this world is destroyed, a residuum of its force (Jakt%) continues, 
and it is reproduced only because it has this force for its basis : for 
any other supposition would involve the difficulty of the world having 
no cause. And as we cannot conceive that there are many forms of 
force {iahti\ we must beHeve that, as the relations between the senses 
and their objects are invariable, so too, in a world which had no com- 
mencement, the successions of earths and other worlds, and of different 
classes of living beings distinguished as gods, animals, and men, (al- 
though separated firom each other in the period of their production,) as 
well as the ordinations of castes, orders, duties, and recompences are 
invariable. For we cannot imagine that such conditions as the re- 

* The object of these remarks of S'ankara regarding^ the rishis is thus exphuned 
by Govinda Ananda : Kincha mantranam fishy •adi-jnahdvaiyakatva-jnapika a'rutir 
mantra-drig^rithln^mjmnatisayamdaraayati ity aha | . . . . tatha eha jnanadhikmlk 
kalpantaritam vedaih smritva vyavahJarasya pravarttiiatvad vtdatya anaditvam anapp' 
kthatvam eha aviruddham iti bhavah \ '* In these words S'ankara intimates that the 
S'ruti which declares tho necessity of knowing the rishis, etc., thereby manifestB 

the transcendent knowledge of the rishis who saw the mantras And so from 

the fact that these rishis, distinguished by eminent knowledge, recollected the Veda 
which had existed in a different Ealpa, and [again] gave currency to the [ancient] 
practice [of its precepts], it is shewn that the eternity and independence of the Veda 
is not in contradiction [to any fact] — such is the purport." 

M See the First Volume of this work, p. 60. 


lations between the senses and their objects, etc., should vary in every 
exeation, in snch a way, for example, as that there should exist objects 
for a sixth sense. Hence, as all Kalpas exist under the same conditions, 
and as the lords (Hiranyagarbha, etc.) are able to ascertain the conditions 
which existed in another Kalpa, varieties (of beings) having the same 
name and form are produced in every creation; and in consequence of this 
sameness of name and form, even though a revolution of the world in the 
form of a great creation and a great dissolution is admitted, no contra- 
diction arises affecting the authority of the words of the Veda, etc. Both 
Siruti and Smfiti shew us this sameness of name and form. Here such 
texts of the Siruti as these may be adduced : ' The creator formed as be- 
fore the sun and moon, the sky and the earth, the air and the heaven.' 
This means that in this Kalpa the supreme Lord fashioned the sun, the 
moon, and the rest of the world in the same way as they had been 
fiiflhioned in the former Kolpa.' Again : Agni desired, * May I be the 
food-eater of the gods." He offered to Agni [as the deity presiding over] 
the Krittikas^^ (the Pleiades) a cake in eight platters.' In this passage 
the Siruti shews that the two Agnis, he who in the ceremony of sacri- 
fice to< the constellation offered the oblation, and he to whom it was 
offered, had the same name and form. And such Sm^ritis, too, as the 
following should be examined : ' The Unborn Being gives to those bom 
at the end of the night {i.e. of the dissolution ") the names of the rishis 
and their intuitions into the Yedas." Just as on the recurrence of each 
of the seasons of the year its various characteristics are perceived to be 
the very same (as they had been before), so too are the things produced 
at the beginning of the yugas ;^* and the past gods presiding over dif- 
ferent objects resemble those who exist at present, and the present 
(resemble the) past in their names and forms.' " 

I shall quote a part of Sknkara's remarks on the Brahma Sutra, 
iL 1, 36, referred to in the earlier part of the preceding quotation, in 
which the eternity of the world is affirmed : 

u Kritttka-naJcthattmbhimam-deva^a Agnaye — Gorinda Anaado. 

^ S^arvaryy-anU pralayante — Govinda Ananda. 

n The sense of the last words, which I translate literally, is not very clear. Gorinda 
Ananda says that in the word vedcshu the locative case denotes the object {vedethv iti 
ptMhaya-iaptamt), Compare the passages quoted aboye in p. 16 irom the VishQa P. 
and M. Bh. which partially correspond with this Terse. 

^ Already quoted from the Yishoa P. in the First Yolome of thia work, p. 60. 


ii. 1, 36. '' UpapadyaU eha upaldbhyate cha^* \ **upapadyate •* 
iafh$ar(^8ya anddityam \ adimattve hi saihsaratya aJtasmdd udbkfiUr flMl- 
tandm ap$ puna^ samBdrodbhuti-prasangah \ ahritahhydyamO'pragangii 
eha sukha-duhkhadi-vaiahamyasya nirnimittatvdt \ na cha tsvaro vauAo- 
mya-hetttr ity uktam \ na cita avidyd kevald vaishamyasya kdranam eka- 
rUpatvdt I rdyddi'kleSa-vdsandkshipta-karmdpekshd tv avidyd vaishamyth 
kari sydt \ na eha karma antarena sariram samhhavati na eha i4»iram 
antarena karma samhhavati iti itaretardsraya'dosha-prasangah \ anddUM 
tu vljdnkura-nydyena upapaiter na kaichid dosho hhavati \ 

'" It is agreeable to reason, and it is ascertained.' The eternity of 
the world is agreeable to reason. For on the supposition that it had 
a beginning, as it came into existence without a cause, the difficulty 
would arise (1) that those who had obtained liberation from mundane 
existence might become again involved in it ; ^^ and (2) that men would 
enjoy or suffer the recompense of what they had never done, as the 
inequalities occasioned by happiness and misery, etc., would be cause- 
less. But God is not the cause of this inequality, as we have said 
(see the comment on Sutra ii. 1, 34). Nor can ignorance alone be ita 
cause, since ignorance is uniform (whilst conditions are varied). But 
ignorance, when connected with works induced by the surviving me- 
mory of desire and other sources of disquiet, may be the cause of in- 
equality. Further, corporeal existence does not originate without 
works, nor works without bodily existence : so that (this hypothecs 
of the world having had a beginning) involves the fallacy of making 
each of two things depend upon the other. But on the supposition 
that the world had no beginning, there is no difficulty, as the two 
things in question may be conceived to have succeeded each other like 
seed and sprout from all eternity.'' (See Ballantyne's Aphorisms of 
the Sankhya, Book i. pp. 60 and 126.) 

Paye 111, Une 2 from the foot; and Page 1 13, line 11 

In the first edition, p. 78, 1 had translated the word eamayddhyu- 
shite ** in tiiie morning twilight." When revising the translation for 
the new edition I became uncertain about the sense, and did not advert 

IB «.«. «i Professor Cowell suggests, if there is no cause for the production of Qia 
world, it comes into existence at hap-hasard, and by some chance the liberated may 
be bom again aa well as the onliberated. 

^PENDIX. 309 

to fhe fact that the term is explained in Professor 'Wilson's Bictionary 
as denoting ''a time at which neither stars nor sun are visible/' 
Professor Cowell has since pointed out that the word occurs in the 
second of the following verses of Manu, where a rule is given for the 
interpretation of the Veda in cases such as that referred to by the com- 
mentator on the Njaya Sutras : ii. 14 : S'ruti'dvaidhaih tu yattra st/dt 
tattra dltarmdv ttbhau amritau \ ulhdv api hi tau dharmau samyag uhtau 
manUhihhih \ 15. Udite ^nudite ehaiva samayadhytuhite tathd \ sarvathd 
varttaie yajnah itiyam vaidikl irutih \ <' 14. In cases where there is a 
twofold Vedic prescription, both the rites are declared in the Sm^iti to 
be binding ; since they have been distinctly pronounced by sages to be of 
equal authority. 15. The Ycdic rule is that sacrifice may be performed 
in all the three ways [indicated in a particular text], viz. when the sun 
has risen, when it has not risen, and when neither stars nor sun appear, 
%,$. in the momiDg twilight." Kulluka says : Surya-naJuhatra-varfi^ 
tah kalah Bamayddhymhita-iahdena uchyate \ " a time devoid of sun and 
stars is denoted by the word tamayddhyushita. 

Page 142, Ihm 14 and 16. 
The first of these quotations is from the Bf ihad Araiiyaka Upanishad, 
i. 4, 10 ; and the second £rom the Chhandogya ITpanishad, viii. 7, 2. 

Page 149, line 6. 
For iabd&dlkshiter read Sabddd ihhiter. 

Page 154, note 140. 
Professor Cowell observes on the dose of this note that the Bankhya 
opponent maintains that the metaphor is in every case a real one. 

Page 157, line 18. 

Professor CoweU remarks that the meaning of the phrase iabda-prO' 
m&nake ^rthe is not correctly rendered by the translation here given, viz. 
** where the (proper sense) is established by the words.** The author 
is laying down the general rule that in cases where there is nothiug in 
the purport of any passage in which a particular word occurs to lead 
the reader to suppose that it is figuratively used, and where conse- 
quently the word itself is the only index to the sense, it must be 
understood in its primary signification. The proper rendering, therefore» 
is : " Where the sense can only be determined by the word itself 


Page 160, Un$ 18. 
For puMT^utpatUr read punar-anuipaUir. 

Page 181, Ixnee 7 and II from the foot 

I learn from Professors Cowell and Goldstiicker that vimatd itnriU^ 
should be rendered not " the yarionsly understood Smfiti " bat ** the 
Smfiti which is here the subject of dispute.'^ 

Page 183, note 160, line 1. 

With KY. i. 179, 2, compare E.Y. viL 76, 4, quoted in p. 245. 

Page 201, line 21. 

The commentator thus explains this Terse of the Yishnn Parana 
(I am indebted to Dr. Hall for a collation of the best MSS. in the 
India Office Library): Me cha dveshopaSama-prakarah madht/arnddM" 
kdrinam eva uktdh na tu uttamddhikdrinam ity aha ^'ete** \ "hhinnO' 
dfiid^* hheda-drishlgd \ ^^hhinna'driidm" iti vd pdfhah \ tattra hhinnt^ 
dar&ane *' ahhyupagamam " angihdratn kritvd dveahopasamopdya-hhedd^ 
Jcathitdh I vktdndm updydndm paramdrtha-sankshepo mama mattah irHyO' 
tdm I " In the words ' these notions,' etc.' he tells us that the methods 
of repressing hatred which have been hitherto declared are those which 
are followed by the persons who have attained only to the secondary, not 
to the highest, stage of knowledge. Bhinna-dfisd is the same as hheda- 
drishfyd, 'with a view which distinguishes [the Deity from them- 
selves],' or the reading is hhinna-driSdm, * of persons who look [on 
Him] as distinct.' ' Accepting ' {ahhyupagamam kritvd), i,e, admitting, 
this opinion regarding a distinctness, 'I (the speaker in theY.P.) have 
declared these methods of repressing hatred. Now hear from me t 
summary ' of the highest truth in regard to these methods." 

Page 225, line 21. 

There is a verse in the Yajasaneyi Samhita, xiii. 45, in which alio 
Agni is connected with the creation : To Agnir Agner adhi afdyata 
iokdt prithivydh uta vd divas pari \ ycna prajdh ViSvakarmd jajdna tarn 
Agne hedah pari te vfinaktu \ *' Agni, may thy wrath avoid that Agni 
who sprang from Agni, irom the flame of the earth or from that of the 
eky, by whom Yiivakarman generated living creatures." This Terse ii 
quoted and after its fashion explained in the S^atapatha BrahmsQay viL 
5, 2, 21 : Atha dakahinato 'Jam \ '< To Afnir Agner adhi qfdyata '' ity 


Agnxr vat etiha \ Agner adhyajdyata \ *' Sokdt prithxvydh uta vd divas 
pari " iti yad vai Prajdpateh hkdd ajdyaia tad divai eha prithivyai eha 
iokad qfdyata \ ^'^Tena praJdJ^ Viivakarmd jajdfia " iti vug vai ajo vdcho 
vai prajah Vihaharmd jajdna ityddi \ ** Then [he places] a goat {of a) 
on the southern side, (saying) : ' That Agni who sprang from Agni : > 
this goat is Agni and sprang from Agni. * From the flame of the earth 
or from that of the sky : ' that which sprang from the flame of Pra- 
japati sprang from the flame of the earth and of the sky. * By whom 
Yiiiyakarman generated living creatures :' The goat, [or the Unborn], 
is Yach (Speech) : Yi^vakarman generated living creatures from Yach," 
etc Compare E.Y. i. 67, 5, quoted above in p. 275. 

Fage 235, line 9. 

Add after this the following texts, in which the verbs iakih and jan 
are applied to the composition of the hymns : 

B.Y. i. 67, 4. Vindanti Im attra naro dhiyam-dhdh hjridd yat ta^hfdn 
mantrdn aiamsan \ " Meditative men find him (Agni) here, when they 
have uttered hymns of praise fashioned by the heart." 

i. 109, 1. Vi hy akhyam manasd vasyah ichhann Indrdgnl j'ndsa^ uta 
vd sajdtdn \ ndnyd yuvat pramatir asti mahyaih sa vdm dhiyam vdja- 
yantJm ataksham | 2. Asravam he hhHri'ddvattard vdm vijdmdtur uta vd 
sydldt I atha eomaeya prayatl yuvabhydm Indrdgnl stotnam janaydmi 
navyam \ ''1. Seeking that which is desirable, I beheld [in you], o 
Indra and Agni, relations or kinsmen. I have no other counsellor 
than you, — ^I who have fabricated for you a hymn supplicating food. 
2. For I have heard that you are more bountiful than an ineligible 
son-in-law (who has to purchase his bride), or than a bride's brother; 
so now, while presenting a libation of Soma, I generate- for you a new 

Fage 253, line 15 

Insert after this the following verse : B.Y. x. 66, 5. Saraevdn dhlhhir 
Varuno dhrita-vratah Fushd Vishnur mahimd Vayur Ahind \ hrahma- 
hfito amritdh viSva-vedasah iarma no yamsan trivarUtkam amhaeah \ 
'' May Sarasvat with thoughts, may Yaruua whose laws are fixed, may 
Fushan, YishQU the mighty, Yayu, the A^vins, — ^may these makers of 
prayers, immortal, possessing all resources, afford us a triple-cased pro- 
tection £rom calamity." 


Supplementary Note tm Kdldtyayapadishta, — See page 84, note 89, 

and page 290. 

I am indebted to Professor Goldstiicker for the following additional 
remarks on this expression : 

The Tarkasangraha, quoted by Professor Cowell in his interesting 
note which you kindly communicated to me, differs materially from the 
Bhashaparichchheda in its interpretation of the fallacy called by them 
hddfui; and I might add that the Tarkasangraha-dlpikapraka^a offers 
even a third explanation of the same Yaii^eshika term. But I do not 
think that the bddha of the Yaiiieshikas is the same as the kuldtlta of 
the Naiyayikas. For when we find that the Bhashaparichchheda in 
its enumeration at y. 70 applies to the fifth hetvdbhdsa the epithet 
kuldtyayopadishfa (probably the same as the kaldtyaydpadt'shfa of the 
Kyaya-sutra i. 50) yet in its explanation of t. 77 does not call it 
idldtltay as the Nyaya does, but hddhaf such a variation in terms 
seems pointed ; and when we find moreover that its interpretation of 
bddha differs from Ydtsyayana's interpretation of kdldfUa, there seems 
to be a still greater probability that the Nyaya and Yai^shika disagree 
on the question of the fifth hetvdbhdsa. 

For that there is no real difference between the Nyayabhashya and 
the Nyayav^itti is still my opinion. Both commentaries, I hold, agree 
in stating that the fallacy IcdJMita arises when a reason assigned ex- 
ceeds its proper sphere {BddhanaJcdla\ and neither, I think, can have 
taken kdla in its literal sense of << time." This might have been the 
case if, as Professor Cowell seems to suggest, " plausibility " of an 
argument were the subject of the Sutra; but as, in my opinion, the 
"hetu is always intended to be a valid and good hetu, I do not see how 
such a lietu can become a bad one simply by being advanced too late. 
It would, however, become bad by being applied to a time, u$, to a 
case to which it properly does not belong. 

The circumstance that the Yfitti and Bhashaparichchheda axe 
probably works of the same author, does not invalidate my opinion ; it 
would seem on the contrary to confirm it, since the object of both these 
works is a different one : the former being intended as an exposition of 
the Nyaya, and the latter as one of the Yai^eshika. 


AbbipntSrin, 297 
Abhyupagtiina-TudA, 201 
Accentuation, 31 
Achuryya, 92 
Achyuta, 14, 45 
Aditi, 225, 252, 258 

A'dityas, 102, 234 
Adhararani, 47 
Adhokshaja, 43, 47 
Adhvarju, 5, 53, 54 f. 

Adhvar^-ava (Yajur] Ycda, 

Adruhta, 132, 135 

iEther, whether eternal or 
not, 70, 106, 164 

Agastya, 247 

Agni, 5f., 46 f., 219 and 

Agni a sonrce of inspira- 
tion, 258 f. 

Agni Saritra, 17 

Agnishtoma, 11 

AhaQkara, 195 

Aila (ParCiraTas], 47 

Aitareya Brahmana, 5, 225 

Aitareya Upanishad, i. 1, 

Aja, 166 

Akshapada (Gotama), 199 

Akshara, 164 

Alcinoos, 269 

Inunda Giri, 157 
Anga, 53 
An^s, 31 

Angiras, 31, 34, 219 f. 
Angirases, 246 
AnukramaoT, 85, 275 
^QBhtubby 11, 278 

Annryakhyilnas, 205 

ApaV (waters), 8 
Apuntaratamas, 40 
^pastamba, 62, 179 
Apollo, 267, 270 
Apsaras, 247 
Apta,114ff., 124,128 
Aptoryaman, 11 
Aranyakas, 1, 26 

superior to rest of 

Veda, 31 
Argivce, 270 
Arka, 224 
Arthavadas, 64 
Aryaroan, 266 
Asroaka, 53 
Asridh, 225 
Astronomy, 31 
Asura, the, 258 
Asuras, 49 

Asuri, 192 
Asvalayana, 179 

AsValayana's Gribya SQ- 

tras, 288 
As'vattha, 46 
As'vins, 228, 236 
Atiratra, 11 
Athanran, priest, 65 
Atharvan, sage, 31, 220, 

2.59, 284 
Atharvan ^the Veda), 11 
Atharyangirases, 3, 9, 21, 

42. 205 
Athanra Pariiiisbta, 54 1 

Athanrunas, 54 
Atharva-veda, quoted*- 

ii. 1,2.-260 

iv. 35, 6,- 4 

Tii. 54, — 1 

1. 7, 14, 20,-8 

Athanra-yeda eontimied-^ 
X. 7, 43. 44,-279 
xi. 7, 24,-287 
xiii. 4, 38,-4 
xix. 54, 3,^4 
— 59, 1, 2,-260 
Athene, 272 
Atri, 34, 220, 276 
Atris, 243 
Auddalaki, 77 
Aufrecbt, Prof., Cat. of 
Bodl.Sansk.MSS., 27 f., 
■ aid from him ac- 

knowledged, 9, 15, 20 
54, 219, 221, 287 t 
Aupamanyava, 213 
Avyakta, 161, 173 
Ayasya, 240 
Ay&tayama, 51 

Ayu, 222, 225 
Ayur-vcda, 114 f., 116 f., 
182, 135 


Babara PraTahiiii, 77 ff. 

Bacchus, 264 

BadarayaQa, 64, 69, 141, 
and passim 

■ controTerts opin- 

ions of Jaimini, 141 ff. 
of the Sankhyaa, 

150 ff. 
Badari, 145 
B:ihTpchas, 54 
Ballantyne's Aphorisms of 

the Idlmansii, 70 ff. 
■ Aphorisms of tht 




Ballantyne't AphorismB of 
the Sunkhya, 133, 168 

■ AphorismB of the 

VedSnta, 107 

Aphorisms of the 

Toga, 201, 289 

Christianity con- 

trasted with Hindu Phi- 
losophy, 104, 214 

Mahabhashya, 104 

Tali, 133 

Synopsis of 

Science, 203 
Baneijea, Rey. Prof. K.M., 

■ his Dialogues on 

Hindu Philosophy, 31, 

93f., 115, 118, 138 
Bauddhas, 181 
Baudht^ana, 179 
Benfey, Prof., his Sfima- 

Teda, 103, 221, 231, 238, 

Bhadrasena, 156, 170 
Bhaga, 225 

Bhagavad-gitfi, quoted— 
ii. 42ff.,— 37 
X. 32,-300 
XT. 15,-97 

referred to, 193 

Bhugavata PuruQa, equal 

to the Veda, SO 

why composed, 42 

■ quoted — 

i 3, 10,-192 

— 4, 14 ff.,— 41 

— 7, 6 ff.— 42 
ii. 8, 28,-30 

iii. 12, 34,and37ff.— 11 


iy. 29, 42ff.,— 34 

ix. 8,12 f.,— 192 

ix. 14, 43 ff.,— 46 

xii. 6, 37 ff.,— 43 
BhSgayatas, doctrine of 

the, 177 
Bh&kta, orfic^ratiye sense 

of words, 108 
Bhakti SQtras, 177 
Bharadvaja, 17, 81 
Bharadyajas, 221 
Bharatas, 276 
BhSratI, 255, 257 
Bhaivaya, 55 
Bhasha-parichcheda« 183, 

1^1 290 

Bhoja-rSja, 201 

BhQ^, 5, 7, 14, 104 

Bbuvab, 5, 7, 14, 104 

Bhrigu, 34, 219 

Bhrigus, 233, 237 

Bird, the, 258 

Bluckie, on the Theology 
of Homer, 272 

Boehtlinek and Roth, Sans- 
krit Dictionary, 20, 152, 
201, 236, 240 f., 263 

Brahro^, 8, 21, 24, 33, 43, 
and passim 

Brahmu, 3, 10, 12f., 28, 
31, 34, 45, and passim 

Brahma composed of the 
Rig-vcda, 27 

Brahma-kun^ 65 

Brahma-mimansa, its ob- 
ject, 139 (see Yedanta) 

Brahman (prayer) 224 

Brahmanaspati, 234, 249, 
260 f. 

Brahmar&ta, 50, 52 

Brahma Sutras, 69, 93, 
and passim 

Biahma-yadis, 195 

Brahma-yeda, 55 

i. 48, quoted, 30 

coirector of Veda, 


Bphad Aranyaka Upani- 
shad, quoted — 
i. 2, 4,-104 

— 2, 5,— 9 

— 4, 10,-142 

— 5,5,— 9 
ii. 2, 8,-166 

— 4, 10,-8, 204 
iii. 8, 11,-164 
iy. 1, 2,-208 

— 3, 22,-83 
y. 8,-254 

Bnhaspati, 221, 256, 260 
BrihatI, 15, 278 
Buddha, 202 

Butler (Bp.}, his sermons 
on the loye of God, 107 

Chaitraratha and Chiitzt- 

rathi, 297 
ChandiUa, 34, 178 
Chhandoga Brahinana,103 
Charana, 53 
CharanaTyQha, 56 
Charakas, 52 ff. 
Charakucharyya, 53 
CharakadhTaryoB, 51 
Charrukas, 202 
Chhandas, 206 
Chhandogas, 54 
Chhandogya Brahmapi, 

Chhandogya XTpanishid, 

quoted — 
iy. 1, 3,-294 

— 2, 2,-293 

— 3, 5,-296 

yi. 2, 1, 8 f.,— 151, 154 

— 3, 2,-156 

— 4, 1,-167 

— 8, 6 f.,— 155, 176 

— 14, 6,-166 

— 16, 2,-157 

yii. 1,1-6,— 32,148,207, 

— 25, 2,-178 
yiii. 7, 2,-142 

— 15, 1,-284 
Colebrooke, MisceOaiieoai 

Essays, 6, 67, 7^ and 

Commentary, 31 
Commentators on the Te- 

da, their proofii of ill 

authority, 67 ff. 
Cowell, Prof. £. B., his 

translation of the Kim- 

manjali, 128 
— his aid acknow- 
ledged, 201, 290 £, 808 

Calchas, 271 

Ca^te, originally but one, 

47 f. 

Dadhyanch, 220 
Daityas, 201 
Daksha, 34, 226 
Danti, 264 
Dasagya, 246 
Demodocus, 269 f 
Dbarma, 800 
Dhishani, 265 



DhntTu, 20 
Dionysus, 264 
Difisolation of the Uni- 

Ycrse, 96, 303 
DnsbkriU, 53 
DTaipJtyana, sec Krishna 
Dvapora age, 37, 41, 45, 

48 f. 
Dyaus, 246, 266 


Ekantins, 289 
Ekavimsa, 11 
Empedoeles, 273 
Epimenides, 273 
Euripides, 264 f. 

Freedom of Speculation in 
India in early times, 57 

O&thS, 23 
Ganumbika, 264 
Gandharya, 258, 260 L 
Gandharras, 46 ff. 
Gancs'a, 264 
QiTfii, 164 
Gaudapuda, 265 
Gauija, or fig^uratire sense 

of words, 108 
Gaurf, 264 
Gaya, 244 
GuVatra, 11, 276 
Guyatrl, 7, 11, 13 f., 263 

varioties of, 263 

mother of Uie Ve- 

das, 12 
Giris'a, 34 
Gir, 224 
Gods, capable of acquiring 

dirine knowledge, 99, 

Golds! iicker, Prof., his 

Dictionary referred to, 

■ MSnava-kalpa-sQ- 

tra quoted, 95 ff. 

his aid acknow- 

ledged, 84, 93, 97, 295, 
303, etc. 
Gotama, author of Nyaya 
Satras, 111, 113 

Gotsma, rishi, 235 
Qotamas, 232, 238, 241 
Grammar, 31 
Gritsamadas, 233, 235 
Grote's History of Greece, 

268, 270 ff. 
Gunns, 12, 32, 44, 150, 

165, 195 
Guru, 91,J[80 

Govinda Ananda quoted, 
103, 155, 157, 164, 190, 
and passim 

Hall, Dr., aid firom him 
acknowledged, 12, 52 

— — BunUiya Sira, 
185, 193 

Hanta, 254 

Haridusa Bha^^haryya, 

Haridrumata, 299 

HariYttmsTa quoted-— 



11,665 ff.,— 13 

12,425 ff.,— 14 

Haug, Prof., on the signi- 
fication of the word 
brahmOy 238 f. 

Hellenic race, its differ- 
ence from the Indian, 

Herodotus quoted, 183, 

Hesiod quoted, 188, 268 

Uiranyagarbha, 13, 136, 
163, 285, 305 

Homer, 269 ff. 

Hotra, 255 

Hymns, distinguished as 
new and old, 224 ff., see 


Ignorance, 164 
IkshYuku, 286 
Inferior science, 31, 206 
im, 255 
Indra, 4, 99, 103, 142, 

220, and passim 
sceptical doubts, 

regarding Indra, 254 
source of inspira- 

tion, 261 f. 

Inspiration, its nature, 1 25 
Intuition of rishis, 125 ff., 

Is a, 45 

Isaiah referred to, 224 
ItihSsas, 2, 9, and passim, 
see Smriti 

JabSlfi, 299 

Jabfila, 298 f. 

Jagat! metre, 11, 276, 278 

Jaimini, 39, 40, 42, 45, 92^ 
98, 141 

■ ■ oontroyerts opin- 
ions of BadarSyaua, 
141 ff. 

Jalada, 55 

Jan (to generate), 232, 237 

Janaka, 56 

Janamejaya, 58 

Janasruta, 295 

Junai^ruti, 295 ff. 

Jaradgava, 80 

Jatavedas, 237, 241 

Jayanarayaiia Tarkapan- 
chanana, 120, 175 

John (St.), his First 
Epistle, 239 

his Gospel, 289 

Journal of the Itbyal Asia- 
tic Society referred to, 
2,57, 118, 264|290 

JuhQ, 20 

Eaiyyata, 95 ff. 
Eakshasena, 297 
Ealanja, 68 
Ealapa, 91, 182 
Ealupas, 96 
Ealapa, 91 
Ealapaka, 79, 132 
Eulatyayapadishfa, 84, 

890, 312 
Ealchas, 270 f. 
Kali-yuga, 49 
KaUdOsa, 69 f., 83 f., 89 
Ealpa sQtras, 180, 206 
Kanada, 106 and passim 
Ean^arshis, 304 
Eanva, 220 
EaQvas, 229 



K» -i, 297 

Xapua 37t and passim 
how treated by 

S'anktra 184 ff. 
Kapmjala, 2*1 
Kannakan^af 64 
Kanna-roim£lQS i, i"^ Pflr- 

Karmasiddhi, 264 
Karttikeya, 2G4 
KoiTyapa,' 285 
Katha (sage), 77, 83, 9i, 

Kathas, 96 
Katha Upanishad quoted, 

' i. 3, 8, and 10—162 
— 3, 11,-161 
ii. 23,-36 

iii. 3, lOf.,— •168ff. 
Ku^haka, 761,79,83,91, 

Kutyayana, 179 
Kutyayana's S'rauta Sil- 

tras, 47 
Kaurma-pur§na, 200 
Eaosika, 249* 
KaushTtaki Br., 5, 304 
Kausliltukins, 56 
Eauthuma, 76 f., 83 
K'\>'i, 218 
Kcs'ava, 28 
Kikatas, 79, 215 
Kohler, Prophetismuf der 

Hebrseor, 173 f. 
Kratu, 34 
Kri, (to make), 232 
Krishna, 29, 42, 286 
Krishna Dyaipayana, 88 f. 
Krita-3ruga, 37, 40, 47 flf. 
Krittikas, 307 
KnllQka on Mann, 6, 14, 

23, 26, 180 
Kumarila, 95 
Kumvya, 23 
Ku^ikas, 233, 247 
Eusumunjali quoted,128ff. 
Kusurubinda, 77 
Kuthumi, 77, 83 
Kutsa, 213 

LftSflen, In. Ant., 38 
Laukayatikas, ly9 
Linga-purana, 263 
Lokayata, 95 
LomaharBbBpa, 41 


Madhaya, anthor of NyS- 
ya-mala-yistara, 82 

author of the Sar- 

author of the Ve- 

dartha-prakusa, onT.S., 

quoted, 66 ff. 
Madhuchhandas, 305 
Madhuyidya, 141, 286 
MadhusQdana Sarasyatl, 

Madras, 81 
MahabuCrata, origin of 

the name, 29 
■ is a V?da relating 

to Krishna, 23 

equal to tb<» Veda, 


composed by l^fi^ 
rayana, 39 
— - why composed, 42 

quoted — 

Adi-parvan — 
261, 264 f.,— 29 


S'unti-panran — 
7660,-85, 101 
8533 ff.,— 16,69 
13088 ff.,— 48 
Syarguroh anika-paryan 
200ff.,— 29 
Mahabhushya, 95 
Mahusula S'aunaka, 31 
Mahusena (Kurttikeya), 

Mahat, 154, 172 1 
Mahesrora, 16 

Mahldhara on the Y^. 

San. quoted, 39 
Maitreya, 37 
Maitii ITpanishad— 

yi 22,-176 
MSlatI M^haya, 90 
Mana (Agastya), 247 
Manas, 233 
Manaya - dharma - tf§stn 

quoted — 

i. 21 ff.,— . 6 

— 85 f., —48 
ii 10 ff.,— 24 

— 76 ff.,— 7 

— 97,-25 

— 166 f.,— 288 
iy. 123f.,— 25 
yi. 82 ff.,— 24 
xi. 243,-85 
xii. 91,-190 

— 94ff.,— 23 

— 106,-24, 18t 

MSndhStri, 229 
Manaya-kalpo-aCttny 95 
Maniiha, 224 
Manman, 224 
Mantras, 1, 33, 620*^ 115, 

— — magical powv 

ascribed to, 275 ff. 
Manu, 181 f., 190, 220, 

Manyantaraa, 38 
Manchi, 34 
Marka^^eya ForfiQi, 102, 

Iff., quoted, 11 
MarutB, 102, 226^ 363 
Mati, 224 
Matsya PorSna, iiL 2iL 

quoted, 28 
Hauda, 55 
Maya, 164, 195, 202 
Medh&tithi, 6 
Medhayi, 218 
Mem, 60, 53 
Mitra, 225, 227 
Mim&nsS, see FOxra-m!- 

ro&nsfi, 28 
Mimunsakas, their aUef ed 

atheism, 94 f. 
Mimansa-yarttika, 95 
Minerya, 273 
Moksha-dharma qnoied, 

199 f. 
Mudakas, 96 
Mukbya, or proper 

of woida, 107 



Miiller, M., Profit aid re- 

ceiTcd from 287 
— — j^ncient Sanskrit 

Lit, 1, 2, 36, 6S, 66 If 

175, 280 f. 
— ^ Chipa, etc., 48 

Jour. R. A. S., 

280, 236, 265 

Jour, of Ger. Or. 

Soc., 20, 104, 127, 183 
Hundaka Upanishad — 

i i, 1-5,-30, 204, 284 

ii. 1, 4, and 6,-30 

iiL 1, 1,-176 
Muni, 219 
Mnies, 267 fL 


Niibhfika, 230 
Nabhaka, 229 
N&bhan, 246 
Kagelflbaoh'B Nacbhomer- 

iscbe Tbeolosie, 273 
Nfigojibbatta, 95 ff. 
Kahiuba, 283 
NaicbasidLha, 79 
Naka Maudgalya, 22 
Name and Form, 152, 155, 

163, 167, 302, etc. 
Kasatyas (As'vinB), 240 
Niirada, 32, 34 
I^uruyana, 47. 
Kfirayana-tlrtba, 128 
l^arS^anBls, 215 
l^aTBgya, 221, 246 
J^estoTt 273 
If igada, 45 
l^igama, 180 
l^irukta, quoted — 
i. 20,-118,218 

iii. 11,-213 
iT. 6,-212 

Yii. 1, 3,-211 

— 16,-219 
Tiii. 8,-277 

X. 32,-213 

— 42,-212 
referred to, 180, 

206, 247 
Kitha, 224 
Nivid, 224 
Nrimedba, a risbi, 218 
Vyuya, whether theistio or 

not, 133 

NySya Sutraa quoted, 
108 ff. 

Nyaya-mala-yistara, quot- 
ed 82, 179, 181 

Nyaya-sQtra-Yritti, 108 

Odana oblation, 4 
Od>'S8ey, 269f., 272£. 
Omkara, 44 
Oracles, 273 

Padma-purSna quoted, 27 
Paila, 39, 41 f., 45 
PaingiDs, 56 
Paippalada, 55 
Pancnad&s'a-stoma, 11 
PaDchajanab, 168 
Panini, 56, 91 
Pankta, 15 
Paras'ara, 38, 40 f., 45, 

199 f. 
Paras'ara TJpapurfina, 199 
Paijanya, 252 
Paruehhepa, a rishi, 212 
Pasupata system, 202 
Pas'upatas, 195 
Patanjalas, 195 
Patanjali, Mabubbfisbya, 

56, 95 f. 

Yoga, 198 

Paulkam, 34 
Paunisheya, 9, 90, 134 
Paurusheyatva, 90 
Pavana, 5 
PertBch, alphabetical list 

of initial words of fie/t* 

Terses, 103 
Phemius, 270 
Phceacians, 269 
Philosophical systems, 

their mutual relations, 

194 ff. * 
Pippalada, 298 
Pippaladakas, 96 
Pitamaha, 28 
Plati, 244 
Plato quoted, 183 
bis ideas on in- 
spiration, 273 
Polyphemus, 265 
Prabhakara, 91, 180 
Pradhfina, 150, etc 
Prakriti, 164, 166 

Pramaganda, 79 

Praskanva, 220 

Prarfna Upanishad, Comm« 

on, 191 

i. 1,-297 

Prasthttna-bhcda, 194 ff. 
Prau^bi-Tada, 201 
Praiiga, 278 
PritMvi, 266 
Priyamedha, 220 
Prosody, 31 
Psalms, 224 
Pulostya, 34 
Pulaha, 34 
Pun^ankaksha, 89 
Puranas, 2, 27,andpaBnm, 

see Smiiti 

— created before the 
Yedas, 27 f. 

— eternal, 28 
form with the Iti- 

bOsai a fifth Veda, 33, 

PurQravas, 45 ff., 205 
Purusha, 3, 4, and passim 
Purusba-medha, 35 
Purusha-sQkta (R. V. z. 

90, 1, 9), 3, 61, 69, 89 
POnra - mimansa SQtras 

quoted, 70 ff. 
POrva-mimansa, itaobject, 

POshan, 226, 263 
Pythagoras, 273 


Bflgbunandana, 68 

Raffhuvans'a, 77 

RanQgaijas, 241 

Kaikya and Rainka, 296 f. 

RSj&s, 12, 32, 48, 150 

Rajastiya sacrifice, 184 

Rajendra lal Mittra, his 
translation of the Upa- 
nishad, 167, 290 f., 299 

Rakshases, 55 

Rumanujas, 195 

Ramaya^ i. 1, 94 quoted 

— equal to the Yedai 

Ratbantara, 276 

Rationalistic treatises, 24 

9i (to moye, send forth), 


Ribhiu, 337, 261 

lUdi-venie*, II, 12, IS 
Bik-tmIb .(juoIaHDDBl'ram, 
I"irat M»ndnlit— 

I, 2,-319 

3, U, 12,— 254 

12, n,— 224 

IB, B, 7,-268 

50, 1,-232 
23, ID,— 3Sf 
37, 4,-326 
81, 1, 2,— 351 

— 11,— 35£ 

— IS,— 233 
as, 1,-212 
87, 4,-293 

40, s, <,— seo 

46, 3, 4,-220 

47, 2,-332 

48, 14,— S20 
to, 3,— SSff 

— «,— 242 
81, 2,-241 

— *,— 341 

— 1S,-133 
es, 13,-235 
U, 3,-351 

97, 8,-375 

— 4.— 811 

77, 6,-342 

78, 6.-342 
80, 18,-320 
8e, 3,-335 

51, 11,-243 
- 64, 1,-341 

98, 2,-225 
102, 1,-243 
118, 1,-240 
117, 25,-233 
lis, 8,-220 

130, 8,-335 

— 10,-335 

131, 8,-220 
139, 0,-330 
143, 1,-225 
162, 5,-363 
164, 5, 6,-379 

— 20,-176 

— 25,-376 

— 37,-279 
169, 3,— 59 
171, 2,-335 
175, 6,-320 
17B, 2,-188, 246 
183, ^—118 

8, 8,— 2.i6 

17. 1,-225 

18. S,— 226 

19. 8.— 23S 
23, 2,— 260 
24, 1,— 228 
36, 3,-235 
89, B,^^3 

2, 1,-237 

18, a 


21, 3,-251 
29. 15,-348 
SO. 20.— 233 
32, 13f-'^28 
an, I, 2,-228 
43, 5,-248 

63, 9,-248 

— 12,-376 
^ 14,-216 

64, 17,-261 
68, Sf— 320 
62, 7,-328 

— 10,-283 
Fourth MMdil^- 

3, 16,-243 
6, 8,-259 

— 6,— 269 
6, 1 ,-369 

— 11,-283 

), 1,-221 

Fifth H 
2, 11,-336 
11, 6,-242 
22, 4,— 243 
29, 1,-361 
29, 15,-236 



Hf-nd* *aift'inw4- 

giiUi UondBlB— 

14, 2,— 3S1 

16, 47,-235 

17, 13.— «27 

18, IS.- :t61 

19, 4,-221 
21, 5.— 221 

26. 3,-281 
32, 1,— 23» 
84, 1,— 3S7, S61 
38, 3.-243 
44, 13,-227 
47, 3—264 

— 10,-281 
48, 11,-227 

49, 1.-227 

50, 6,— 227 

— 15,-221 
52, 1,— 2SS 
03, 4,-228 
69, 2,— 262 
75. 19,-277 

Serenth Mandate— 
7. 6,-230 
16. 4,— 2»7 
IB, 1,-223 
IS, II,— 277 



>, 1.- 338 
29, 4,-222 
91, 11.-238 
83, 3,— 277 

— 7-18.— 246 
34, 1,-265 

— 9,— 265 
86, 14,-234 
37, 4,-234 
53, If— 222 

— 2.-228 
96, 33,-228 

66, II,— 386 

67, 6,-348 
78. 4,-222 

91, I,— S33 
93, 1,-228 
94. 1, 2,-238 

Strenth Htnd.i^ii— 

97. 3, S,-261 

— 9,r-334 
lot, 15,— 213 

Kgbtb Usndala— 
S. S,— 249 
S, 18,-2*3 
S, 24^32S 
0.10,— 250 

— 11,-328 

— 13,-235 

— 41,— 3S1 

— 43,-229 

8. 8,-243 
IS, 10,-229 

— 14,-2SB 

— 31,-240 
13, r,-262 

— 26,— 240 

18, T,-2JI 

19, 6, 6,-3 

20, 19,-229 
23, 14,-329 
25, 24,-229 
W, 11,-243 

— 13,-238 
SB, 7,-222 
39, 6,-229 

40. 4, 3,-230 

— 12,-2-29 
41, 2,-329 

— 3,8,— 266 
48, 2,-238 
44, 12,-230 

48, 8,- 263 

49, 9,-277 
CI, 4,-234 
32, 4,-263 
33, 11,— 230 

63, 7, 8,-330 

64, «,— 69, 367 
69, 5, 6, 12,-230 
77, 4,-238 

73, 3,-263 

— 6,7.-262 
79, 8,-234 
84, 4, 6,-238 

88, 4,— 2S3 

89, 3, 4,-234 

— 10, 11.-263 

90, 16,-236 
HiDth Mandala— 

9. 8,-231 
12, 7,-267 
93, 3,— 363 

ninth Mind«U — 
42, 2,-231 
62, 1,-103 
73, 2.-339 
76, 4,-263 
87, 3,-249 
91, S,— 231 
93, 8,-267 
93, 1,-239 

— 3,-265 
96, 5-7,— 266 

— 11,-223 

— 18,— 2S1 
99, 4,-231 
107, 7,-231 
114. 2,-234 

Tenth HinOal^— 
4, S,— 239 
4, 6,-231 
7, 2,-239 
14, IS,— 223 

20, 10,-233 

21, S,— 350 
33. 5-7,-230 



27, 22,-262 
31, 7,-230 
84, 13,— 219 

36, 6,— 260 

39, 14,-336, 267 
42, ],— 244 
34, 3,— aai 

— 6,-234 

37, 2,— 278 

— 3,— 229 
61, 7,-253 
83, 1, 8,-248 

— 4, 5,-348 
63, 17,-344 

65, S,— 311 

66, 14,-223 
67, 1,-239 
71, 1-6,-336 
71, 3,-103 
71, 1, 2,--240 
80, 7,-237 

88, 8,-253 

— 18,-280 

89, 3,-231 

— 6,-59 

90, 1,-61 

— 9,-3, 61, SB 

tenth Htndalt— 

— 14,-210 

96, 14,— 212 
06, 5,-323 

— 11,-331 
98, 9,— 2123 
101, 2,-234 

108, 8,-39 
107, 6,-244 

109, 4,-350 

110, 8,-267 

111, 1,-2*4 
113, 9,-252, 363 

115, 5,— 352 

116, 9,-240 

117, 6,-213 
125, 3-5,-387 
139, 2,-212 

— 6,— S9 

— 5-7,-380 

— 6,-80 
130, 1-7,-377 f. 
139,B,— 3«0 
154, 3, 6,-350 
180, 5,— 211 
167, 1,— 240 
176, 2,-258 
177, 1,-398 
190, ],— 3H 

Itlaliia, nature at thrir in- 
EpirntioH, 12fi, 183 


distmgTiished u 

n^wuidold, 21Hff. 

' tpttk of th«B- 

aeWce u asthon of 
hjnmi, 332 ff. 

nipeniktanl eha- 

TOelerjifcribed taMiS. 

inspLrauon, 261 ff. 

- their oppodla 
Tiewi how noiHidl- 
tble, 374 f. 

I thur eonfenon of 


their idea of in- 
■pintioD ^ftirent from 
tuit ot later writen, 

281 r. 

riftl thegodi:383 




Roer, Dr. E., his transla- 
tions and introductions 
to the Upanishads, 36, 
185, 193, 254, 284 

■ his Bhusha-pari- 

chheda, 133 

his German trans- 

lation of the Vais'eshika 
aphorisms, 118, 120 
his remarks on the 

doctrine of the Upani- 
shads, 173 

his remarks on the 

Sankhya, 193 
Bomahanhnna, 39 
Kotb, Illustrations of Ni- 

rukta, 47, 230, 246 f. 
Eudra, 64, 234 

■ composed of the 

Sama-veda, 27 
Budrasy 102, 234 


S'ahara, SvSrain, 70, 80 

Sacriiicea, the five great, 20 

Sacrifice eternnl, 6 ■ 

Sadafaspati, 258 

Sadhyas, 6, 12 

Sahara, sons of, 190, 192 

S'&has of the Veda, 37, 

S'akti, 164, 173, 306 

Sama-rathantara, 11 

Suma-Yoda, impurity of its 
sound, 26 t 

i. 299 quoted, 252 

Sfiman, 224 < 

Saman-yerses, 11 

S'amT wood, 46 

Samidhenis, 218 

Sanisa, 224 

SaAvarga-vidyS, 296 ff. 

Sanaka, 34 

SanatkumSra, 82 f. 

8'andilya, an ancient sage, 

■ ■ author of the 

Bhakti SQtras quoted, 
177 f. 

S'ank&ra Aoharya's com- 
mentary on the Brahma 
SQtras quoted, 62, 98 ff., 
106, 108, 140 ff., 177, 
182, 185 ff.. 203, 289, 
291 ff. 

S'finkara Acharya's com. 

mentary on the Br. Ar. 
Up. quoted, 31, 204 
■ his comm. on the 

Chhandogya Up., 296 
his comm. on the 

Pras^na Up. quoted, 191 
on the Taitt. Up, 

quoted, 191 
S'ankara Mif^ra comm. on 

Yaif^eshika, 120, 125 
Sankhya aphorisms, 133, 

Sankhya-karika, 138, 166 

shya, 196 ff. 
S'antanu, 45 
Saptadasa-stoma, 11 
Sarasvati, goddess, 14, 

254 f., 257, 282 
mother of the * 

Vedas, 14 

the river, 41 

S'unraka - mimansa - hha- 
shya, 98 See S'ankara 

S'unraka sQtras, 98 
Sarva- dars^ana - sangraha- 

86 ff. 
S'atapatha Brahmana, 
quoied — 
iii. 4, 1, 22,-47 
iv. 1, 2, 19,-53 
yi. 1, 1, 8,-7 

— 1, 2, 19,-5 
vii. 5, 2, 52,-9 
ix. 4, 4, 4,-223 
X. 3.5,12,-81 

— 4, 2, 21,-14 

— 6, 5, 4,-104 
xi. 5, 1, 1,-48 

— 5, 6, 1-7, 10,-18 
-6, 8, 1,-4 

xiv. 4, 3, 12,-9 

— 5, 4, 10,-8 

— 7,1,22,-33 

Sattva gnna, 12, 32, 150 
Satrata-samhita (the Bha- 

gavata Pur.) 42 
Satyakama, 299 
Satyavaha, 31 
Satyavati, 45 
S'aunaka, 297, 305 
S'aunakas, 55 
Savitri, 263 
S&Yitd, 7, 14 

SSyana, hisVedirthvpra- 
kas'a, or commentary on 
B.V. quoted, 68ff., 76, 
78, 80, 105, 206, 215, 

Sayugran, 296 
Siddhanta-mukt&yali, 133 
S'iksha, 206 
Skambha, 8 
Skanda, 264 
S'lokas, 9, 205 

Smriti, 24, 181,aiidpaflsim 

Smritis, extent and con- 
ditions of their autho- 
rity, 181 ff. 

Sobhari, 229 
Soma, god. 8, 223 
source of inspira- 
tion, 264 ff. 

Soma^arman, 92 

Soul, unity of, 190, 203 

Souls, diversity of, 169, 

Sound, eternity of, afSrm- 

ed,71ff., 90ff. 
denied, 89, 109, 

Species or Genera eternal, 

Sphota, 44, 104 f., 136 £ 
S ramana, 34 
S'ruli, 24 
Sruva, 20 
Stoma, 224 
Stuti, 224 
Sudas, 277 
S'Qdras, unfit for study of 

Veda, 42, 68, 99, 292iL 
■■ may attain thfl 

highest blisB, 178 
S'uka, 43 
Sumati, 224 

Sumantu, 39, 40, 42, 45 
Superior science, 31, 206 
Sushtuti, 224 
Sarya,5f., 266 
SQta, 89, 43 
Svadha, 20, 25 
Svahfi, 254 
Svar, 5, 7, 14 
Svarbhann, 276 

STayambbava manfiii* 

tara, 39 f. 
S'vetaketa, 155 
S'TetS^atara, nge, 284 



SWetSsTataia UpanishAd 
quoted — 
iT. 6,-166 

— 10,-164 

T. 2,-184, 188 ff., 283 
▼i. 6,-176 

— 11,-171 

— 18,-804 

— 21,-284 

8*yaTUBTa, 222 


Taittiriya Aranyaka, tu. 

Taittinya Brahmana [?], 

^— ^— quoted — 
iL 3, 10, 1,-8 

— 4, 2, 6,-278 

— 8, 8, 6,-10, 234 
iii. 3,9,1,-10 

— 10, 11,3,-16 

— 12, 9, 1,-16 

Taittirf ya Samhita quoted, 

i. 2, 1, 1,— 69f. 

ii. 6, 8, 3,-212 

Yii. 3, 1, 4,-17 

Taittiriya UpaniBhad, 66 

■ comm. on, 191 

Tamas, 12, 32, 160, 202 

Tamasa works, 202 

Tapas, 250 
Tarka-sangraha, 127, 133, 

Takflh (tc fabricate), 232, 

Telemachus, 273 
Thamyns, 269 
Xhirlwall, Bp., his history 

of Greece, 274 
Tikshnasringa, 264 
Time, 4 
TiraachT, 238 
Tittiri, 77. 83 
Tret5-yuga, 37, 45, 47 
Triple Bciencc, 8 
TrisarrT, 63 
Trishtubh, 278 
Trita, 212 
Tfitsus, 277 
Trivrit, 11 
Tfaabtri, 252 


Udayana Achuryya, 128 

Uddalaka Anini, 286 
Uktha, 224, 278 
Ukthya, 11 
Ulysses, 270 

Unboro Female, 166, 171 
UuboTQ Male, 165 
XJpabhrit, 20 
Upaaishads, 1, 2, 138, and 

superior to other 

parts of the Veda, 31 
their doctrines uni- 

form according to S'an- 
kara, but really yarious, 
108, 175 

IJpApurunas, 30 

UrvHs'i, 4"5 flf., 205, 247 

Usanas. 249 

Ushas, 243 

Ushmos, 44 

Ushnih metre, 11, 278 

Uttararani, 47 

Vach, 8, 10, 104f., 263f., 

266 f., 282 
Vachas, 224 
Vujasaneyins, 63 
Yuja8ane\'i ritual, 53 
Samhita quoted » 

iii. 53,-229 

V. 2,-46 

xiii. 63,-9 

ivi. 63,-60 

xviii. 52,-223 

XIX. 18,-53 
Vajins, 5 If. 
VairQpa, 11 
VaitfamDayana, 39, 40, 42, 

46. 50 ff. 
Vaiseshika, 106, 175 
Vaisbnavas, 195 
Vaisranara (A|2;ni), 237 
YaivasTata Manvantara, 

31 f., 46 
Vaktratunda (Ganctf a) , 264 
Vulakhilya xi. 6,— 2C2 
Valmiki, 77 
Varuna, 227, 243, 247 f., 

source of inspira- 
tion, 262, 2»Q 

VarQtil, 256 

Vasavya, 41 

Vasha^ 264 

Vasha^kara, 14, 21 

Vasishtha, 34, 246 ff. 

Vasishthas, 223, 246 

VasiosnpaU, 263 

Vasus, 102, 226, 234 

Yatsa, 243 

Vatsyayana Quoted, 115 


Yayu Purana, 27 1| 39, 

Yed&ntas, 1, see XJpani" 

YedanU SQtras, 98 ff. 

Yedartha-prakaiia on B.Y. 
quoted, 58 ff., 80 

on T.8., 83 ff. 

Yedas, general account of. 

diyision into Man- 
tra and Brahmana, 1,62 
sprang from sacri- 

fice of Purusha, 3 

from Skambha, 3 

from Indra, 4 

from Time, 4 

from the Odana- 

oblation, 4 

objects of worship 

and supplication, 4 

sprang from Agni, 

Yayu, and SQrya,4f.,61 
their eternity af- 

firmed, 6, 18, 71, 76, 78, 
105, 803 

their eternity de- 

nied, i09, 117, 119, 130 

their superhuman 

character (apauruthiyt 

sources of the 

names, forms, and func- 
tions of creatures, 6, 16, 

created by Prajfi- 

pati and from the watem, 
8, 14 

the breathing of 

the great Being, 8, 136, 

created by means 

of speech and soul, 9 
one with speech, 

mind, and breath, 9 




Vedas du^ from the mind- 

oceaD, 10 
are the hair of Pra- 

jQputi's beard, 10 

the oifspring of 

Vach, 10 

created pepirately 

from Bruhmit's mouths, 
10 f. 

characterized se- 

verally by tbo different 
gunas, 12 

created by Brahmu, 


the Guyatri their 
mother, 12 f. 

created from dif- 

ferent parts of Brahma's 
body, 13 

created by Achyn- 

ta, 14 

Sarasvati their mo- 
ther, 14 

all things compre- 

prohendcd in them, 15 
sources respec- 

tively of form, motion, 
and heat, 15 

breathings of Ma- 

hcs'vjira, 16 

inliuito in extent, 


Vishnu composed 

of them, 18, 27 

study of, a sacri. 

fice, 20 

study of, its bene- 

fits, 21 

i^ncomiums on stu* 

dyof, 21 ff. 

useless to the dc* 

praved, 25 

recollecting and 

repeating them removes 
sin, 25 

the energy and 

body of Vishnu, and 
severally the substance 
of Brahma, Vishnu, and 
Rudra, 27 

created after the 

Purfmas, 27 

iiisulBcicnt without 

the Itilia^sus and thePu- 
rrin:is, 29 

corrected by Brah- 

nia-vaivarlta Purhiid, 

Vcdas voice of Brahma, 

their hymns form 

the inferior science, 31 
classed with other 

sTistras, ".1, 33 

t!l^ir ceremonial 

partd'vried in the Bha- 
gfivad Gila, Chhundogya 
Upanishad, and Bhuga- 
vata Purun.-i, 32 ff. 

in the state of pro- 

found sleep are no Vc- 
das, 34 
Soul not known 

throu<?h them, 30 

originally one, 

37 ff., 47 

division of 37 ff. 

their original ex- 

tent, 88, 40 

necessity for their 

division, 40 f. 

cannot be heard 

bv women, S'udras, etc., 
42, 299 

discrepant account 

of their division, 47 

carried off by two 

ARuriis but recovered by 
Brahma, 49 
form the eye of 

BrahmJi, 49 

-their periodical dis- 

appearance, 49 

mutual hostility of 
adiierents of different 
Vcdas, 49 ff. 

schism among ad- 

herents of Yajur-veda, 
and its separation into 
white and black, 50 ff. 
■vindication of them 

af^ainst objections, and 
defence of their autho- 
rity, by their commen- 
tators, 57 ff. 

arguments of the 

Mimansakas in favour 
of their eternity and au- 
thority, 70 ff. 
**seen*' by the 

rishis, 85, 212 

re;isoniiijrs of the 

I, ■ 

Ved;niii«i3 on their eter- 
nity and authority, 98 ff. 
s])rarig from Brah- 

ma, 106 

Vedas, how interpreted by 
theologians, 107 

' arpfuments of the 
adherent:? of the Nyiiya, 
Vuiseshika, . and San- 
khyu in support of their 
authority, but a<r:'>iast 
their eternity, 106 ff. 
texts of, intcr- 

Sreted varioasly by 
ifferent philosopher!, 
138 ff. 

distinguished from 

all other S'ustras by 
beinpr independent an^ 
infallible, 179 ff. 

rccapitulition of 

ar;;uracnt.s in support of 
tlicir authority, with re- 
marks, 207 ff. 

ideas of the rishis 

regarding the origiu of 
their hymns, 217 ff. 

hvmns of, 4istin- 

guisheiT as old and new, 
224 ff. 

hvmns of, made. 

fabricated, or generated, 
by the rishis, 232 ff. 
hvmns of, ascribed 

to the inspiration of the 
goda, 252 ff. 

hymns of, a mtgi- 

cal power attributed to^ 
275 ff. 

sprang from the 


leavings of the sacrifloe^ 

Vedhas, 219 
Verbal brahma, 35 
Videha, 56 
Vidhi, 64 
VIdura, 295, 300 
^' id van - moda - tarangiQi, 

Vijnuna Bhikshu, 133, 

172, 196, and passim 
Vidyu, 205 
Vimada, 239 f., 253 
Viraadas, 239 
Vipasehit, 219 
Vipra, 218 
Viraj metre, 11, 278 
Virochann, 142 
Virupa, 69, 75, 220, 246, 

Visjinu, 37, 40, 63, 244, 

262, 266 



Visbnn, composed of the 

Vida, IS, 127 
Visbiiu F^urrinii quoted — 
i. 2, 13,-4 

— 6, 4^ir.,— 10 

— 6, 58.-10 

— 17, 51.— 'JOl 
ii. 11, :. ir.,— 26 
ili. 2, 12,— 49 

— 2, ISt!'.— .^7 

— 3, 4rr.,— 37 

— 3, I'Jir.,— 13 

— 4, 1 If ,—38 
^5, 2!r.,— 49 

— 6, f>2f.,— 18 

— 18, 22,-128 
iv, <>,— 17 

Vis'vJliiiitia, 217 f., 27G, 

Vi<'vanalha THjattficliary- 

v:i. 108, 217 
Viivfiviisu, 200 
Visvcilrrvas, 102 
Vivasvat, 286 
Viyukta, 126 

Triliadukthn, 234 
Vrih«t-samn, 1 1 
Vjrilia'«|)ati, horotical 

to:iciiLr, 202 
Vrili.ispati, author of 

srnriii. 181 
Vrisli';., 2<54 
Vvuliritis, 44 
Vyaaiia, 300 
Vvrtkhviinas, 20.') 
Vyiisa/37, 77, 89 


"NVchcr, Prof., Ind. Lit., 

Ind. Stud.. 22,47, 

53flr.. 193 f., 29C, and 


Vuj. San. Spec, 


Whitney, Prof., his opin- 
io.'! <««err«d to, 268 

"VTilson. Prof. II. II., 2 
trnnslution of Vish- 
nu Purani, 11, 62, 193, 
and pa.-^im 

translation of Uig- 

veda, 2 


Womon uiilit t'nr thi> study 
of the Veda, 42, 08 

Tajnadatta, 102 
Yrijna-paribhushri, 02 
YajriivaJkya, 60 tl'. 
Yun.Oi, 224 
Yiijii««^, 11 
iama(\gni?), 247 
Yapia, 245, 250 
Ya»Va, sec Nirukta 
Yoga aphmisms. 184, 201 
Yosw, 1?7 
YosjinR. 126 
Yuktft, 126 

riiE zsu. 



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With a Preface containing an account of the Works of I-Tbino. By S. Rka^ ^ 
B.A., Professor of Chinese University College, London. 

57 and 59, Ltidgate Hilf, London, E.C* 


Asiatic Society of Ghreat Britain and Ireland. — Joitrnal op the 

BoTAL Asiatic Society op Grbat Britain and Ireland, from the Com- 
Mencement to 1863. First Series, complete in 20 Vols. Svo., with many Plates, 
Price £10 ; or, in Single Nnmbers, as follows : — Nos. 1 to 14, 6«. each ; No. 16, 
2 Parts, 4«. each ; No. 16, 2 Parts, is. each ; No. 17, 2 Parts, 4«. each ; No. 
18, 6«. These 18 Numbers form Vols. I. to IX.— Vol. X., Part 1, o.p. ; 
Part 2, 68. ; Part 3, 6».— Vol. XI., Part 1, 6«. ; Part 2 not published.— Vol. 
XII., 2 Parts, 6#. each— Vol. XIII., 2 Parts, 6«. each.— Vol. XIV., Part 1. 
68. ; Part 2 not published.- Vol. XV., Part 1, 6«. ; Part 2, with 8 Maps, £2 2«. 
—Vol XVI., 2 Parts, 6«. each— Vol. XVII., 2 Parte, 6f. each— Vol. XVIII., 
2 Parts, 68. each.— Vol. XIX., Parte 1 to 4, 16».— Vol. XX., Parte 1 and 2, 4#. 
each. Part 8, 7«. 6d. 

Asiatic Society. — JouKirAL op the Hotal Asiatic Society op Geeat 

Britain and Ireland. Ifew Series. Vol. I. In Two Parte, pp. It. and 
490, sewed. 186 f-6. 16«. 

CoKTsim — I. VaJra-chhedikA, tbe '*Kin Kong King," or Diamond Rbtra. Traii»1ated from 
the ChineM by the Kbt. S. Seal.— II. Tbe P&ramiU-hridara Sfitra, or, in Chinese, " Mo ho-pd- 
ye-pO-lo-mih-to-«in-king/' i.e. "The Great PAramiUL Heart Sfitra." Translated from the 
Chinese by the Kev. S. Beal.— III. On the Preservation of National Literature in the East. 
By Col. F. J. Goldsmid.— IV. On the Agricultural, Commercial, Financial, and Military Statistics 
of Ceylon. By E. R. Power.— V. Contributions to a Knowledge of the Vedic Tbeogony and 
If nhology. By J. Muir, D.C.L.— VI. A Tabular List of Original Works and Translations, pub- 
lished by the late Dutch Goyemment of Ceylon at their Printing Press at Colombo. Compiled 
by Mr. M. P. J. Ondaatje.— VII. Assyrian and Hebrew Chronology compared, with a view of 
snowing the extent to which the Hebrew Chronology of Ussher must be modified, in conformity 
with the Assyrian Canon. By J. W. Bosanquet.— VIII. On the existing Dictionaries of the 
Malay Language. By Dr. H. N. van der Tuuk.— IX. Bilingual Headings : Cuneiform and 
Phoenician. Notes on some Tablets in the British Museum, containing Bilingual Legends 
fAssyrian and Phasnician). By Major-Gen. Sir U. Rawlinson, K.C.B.—X. Translations of Three 
Copper-plate Inscriptions of the Fourth Century a.d., and Notices of the Ch&lukya and Guijjara 
Dyzlasties. By Prof. J. Dowson, Staff College, Sandhurst.— XI. Tama and the Doctrine of a 
Future life, according to the Big-T^}ur-, and Atharva-Vedas. By J. Muir, D.C.L.— XII. On 
the Jyotisha Observation of the Place of the Colures, and the Date derivable from it. B;^ W. 
D. Whitney, Prof, of Sanskrit, Tale College, U.S.A.— Note on the preceding Article. By Sir E. 
Colebrooke, Bart., M.P.— XIII. Progress of the Vedic Religion towards Abstract Conceptions 
of the Deity. Bv J. Muir, D.C.L.— XIV. Brief Notes on the Age and Authenticity of the Work 
of Aryabhata, Varihamihira, Brahmagupta, Bhattotpala, and Bh&skarichirya. By Dr. Bh&u 
DAI!.— XT. Outlines of a Grammar of the Malagasy Language. By H. N. Van der Tuuk.— 
XVI. On the Identity of Xandrames and Krananda. By £. Thomas, Esq. 

Vol. II. In Two Parte, pp. 522, lewed. 1866-7. 16«. 

CoKTKifTs. — I. Contributions to a Knowledge of Vedic Tbeogony and Mythology. No. 2. 
By J. Muir.— II. Miscellaneous Hymns from the Rig- and Atharva-Vedas. By J. Muir.— III. 
Five hundred questions on the SocuU Condition of the Natives of Bengal. By the Rev. J. Long. 
— rv. Short account of the Malay Manuscripts belonging to the Royal Asiatic Society. By 
Dr. H. N. van der Tuuk.— V. Translation of the AmitAbha SAtra fh)m the Chinese. By the Rev. 
8. BeaL— VI. Tbe initial coinage of Bengal. By E. Thomas.— VII. Specimens of an Assyrian 
Dictionary. By E. Norris.— Till. On the Relations of the Priests to the other classes of Indian 
8oeiety in the Vedic age By J. Muir.->IX. On the Interpretation of the Veda. By the same.— 
X. An attempt to Translate trovu the Chinese a work known as the Confessional Services of the 
great compassionate Kwan Tin, possessing 1000 hands and 1000 eyes. By the Rev. S. Beat. — 
—XI. The Hymns of the GaupAyanas and the Legend of King AsamAti. By Prof. Max Mailer. 
—XII. Specimen Chapters of an Assyrian Grammar. By the Rev. E. Hincks, D. D. 

Vol. III. In Two Parte, pp. 516, sewed. With Photograph. 1868. 224. 

CoNTSKTS.- 1. Contributions towards a Glossary of the Assyrian Language. Bv H. F. Talbot. 
—II. Remarks on the Indo-Chinese Alphabets. By Dr. A. Bastian.— III. The poetry of 
Mohamed Rabadan, Arragonese. By the Hon. H. E. J. Stanley.— IV. Catalogue of the Oriental 
Manuscripu in the Library of King's College, Cambridge. By £. H. Palmer, B.A.— V. De- 
seription of the Amravati Tope in Guntur. By J. Fergusson, F.R.S.— VI. Remarks on Prof. 
Broekhaus* edition of the Katti&sarit-s&gara, Lambaka IX. XVIIl. By Dr. H. Kern, Prof, of 
Sanskrit, University of Leyden.— VII. The source of Colebrooke's Essay **0n the Duties of a 
Faithful Hindu Widow.** By Fitaedward Hall, D.C.L. Supplement : Further detail of proofs 
that Colebrooke's Essay, '*0n the Duties of a Faithful Hindu Widow," was not indebted to 
the Viv&dabhang&mava. By F. Hall.— VIII. The Sixth Hymn of the First Book of the Rig 
Veda. By Prof. Max MiiUer.— IX. Sassanian Inscriptions. By E. Thomas.— X. Account of an 
Embassy fkxNn Morocco to Spain in 1680 and 1691. By the Hon. H. E. J. Stanley.— XI. The 
Poetry of Mohamed Rabadan, of Arragon. By the same.— XII. Materials for the History of 

8 lAnguiBtic Publications of Trubner 8f Co.f 

India for the Six Hundred Years of Mohammadan rule, preTioos to the Foundation of the BritUh 
Indian Empire. Bv Maior W. Nassau Lees, LL.D.— XIII. A Few Words oonoeming the Hill 
people inhabiting the ForesU of the Coehin State. Bj Capt. G. B. Frrer, M.S.C.— XIV. Notes 
on the Bhojpurf Dialect of Hindf, spoken in Western Behar. By J. Beames, B.C.S. 

Vol. IV. In Two Parts, pp. 621, sewed. 1869-70. 16«. 

CoNTKiTTs.— I. Contribution towards a Olospary of the Anvrian Lani^oage. Bj H. F. Talbot. 
Part II.— II. On Indian Chronology. By J. Fergusson, F.K.S.— III. The Poetry of Hohamed 
Babadan of Arragon. Bt the Hon. H. £. J. Stanley.— IV. On the Magar Language of NepaL 
By J. Beames, B.C.S.— V. Contributions to the Knowledge of Parsee Literature. By E. Ssehaa, 
Ph.D.— VI. Illustrations of the Lamaist System in Tibet, drawn from Chineee Souroes. By 
W. F. Mayers, of H.B.M. Consular Service, China.— VU. Khuddaka P&tha, a P&li Text, with a 
Translation and Notes. By R. C. Childers, late Ceylon aS.— VIII. An EndeaTour to elucidate 
Bashiduddln's Geographical Notices of India. By Col. H. Tulc, C.B.- IX. Sasaanian Inscriptions 
explained bv the Pahlavl of the Pirsis. By E. W. West.— X. Some Account of the Senbyili 
Pagoda at Mengfln, near the Burmese Capital, in a Memorandum by Capt. E. U. Sladan, Politi- 
cal Agent at Mandal^ : with Remarks on the Subject by Col. H. Tule, C.B. —XI. The Brhat- 
Sanhiti ; or. Complete System of Natural Astrology of Varfiha-Mihira. Translated from Sanskrit 
into English by Dr. H. Kern. -XII. The Mohammedan Law of Evidence, and its influence on 
the Administration of Justice in India. By N. B. E. Baillie.— XIII. The Mohammedan Law of 
Evidence in connection with the Administration of Justice to Foreigners. By the same.— XIT. 
A Translation of a Bactrian P&li Inscription. By Prof. J. Dowson.— XV. Indo-Parthian CoiBa 
By E. Thomas. 

Vol. y. In Two Parts, pp. 463, sewed. With 10 faU-page and folding Plates. 

1871-2. 18».6rf. 

CoirrBNTs.— I. Two J&takas. The original Pili Text, with an English Translation. 1^ V. 
Fausbdll.— II. On an Ancient Buddhist Inscription at Keu-yimg kwan, in North China. By A. 
Wylie.— III. The Brhat SanhitA ; or. Complete System of Natural Astrology of Variha-Miiiira 
Translated from Sanskrit into English by Dr. H. Kern.— IV. The Pongol Festival in Soatheni 
India. By C. E. Gover.— V. The Poetry of Mohamed Rabadan, of Arragon. By the Right Hon. 
Lord Stanley of Alderley.— VI. Essay on the Creed and Customs of the Jangama. By C. P. 
Brown.— VII. On Malabar, Coromandel, Quilon, etc. By C. P. Brown.— VIII. On the Treatment 
of the Nexus in the Neo-Aryan Languages of India. By J. Beames, B.C.S.— IX. Some Remarks 
on the Great Tope at Sftnchi. By the Rev. S. Beal.— X. Ancient InscriptloBs ftiom Mathora. 
Translated by Prof. J. Dowson.— Note to the Mathura Inscriptions. By MaJor.Qen. A. Con- 
ningham.— XI. Specimen of a Translation of the Adi Oranth. By Dr. E. Trumpp.— XII. Notes 
on Dhammapada, with Special Reference to the Question of Nirvana. By R. C. Childers, late 
Ceylon C.S— XIII. The Brhat-Sanhitft ; or, Complete System of Natural Astrology of Varftha- 
mihira. Translated from Sanskrit into English by Dr. H. Kern.— XIV. On the Origfai of the 
Buddhist Arthakathfis. By the Mudliar L. Comrilla Vijosinha, Government Interpreter to the 
Ratnapura Court, Ceylon. With Introduction by R. C. Childers, late Ceylon C.S.— XV. The 
Poetry of Mohamed Rabadan, of Arragon. By the Right Hon. Lord Stanley of Alderley.- 
XVI. Proverbia Commnnia Syriaca. By Capt. R. F. Burton. -XVII. Notes on an Andeat 
Indian Vase, with an Account of the Engraving thereupon. By C. Home, late B.C.S. — ^XVIII. 
Tbe Bhar Tribe. By the Rev. M. A. Sherring, LL.D., Benares. Communicated by 0. Home, 
late B.C.S.— XIX. Of Jihad in Mohammedan Law, and its application to British India. By 
N. B. E. Baillie.— XX. Comments on Recent Pehivi Decipherments. With an Incidental Sketcn 
of the Derivation of Aryan Alphabets. And Contributions to the Early History and Geography 
of TabarisUin. Illustrated by Coina. By E. Thomas, F.R.8. 

Vol. YI., Part 1, pp. 213, sewed, with two plates and a map. 1872. 8t. 

CoirTKtTTS.— The Ishmaelites, and the Arabic Tribes who Conquered their Country. By A. 
Sprenger.- A Brief Aocount of Four Arabic Works mi the History and Geography of Arabia. 
Bv Captain S. B. Miles.— On the Methods of Disposing of the Deed at Llassa, Thibet, etc By 
Charles Home, late B.C.S. The Brhat-SanhitA ; or. Complete System of Natural Astrology of 
Varftha-mihira, Translated from Sanskrit into English by Dr. H. Kem.— Notes on Hwcn 
Thsang's Account of the Principalities of Tokhftrist&n, in which some Previous GeosFaphioal 
Identifications are Reconsidered. By Colonel Yule, C.B.— The Campaign of JEUos Galiua in 
Arabia. By A. Sprenger.— An Account of Jerusalem, Translated for the late Sir H. M. Elliot 
from the Persisn Text of N&sir ibn Khnsrtl's Safan&mah by the late Mi^or A. R. Fuller.— The 
Poetry of Mohamed Rabadan, of Arragon. By the Right H<m. Lord Stanley of Alderlej. 

Yol. YI., Part 11., pp. 213 to 400 and IxzxIt., sewed. Illnstrated with a Bi^, 
Plates, and Woodcnts. 1873. Ss, 

CoKTBNTs.-On Hiouen-Thsang's Journey from Patna to Ballabhi. By James ..«b«uw», 
D.C.L., F.R.S. - Northern Buddhism. [Note from Colonel H. Yule, addressed to the Secmary.] 
— Hwen Thsang*s Account of the Principalities of Tokh&ristdn, etc. By Colonel H. Yule, C.B.— 
The Brhat-Safihlt4 ; or. Complete System of Natural Astrology of Var&ha-mihira. Tranalated 
from Sanskrit into English by Dr. H. Kem.— The Initial Coinage of Bengal, tmder the Early 
Muhammadan Conquerors. Part II. Embracing the preliminary period between a.h. 614-634 
fA.D. I217-1236.7}. By Edward Thomas, F.R.S.— The Legend of Dipafikara Buddha. Tranalated 
from the Chinese (and intended to illustrate Plates xxf x. and l., * Tree and Serpent Worship '). 
By S. Beal.— Note on Art. IX., antd pp. ai3-274, on Hiouen-Thsang's Journey from Patna to 
Ballabhi. By James Fergusson D.C.L., F.R.S.— Contributions towards a Glossary of the 
Assyrian Language. By U. F. Talbot. 

57 and 59, Ludgate Hilly LoncCon, E.C. 9 

Vol. Yir., Part I., pp. 170 and 24, sewed. With a plate. 1874. 8«. 

CoNTKMTfl. — The Vpagampadd-Kamtnar/ie&f being the Buddhist Manual of the Form and 
Manner of Ordering of Priests and Deacons. The Pdli Text, with a Tranolation 'juid Notes. 
By J* F. Dickson, B. A. —Notes on the Megalithic Monuments of the Coimbatore District, 
Madras. By M. J. Walhouse, late M.C.S.— Notes on the Sinhalese Language. No. I. On the For- 
mation of the Plural of Neuter Noons. By B. C. Childers, late Ceylon C.S.— The Pali Text 
of the MahdparitiibMna Sutta and Commentary, with a Translation. By R. C. Childers, late 
Ceylon C.S.— The Brihat-Sanhitft ; or. Complete System of Natural Astrology of Var&ha-mihira. 
Translated from Sanskrit into English bV Dr. H. Kern.— Note on the Vallev of Choombi. 
By Dr. A. Campbell, late Superintendent of^Darjeeling.— The Name of the Twelftn ImAm on the 
Coinage of Egypt. By H. Sauvaire and Stanley Lane Poole.^Thre Inscriptions of Parftk 
rama B&bn the Great from Pulastipnra, Ceylon (date circa 1180 a.u.). By T. w. Rhys Davids. 
— Of the Kharii or Muhammadan Land tax ; its Application to British India, and Effect on 
the Tenure of Land. By N. B. K. Baillie.— Appendix : A Specimen of a Syriac Version of the 
Kalllah wa-Dimnah, with an English Translation. By W. Wright. 

Vol. YII., Part II., pp. 191 to 394, sewed. With seveii plates and a map. 187o. 8« 

CoivTEiiTS. — Stgiri, the Lion Rock, near Pulastipura, Ceylon ; and the Thirty-nintb Chapter 
of the Mah&vamsa. By T. W. Kbys Darids.— The Northern Frontagers of China. Part I. 
The Originet of the Mongols. By H. H. Howorth.— Inedited Arabic Coins. By Stanley Lan- 
Poole.— Notice on the Dm&rs of the Abbasside Dynasty. By Edward Thomas Rogers.— The 
Northern Frontagers of China. Part II. The Origine;! of the Manchus. By H. H. Uoworth. 
—Notes on the Old Mongolian Capitol of Shangtu. By S. W. Btishell, B.Sc., M.D.— Oriental 
Prorerbs in their Relations to Folklore, History, Sociologr ; with Suggestions for their Collec- 
tion, Interpretation, Publication. By the Rev. J. Long.— Two Old Simhalese Inscriptions. The 
SahasaMaUa Inscription, date 1200 ad., and the Ruwanwoeli Dagaba Inscription, date 1191 a.d. 
Text, Translation, and Notes. By T. W. Rhys Davids.— Notes on a Bactrian Pali Inscription 
and Uie Samrat Era. By Prof. J. Dowson. — Note on a Jade Drinking Vessel of the Emperor 
JahAngfr. By Edward Thomas, F.R.8. 

Vol. YIII., Part I., pp. 156, sewed, with three plates and a plan. 1876. St. 

CoNTBirrs.— Catalogue of Buddhist Sanskrit MSS. in the Possession of the R.A.S. (Hodgson 
OoUection). By Prof. £. B. Cowell and J. Eggeling.— On the Ruins of Stgiri in Ceylon. By 
T. H. Blakesley, Ceylon.— The P&timokkha, being theBuddhist Office of the Confession of Priests. 
The Pali Text, with a Translation, and Notes. By J F. Dickson, M.A., Ceylon C.8.— Notes 
on the Binhaleae Language. No. 2. Proofs of the Sanskritie Origin of Sinhalese. By R. C . 
Childera, late of the Ceylon Civil Service. 

Vol. VIII., Part 11., pp. 167-308, sewed. 1876. Ss, 

CoHTKKTS.— An Account of the Island of Bali. Bv R. Friederich.— The Pali Text of the MahA-, 
mrinibbAna Sutta and Commentary, with a Translation. By R C. Childera, late Ceylon C.S. — ' 
The Northern Frootogers of China. Part 111. The Kara Khitai. By H. H. Howorth.— In- 
edited Arabic Coins. II. By S. L. Poole.— On the Form of Government under the Native 
Sovereigns of Ceylon. By A. de Silva Ekan4yaka, Mudaliyar, Ceylon. 

Vol. IX., Part I., pp. 156, sewed, with a plate. 1877. St. 

GotrnofTS.— Baotrian Coins and Indian Dates. By E. Thomas, F.R.S.— The Tenses of the 
Assyrian Verb. By the Rev. A. H. Sayce, M.A.— An Account of the Island of BalL By R. 
Friederieb (continued f^om Vol. VIII. n.s. p. 218).— On Ruins in Makran. Bv Mi^or Mockler. 
— Inedited Arabic Coins. III. By Stanley Lane Poole,— Further Note on a Bactrian Pali Inserip- 
tion and the Samvat Era. By Prof. J. Dowson. — Notes on Persian Beldchistan. From the 
Persian of Mirza Mehdy Khin. By A. H. Schlndler. 

Vol IX., Part II., pp. 292, sewed, with three plates. 1877. 10s. 6d. 

CosTTKNTS.— The Early Faith of Ajioka. By E. Thomas, F.R.S.— The Northern Frontagera 
of China. Part II. The Manchus (Supplementary Notice). Part IV. The Kin or Golden Tatan. 
ByH. H. Howorth. -On a Treatise on Weights and Measures by Eliy4, Archbishop of NisCbfn. 

2f M. H. Sauvaire.— On Imperial and other Titles. By Si* T. E. Colebrooke, Bart., M.P.— Affl- 
ties of the Dialects of the Chepang and Kusundah Tribes of Nip&l with those of the Hill Tribes 
of Arracan. By Capt. C. J. F. Forbes. F.R.O.S., M.A.S. Bengal, etc.— Notes on Some Anti- 
quities found in a Mound near Damghan. By A. H. Schindler. 

Vol. X., Part I., pp. 156, sewed, with two plates and a map. 1878. 8s. 
Conmrrs.— On the Non-Aryan Languages of India. By E. L. Brandreth.— A Dialogue on 
the Yedantic Conception of Brahma. By PramadA Diisa Mittra, lateOffl. Prof, of Anglo-Sanskrit, 
Gov. College, Benares.— An Account of the Island of Bali. By R. Friederich (continued fh)m 
Vol. IX. N.S. p. 120).— Unpublished Glass Weights and Measures. By E. T. R«>gers.— China 
viA Tibet. By S. C. Boulger.— Notes and Recollections on Tea Cultivation in Kumaon and 
OarhwAL By J. H. Batten, late B.C S. 

Vol. X., Part If., pp. 146, sewed. 1878. 6a. 

CoivTXMTS.— Note on Pliny's Geography of the East Coast of Arabia. By Major-Gen. S. B. Miles, 
B.S.C. The Maldive Islands: with a Vocabulary taken flrom Franfois Pyrard de Laval, 1602— 
1607. By A. Gray, late Ceylon C.S.— On Tibeto-Burman Languages. By Capt. C. J. F. S. 
F<vbes, Barmese C.S. Commission.— Burmese Transliteration. By H. L. St. Barbe, Resident at 
Mandelay.— On the Connexion of the Mons of Pegu with the Koles of Central India. By 
Capt. C. J. F. S. Forbes, Burmese C.C— Studies on the Comparative Grammar of the Semitic 
Languages, with Special Reference to Assyrian. By P. Haupt. The Oldest Semitic Verb-Form. 
—Arab Metrology. II. El-DJabarty. By M. H. Sauvaire.— The Migrations and Early Histor} 
of the White Huns ; principally from Chinese Sources. By T. W. Kingsmill. 

10 Linguistic Publications of Trubner /• Co.f 

VoL X., Part III., pp. 204, lewed. 1878. 8«. 

CoiTTBirrs.— Oa the ill Canton of S&l&r,— the most Easterly Settlement of the Turk Saoe. 
By Robert B. Shaw. - Oeolofrieul Notes on the River Indus By Grit&n W. Vyie, ExeeatiTe 
En^neer P.W.D. Panjab.— Educational Literature for Japanese Women. By B. H. Chamber- 
lain. — On the Natural Phenomenon Known in the East by the Names Snb-hi-Kftzib, etc., etc. 
By J. W. Redhouse.— On a Chinese Version of the 8&nkhya K4riki, esc, found among the 
Buddhist Books comprising the Tripitaka and two other works. By the Rer. 8. Be«L— The 
Rock-cut Phrygian Inscriptions at Doganlu. By £. Thomas, F.R.3. — Index. 

Vol. XL, Part. I., pp. 128, sewed, with seTsn illnstratioiiB. 1879. 5«. 

Ck>iiTBNTS.— On the Position of Women in the East in the Olden Time. By E.Thomas, F.R.8. 
— Notice of Scholars who have Contributed to our Knowledge of the Languages of Britii^ India 
during the last Thirty Years. By R. N. Cost.— Ancient Arabic Poetry: its Genuineness and 
Authenticity. By Sir w. Muir, K.C.S.I.— Note on Manrique's Mission and the Catholics in the 
time of Sh&h Jahfin. By H. 0. Keene.-On Sandhi in Pali. By the late R. C. Childers.— On 
Arabic Amulets and Mottoes. By E. T. Rogers. 

Vol. Xl.y Part II., pp. 256, sewed, with map and plate. 1879. 7f. 6^. 

CoMTBNTS.— On the Identification of Places on the Makran Coast menticmed by Arrian, Ptolemy, 
and Marcian. By Ms^or E. Mockler.— On the Proper Names of the Mohammadans. By Sir T. 

E. Colebrooke, Bart., M. P.— Principles of Compositiim in Chinese, as deduced from the Written 
Characters. By the Rev. Dr. Legge. - On the Identification of the Portrait of Choeroea II. among 
the Paintings in the Caves at Ajanta. By James Fergusson, Vice-President.— A Specimen of 
the Zoongee for Zumgee) Dialect of a Tribe of Nagas, bordering on the Valley of As«an», 
between the Dikho and Desoi R vers, embracing over Forty Villages. By the Rer. Mr. Clark 

Vol. XI. Part III. pp. 104, cxxiv. 16, sewed. 1879. 8*. 

CoMTBNTS.— The Gaurian compared with the Romance Languages. Part I. By K. L. 
Brandreth.— Dialects of Colloquial Arabic. By E. T. Rogers.— A Comparatire Stady of the 
Japanese and Korean Languages. By W. G. Aston.— Index. 

Vol. XII. Part I. pp. 152, sewed, with Table. 1880. 5«. 

CoNTSMTS.— On *' The Most Comelv Names,*' i.e. the LaudatorT Epitheta, or the Titles of Praise 
bestowed on God in the Qur'&n or by Muslim Writers. By J. w. Itedhouse. — Notes on a newly- 
discorered Clay Cylinder of Cyrus the Great. By Major-Gen. Sir H. C. Rawlinson, K.C.B.— 
Note on Hiouen-Thsang's Dhanakacheka. By Robert Sewell, M.C.S. — Remarka by Mr. 
Fergusson on Mr. Sewelrs Paper.— A Treatise on Weights and Measures^ Bjjr EliyA, Archoisbop 
of Nisfbfn. By H. Sauvaire. (Supplement to Vol. IX., pp. 291.S13)— On the Age of the 
AJanUL Caves. By lUjendraUla Mitra, C.I.E.— Notes on Babu R^Jendrali Mitra'a Paper oo 
the Age of the Caves at Ajantfi. By J. Fergusson, F.R.S. 

Vol. XII. Part II. pp. 182, sewed, with map and plate. 1880. 6«. 

CoMTKMTs.— On Sanskrit Texts Dircovered in Japan. By Prof. Max M filler.— Extracts Crom 
Report on the Islands and Antiquities of Bahrein. By Qapt. Durand. Followed by Notes by 
McOor-Gen. Sir H. C. Rawlinson, K.C.B.— Notes on the Locality and Populaticm of the Tribes 
dwelling between the Brahmaputra and Ningthi Rivers. Bv the late G. H. Damant, Political 
Officer, Nfiga Hills.— On the Saka, Samvat, and Gupta Eras. A Supplement to his Paper on Indian 
Chronology. By J. Fergusson, D.C.L.— The Megha-Sfitra. By C. Bendall.— Uiatorieal and 
Archnolo^cal Notes on a Journey in South-Westem Persia, 1877-1878. By A. Houtnm- 
Schindler.— Identification of the ** False Dawn " of the MusUms with the "Zodiacal Light "of 
Europeans. By J. W. Redhouse. 

Vol. XII. Part III. pp. 100, sewed. 1880. 4#. 

CoKTBMTs.— The Gaurian compared with the Romance Langnages. Part IT. By E. L. 
Brandieth.— The Usbeg Epos. By Arminius Vambdry.— On the Separate Edicts at Dhaoli and 
Jaugada. By Prof. Kern— Grammatical Sketch of the Kakhyen Language. By Rev. J. N. 
ensuing.— Notes on the Libyan Languages, in a Letter addressed to R. N. Cust, Esq., by Prof. 

F. W. Newman. 

Vol. XII. Part IV. pp. 152, with 3 plates. 1880. 8«. 

CoMTSRTS.— The Early History of Tibet, f^m Chinese Sources. By 8. W. BushelU M.D.— 
Notes on some Inedited Coins from a Collection made in Persia during the Tears ]877>79. By 
Guy Le Strange, M.R.A.S.— Buddhist Nirv&na and the Noble Eightfold Path. By Otcar 
Frankfurter, Ph.D.— Index.— Annual Report, 1880. 

VoL XIII. Part I. pp. 120, sewed. 1881. 5«. 

CoKTBRTB.— Indian Tbeistic Reformers. By Prof. Monier Williams, C.I.E.— Notes on the Kawi 
Language and Literature. By Dr. H. N. Van der Tuuk.— The Invention of the Indian Alphabet. 
By John Dowson. The Nirvana of the Northern Buddhists. By the Rev. J. Edkina, D D.— 
An Account of the Malay " Chiri,'* a Sanskrit Formula. By W. E. Maxwell. 

Vol. XIII. Part II. pp. 170, with Map and 2 Plates. 1881. 8». 

CovTKMT8.-The Northern Frontogers of China. Part V. The Khitai or Khitans. By H. H. 
Uoworth.— On the Identification of Nagarahara, with reference to the Travels of Hiouen-Thsiing! 
By W. Simpson.— Hindu Law at Madras. By J. H. Nelson, M.C.S.— On the Proper Names of 
the Mohammedans. By Sir T. E. Colebrooke, Bart., M. P.— Supplement to the Paper on Indian 
Tbeistic Reformers, published in the January Number of this Journal. By Frof If onier 
Williams, CLE. 

67 and 59, Ludgate Hill, London^ E.C. 11 

Vol. XIII. Part III. pp. 178, with plate. 1881. 7#. 6rf. 

CoMTBXTS.— The At&t Language. By C. Graham. — Caacaaian NationaliUes. By M. A. 
Morriaon.'Tranalation of the Markandeya Purana. Books VII., VIII. By the Rev. B. 
H. Wortham.— Lettre k M. Stanley Lane Poole sur qiielques monnaiea orientalea rares ou inMitet 
de la Collection de M. Ch. de TEclufe. Par H. Sauvaire.— Aryan Mythology in Malay Traditions. 
By W. E. Maxwell, Colonial Civil Service.— The Koi, a Southern Tribe of the Gond. By the 
Kev. J. Cain, Missionary.— On the Duty which Mohammedans in British India owe^ on the 
Principles of their own Law, to the Government of the Country. By N. 6. E. Baillie.— The 
L-Poem of the Arabs, by Shanfara. Re-arranged and translated by J. W. Redhouae, M.R.A.S. 

Vol. XIII. Part IV. pp. 130, cxxxvl 16, with 3 plates. 1881. 10«. U. 

OoNTKKTa.— The Andaman Islands and the Andamanese. By M. V. Portman. — Notes on Mareo 
Folo*s Itinerary in Southern Persia. By A. Houtum-Scblndler.— Two MalayMyths : The Princess 
of the Foam, and the Raja of Bamboo. By W. £. Maxwell.— The Epoch of the Guptas. Br 
£. Thomas, F. U.S.— Two Chinese-Buddhist inscriptions found at Buddha Gaya. By the Rev. S. 
Beal. With 2 Plates.— A Sanskrit Ode addressed to the Congress of OrienUlists at Berlin. By 
Bama Dasa Sena, the Zemindar of Berhampore: with a Iranslation by S. KrishnaTarma.— 
Supplement to a paper, ** On the Duty which Mahommedans in British India owe, on the Principles 
of their own Law, to the Government of the Country." By N. B. E. Baillie.— Index. 

Vol. XIV. Part I. pp. 124, with 4 plate«. 1882. 6«. 

CoKTBifTs.— The Apology of Al Kindy : An Essay on its Age and Authorship. By Sir W 
ICuir, K.C.8.I.— The Poet Pampa. By L. Rice.— On a Coin of Shams ud Duny& wa ud Din 
MahmOd Shih. By C. J. Rodgers, Amritsar.— Note on PI. xxriii. fig. L of Mr. Fergusson's 
** Tree and Serpent Worship," 2Dd Edition. By S. Beal, Prof, of Chinese, London University.— 
On the present state of Mongolian Researches. By Prof. B. Julg, in a Letter to R. N. Cust.— 
A Sculptured Tope on an Old Stone at Dras, Ladak. By W. Simpson, F.R.G.S.— Sanskrit Ode 
addressed to the Fifth International Congress of Orientalists assembled at Berlin, September, 
1881. By the Lady Pandit Rama-bai, of Silchar, Eachar, Arsam ; with a Translation by Prof. 
Monier Williams, C.I.E.— The Intercourse of China with Eastern Turkestan and the Adjacent 
Countries in the Second Century b.c. By T. W. Kingsmill.— Suggestions on the Formation of 
the Semitic Tenses. A Comparative and Critical Study. By O. Bertin.— On a Lolo MS. written 
on Satin. By M. T. de La Couperie. 

Vol. XIV. Part II. pp. 164, with three plates. 1882. 7«. 6rf. 

CoHTXHTs.— On Tartar and Turk. By S. W. Korllx, Ph.D.— Notice of Scholars wbc hare Con- 
tributed to our Knowledge of the Languages of Africa. By R. N. Cost.— Grammatical Sketch 
of the Hausa Language. By the Rev. J. F. Schdn, F.R.G.S.,— Buddhist Saint Worship. By 
A. Lillie.— Gleanings fh)m the Arabic. By H. W. Freeland, M.A.— Al Kahirah and its Gates. 
By H. C. Kay, M. A.— How the Mah&bh&rata begins. By Edwin Arnold, C.S.I.— Arab Metrology. 
IV. Ed-Dahaby. By M. H. Sauvaire. 

Vol. XIV. Part III. pp. 208, with 8 plates. 1882. 8*. 

CoMTKKTS.— The Vaishnara Religion, with special reference to the Sikshfl-patrl of the 
Modem Sect called Sv&mi-N&r&yana. By Monier Williams, C.I.E., D.C.L.— Further Notes on 
the Apology of Al-Kindy. By Sir W. Muir, K.C.S.I.,D.C.L.,LL.D.— The Buddhist Caves of 
Afghanistan By W. Simpson.- The Identification of the Sculptured Tope at SanchL By W. 
Simpson.— On the Genealogy of Modem Numerals. By Sir £. C. B^ley, K.C.S.I., CLE. 
—The Cuneiform Inscriptions of Van, deciphered and translated. By A. H. Sayoe. 

Vol. XIV. Part IV. pp. 330, dii. 1882. 14#. 

CoKTsvTs.— The Cuneiform Inscriptions of Van, Deciphered and Translated. By A. H. Sayce. 
—Sanskrit Text of the BlkshH-Patrl of the Sv&mi-Nftrayana Sect. Edited and Translated by 
Prof. M. WilliauiS, CLE.— The Successors of the Siljaks in Asia Minor. By S. L. Poole.— The 
Oldest Book of the Chinese {The Yh-King) and ito Authors. By T. de la Couperie. 

Vol XV. Part I. pp. 134, with 2 plates. 1883. %a, 

CoNTSMTs.— The Genealogy of M odem N umerals. Part II. Simplification of the Ancient Indian 
Numeration. By Sir £. C. Bayley, CLE.— Parthian and Indo-Sassanian Coins. By E. Thomas, 
F.RJ9.— Early j^torical Relations between Phrygia and Cappadocia. By W. M. Ramsay. 

Vol. XV. Part II. pp. 1 68, with 6 tahles. 1883. 6«. 

CoNTKHTB.— The Tattva-muktavali of Gauda-pfim&nandachakrayartin. Edited and Trans- 
lated by Professor £. B. Cowell.— Two Modem Sanskrit slokss. Communicated by Prof. £. B. 
Cowell.— Malagasy Place-Names. By the Rer. James Stbree, Jun.— The Namakkira, with 
Translation and Commentary. By H. L. St. Barbe. — Chinese Laws and Customs. By 
Christopher Gardner.— The Oldest Book of the Chinese (the Yh-King) and iu Authors 
'conthined). By Terrien de LaCouperie.— Gleanings Arom the Arabic. By H. W. Freeland. 

Vol. XV. Part III. pp. 62-cxl. 1883. 6». 

ConTXiiTs.— Early Kamada Authors. By Lewis Rice. — On Two Questions of Japanese 
Archaeology. By B. II. Chamberlain, M.R.A.S.— Two Sites named by Uiouen*Thsang in the 
10th Book of the Si-yu-ki. By the Rev. S. Beal.— Two Eaily Sources of Mongol History. By 
U. n. Howorth, F.8.A.— Proceedings of Sixtieth Anniversaij of the Society, held May 21, 1883. 

12 Linguistic Publications of Truhner /• Co.^ 

Vol. XV. Part IV. pp. 140-iv.-20, with plate. 1883. 6«. 

C05TKMT8.— The Riven of the Vedas, and How the Aryans Entered India. By Edward 
Thomas, F.R.S.— Suggestions on theVoice-Formationof the Semitic Verb. By G Berlin, M.R.A.S. 
—The Buddhism of Ceylon. By Arthur Lillie. M.R.A.8.~The Northern FrontagiTB of China. 
Part VI. Hia or Tangut. By H. H. Howorth, F.8.A.— Index.—Lbt of Members. 

Vol. XVI. Part I. pp. 138, with 2 plates. 1884. 7». 

CoitTBiiTs.— The Story of DevasmitA. Translated from the Kalh& Sarit SAgara, Tarftnga IS, 
Sloka 54, by the Rev. B. Hale Wortham.— Pujahs in the SuUej Valley, Himalayas. By WUliam 
Simpson, F.KG.8.— On some New Discoveries in Southern India. By R. Sewell, Madras C.8.— 
On the Importance to Great Briuin of the Study of Arabic. By Habib A. Salmon^.— 
Grammatical Note on the Gwamba Language in South Africa. Bv P. Borthoad, Missionary 
of the Canton de Vaud, Switaerland, stationed at Valddzia, Spelonaen. TransTaal. (Prquved 
at the request of R. N. Cust.) — Dialect of Tribes of the Hindu Khush, from Colonel Biddulph's 
Work on the subject (corrected).— Grammatical Note on the SLmnfinf Dialeet of the Persian 
Language. By the Rev. J. Ba' sett, American M issionary, Tabriz. (Communicated by R. N . Out.) 

Vol. XVI. Part II. pp. 184, with 1 plate. 9#. 

in Travancore. By S. Mateer.— Some BihOrT Folk-Songs. By G. A. GrierKm, B.C.S., Offl. 
Magistrate, Patna. — Some further Gleanings from the Ri*yu-ki. By the Rev. 8. Beal. — On the 
Sites of Brahman&bid and MansArah in Sindh ; with notices of others of leas note in their 
Vidnity. By Majnr-Gen. M. R. Haig.— Antar and the Slave Daji. A Bedoueen Leg«od. By 
St. C. Baddeley.— The Languages of the Early Inhabitants of Mesopotamia. By G. Pinehes. 

Vol. XVI. Part III. pp. 74.— cli. 10«. U, 

CoiiTBNTa.~On the Origin of the Indian Alphabet. By R. N. Oust.— The Yl king of tbt 
Chinese as a Book of Divination and Philosophy By Rev. Dr. Edkins.— On the Arrangement of 
the Hymns of the Rig-veda. By F. Pincott.~ Proceedings of the Sizty-flrst Anniversary Meeting 
of the Society, May IB, 1884. 

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Odes, for English Readers. By C. F. R. Allen.— Note sur les Mots Sanscrits compost avee 1|fif 

Par J. van den Gheyn, 8. J. — Some Remarks on the Life and Labours of Csoma de Koros, 
delivered on the occasion when his Tibetan Books and M88. were exhibited before the R.A.S., 
June 16, 1884. By Surgeon-Major T. Duka. M.D., late of the Bengal Army.— Arab Metrology. 
V. Ez-Zahr&wy . Translated and Annotatea by M. H. Sauvaire, de rAcaddnue de ManeUle. 

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in reference to the Roman and Sinhalese Alphabets. By the Rev. J. C. Maevicar.— On the State 
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J. Capper.— On Buddhism. By the Rev. D. J. Gogerly. 

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W. Ferguson.— On an Inscription at Dondra. No. 2. By T. W. Rhys Davids, Esq. 

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On Miracles. By J. De Alwis.— On the Occurrence of Scolopax Rusticola and Oallinago So(do- 
pacina in Ceylon. By W. V. Legge. — ^Transcript and Translation of an Anoient Copper-plate 
8annas, By Mudliyar Louis de Zoysa, Chief Translator to Government. 

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to GoTemment— On the Island Distribution of the Birds in the Society's Museum. By W. 
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The suture of Gotama Buddha. By J. De Alwis. 

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Paddi Cultivation.— Gramineae, or Grasses Indigenous to or Growing In Ceylon. 

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Badley. — Indian Missionaby Becoed and Memobial YoLinrE. By 

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Bndge. — A&syrian Texts. See p. 47. 

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24 Linguistic Publications of Triibner 8f Co,^ 

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Bumell. — Elements of South Indian PALiEOGRAPHT. From the 
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Carletti. — History of the Conquest of Tunis. Translated by J. T. 
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Cesnola. — The History, Treasures, and ANTiauiriES op Salamis, 
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Chamberlain. — Japanese Poetry. See " Triibner's Oriental Series," 

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Colebrooke. — The Life and Miscellaneous Essays of Henry Thomas 

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Dowson. — Dictionary of Hindu Mythology, etc. See " Tnibner's 
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Farley. — Egypt, Ctpeus, and Asiatic Txtbitet. By J. L. Fablkt, 

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Fenton. — Early Hebkew Life : a Study in Sociology. By JoHir 
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101 plates. 1873. Out of print. 

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Fomander. — An Account of the Polynesian Kace : Its Origin and 

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H.I. Post 8to. cloth. Vol. I., pp. xvi. and 248. 1877. 7«. 6</. Vol. II., 
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Forsyth. — Report of a Mission to Yarktjnd in 1873, under Command 
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Oarrett — A Classical Dictionary of India, illustratiye of the My- 
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the Hindus. By John Garrett. 8vo. pp. x. and 798. cloth. 288. 

Oarrett. — Supplement to the abote Classical Dictionary of Indu. 

By J. Garrett, Dir. of Public Instruction, Mysore. 8to. cloth, pp. 160. 7». ^ 

Oazetteer of the Central Provinces of India. Edited hy Charles 
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Demy 8to. pp. clvii. and 582, cloth. 1870. £1 4«. 

Oeiger. — Contributions to the History of the Development of the 

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Ooldstuoker. — On the Deficiencies in the Present Administration 

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Ch)ver. — The Folk-Songs of Southern India, By Charles E. Gover. 

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OrifBn. — The Rajas of the Punjab. History of the Principal States 
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" The Punjab Chiefs," etc. Second edition. Royal 8to., pp. xiy. and 630. 
1873. 21*. 

57 and 59, Ludgate Hill, London^ B.C. 27 

Oriffif. — The Mikado's Empiee. Book I. History of Japan from 
660 B.C. to 1872 A.D. Book II. Personal Experiences, Observations, and 
Studies in Japan, 1870-74. By W. K Gbiffis. lilustrated. Second Edition, 
8vo. pp. 626, cloth. 1883. £1. 

Orowse. — Mathuha : A District Memoir. By F. S. Growse, B.C.S., 
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1880. 42«. 

Halm. — TsanillQoam. See Triibner's Oriental Series, page 5. 

Head. — Codtage of Lydia and Pebsia. See ** Numismata Oricntalia." 

Vol. I, Part III. 
Heaton. — Austkalian Dictionary of Dates and Men of the Tike. 

Containing the Historj of Australasia, from 1542 to May, 1879. By I. H. Heaton. 

Boyal 8to. cloth pp iv. — 554. 1879. 15«. 

Hebrew Literature Society. See page 71. 

Hodgson. — Essays on the Languages, Literature, and Religion 

OP Nepal and Tibet; together with farther Papers on the Geography, 
Ethnology, and Commerce of those Coontries. By B. H. Hodgson, late 
British Minister at Nep&l. Royal 8to. cloth, pp.288. 1874. 14«. 

Hodjnon. — Essays on Indian Subjects. See ''Triibner's Oriental 
Series," p. 4. 

Hunter. — The Imperial Gazetteer of India. By W. W. Hunter, 

C.I.E., LL.D., Director- General of Statistics to the Government of India. 

Poblished by Command of the Secretary of State for India. 9 toIs. Sto. 

half morocco. 1881. 

** A great work has been unoftenUtioiuly carried on for the last twelve years in India, the 

importance of which it is impoMible to exaf^gerate. This is nothing less than a complete 

statistical sonreT of the entire British Empire m Hindostan. . . . We have said enough to show 

that the * Imperial Gazetteer ' is no mere dry collection of statistics ; It is a treasury from which 

the politician and economist may draw countless stores of valuable information, and into which 

the general reader can dip with the certainty of always finding something both to interest and 

instruct him."— TIsiM. 

Hnnter. — A Statistical Account of Bengal. ByW. W. Hunter, B.A., 
LL.D. Director-General of Statistics to the Government of India. 

VOt. VOL. 

I. 94 FarganAs and Sundarbans. 
II. Nadiya and Jessor. 
ni. Midnapnr, Hdgll and Hourah. 
IV. Bard win, Birbhdm and BftnkurA. 
Y. Dacca, B&kargaqj, Farldpur and Mai- 

VI. Chittagong Uill Tracts, Chittsgong, 
No&kh&U, Tipperah, and Hill Tipperah 
vn. Meldah, Rangpnr and Diniypor. 

VIIL RAJshihf and Bogr&. 
IX. MurshidAb&d and Pfibni. 

X. DArjfling, Jalp&iforl and Koch Behar 
XI. Patni and S4ran. I State. 

XII. Oayi and Shdhdbid. 

XIII. Tirhut and Champ&ran. 

XIV. Bh&galpur and Sant&l Pargan4s. 
XV. Monghyr and l*umiah. 

XVI. HazAriUgh snd Lohdrdagft. 
XVII. Singbhdm, Chuti^ N&gpur Tributary 

States and M&nbhOm. 
XVIII. Cuttack and Balasor. 
XIX. Purf, snd Orissa Tributary SUtes. 
XX. Fisheries, Botany, snd General Index 

Published by command of the Government of India. In 20 Vols. 8vo. half- 
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34 Lingmstic Publications of Trubner ^ Co. 


Adi Chranth (The) ; or, The Holt Scutptubes op the Sikhs, trans- 
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